Kirtlan Appendix Scandinavian

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Many of the persons and events of Beowulf are also known to us through various Scandinavian and French works as follows:

SCANDINAVIAN RECORDS.

1. Saxo s Danish History.

2. Hr򫦒s Saga Kraka.

3. Ynglinga Saga (and Ynglinga t઼/I>).

4. Ski�nga Saga.

As instances of identical persons and events:

1. Ski�, ancestor of Ski�ngar, corresponds to Scyld the ancestor of Scyldungas.

2. The Danish King Halfdan corresponds to Healfdene.

3. His sons Hroarr and Helgi correspond to Hrothgar and Halga.

4. Hr�Kraki corresponds to Hrothwulf, nephew of Hrothgar.

5. Frothi corresponds to Froda, and his son Ingialdi to Ingeld.

6. Otarr corresponds to Ohthere, and his son Athils to Eadgils.

With the exception of the Ynglinga t઼/I> all these records are quite late, hence they do not afford any evidence for the dates of events mentioned in Beowulf.

Further Scandinavian correspondences are [189]seen in B�arr Biarki, the chief of Hr�Kraki s knights. He is supposed to correspond to Beowulf. He came to Leire, the Danish royal residence, and killed a demon in animal form. Saxo says it was a bear. This demon attacked the King s yard at Yule-tide, but Biarki and Beowulf differ as to their future, for Biarki stayed with Hr�Kraki to the end and died with him.

In the Grettis Saga the hero kills two demons, male and female. It is true that the scene is laid in Iceland, but minor details of scenery, the character of the demons, and other similarities make it impossible to believe the two stories to be different in origin. They both sprang out of a folk-tale associated after ten centuries with Grettis, and in England and Denmark with an historical prince of the Geats.

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