Return to

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Japanese Swords, by Anonymous

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Japanese Swords

Author: Anonymous

Release Date: November 8, 2012 [EBook #41321]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Paul Clark, David Edwards and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive)

Transcriber's Note:

Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible. Some apparent errors in the use of diacritical marks have been amended.

Larger versions of the plates may be seen by clicking on the images.



127, New Bond Street, London.

April, 1913.

[Pg 1]


Ornamental A

MONGST the numberless articles of Japanese attire, works of art or mere household objects which the Restoration of 1868 compelled the Japanese to cast upon the market, none has met with such wide fame and yet with such a limited study as the Sword. When, in 1877, the Government prohibited the Samurai from wearing any longer the two swords which had been the privilege and distinctive mark of their martial caste, the Imperial wish was obeyed, notwithstanding the feeling that something was snapping in the life of the nation. Blades had been treasured for centuries, handed from father to son, looked upon as the soul of the owner for the sake of which he would refrain from any deed unbecoming a gentleman; some possessed histories going far back into the eleventh and twelfth centuries, when the country was at war within itself, around others were entwined romances, and above all, the sword was the faithful friend with which the Samurai might honourably end his life, either in the field or on the mats. A blade given by a father to his daughter on her wedding day was the emblem of that purity of life which the woman was expected to keep, and it was also the weapon with which she might seek repose in death, should occasion arise. The Restoration breaking up the old feudal system compelled the Samurai to part with their worldly goods to secure the necessities of life, the rich became poor, the poor lost all support, hence anything which might tempt the foreign buyer went swiftly out of the country; the circumstances had become rather more straitened for the Samurai class when the edict of 1877 compelled them to put aside their swords, and blades followed the lacquer, the paintings, the carvings which eager curio buyers snapped at inadequate prices. Many swords of first quality crossed the waters, besides thousands of poor blades which could be bought in dozens in the stores and bazaars of the old world. Hardly any attempt was made at keeping in the country any blades except those which were, so to speak, entailed heirlooms or those whose owners refused to part with at any price. Later, a few earnest people banded themselves into a Society for the[Pg 2] preservation and study of the National weapon: the Sword Society of Tokyo, which has published, during the last twelve years, a mass of information about swords. Collecting swords has become a national propensity, and the modern sword lover may have more blades, carefully kept and oft admired, than his ancestor of a century ago who could only wear two at a time. Magazines have sprung into existence dealing only with the sword and its accessories. Both in Europe and in America articles on the sword have been published, most of which, based upon the paper of Hutterott and nearly all inadequate. It is to be hoped that some more comprehensive work will soon appear to give the Western public a better knowledge of the ancient swords. In Japan, there are hundreds of books dealing with their makers, from ancient books now rare and costly to modern works crammed with information and obtainable for a few pence. What then is there about the Japanese blade which compels admiration? Far back in the Sung Dynasty a Chinese Poet sang its praises, later the Mediæval European writers spoke in wonderment of the Katana, of its keenness of edge, of its swift stroke, of the respect paid to it; later still, folks were awed by the form of suicide we call seppuku, some saw in it only a barbarous disembowelment, few, perhaps, grasped that other important feature—the test of the truest friendship—that confidence in the bosom friend one entrusted with the cutting of one's head. Romance alone would not have made the blade an object of interest to the positive mind, attracted by the efficiency of the weapon, by its qualities qua sword, by the marvellous skill evinced in its forging, in the shaping of its harmonious curves. Further, the blade presented a characteristic temper; unlike the European swords evenly tempered throughout, it had a mere edge of great hardness backed by enough softer metal to ensure toughness, and to allow bending in preference to snapping when the sword blow met an unexpected resistance. Then it was realised that all those characteristic peculiarities required study, for they presented variations of appearance intimately associated with the various swordsmiths, with the periods, the schools. How numerous those smiths were may be guessed, but it may come as a surprise to some, that over 11,000 names are recorded in one book alone.

To study a blade and appreciate its points is a matter of considerable interest, the various portions of the blade have their names and their peculiarities; one must pay attention to every part of the body, of its edge, of the handle, etc., and with practice an expert may become able to recognise the technique and style of a smith by the peculiarities of the blade, silent witnesses left in the metal itself. Thus, in Japan, the Honami[Pg 3] family of sword experts were professionally engaged for over 350 years in examining and certifying blades.

In feudal days a man's life was at his lord's call, and he might never feel sure that the following day would not be his last, either in fight or by self infliction under orders of the death penalty for some breach, however slight, of the stiff code of Samurai etiquette. Hence his sword was selected and cared for, its edge must be keen enough to cut a man's head at a blow, leaving, if skilfully done, a shred of skin on the throat for the head to hang on the breast.

Terminology of the Sword, from Joly's Sword Book.

His sword was tested, sometimes officially by cutting up corpses, and thus we come across blades on the tang of which is inscribed a statement that it cut one or two or even three bodies at a blow. No sword in Europe ever came through such an ordeal; indeed, it is doubtful whether its shape and constitution would have allowed a similar test to be successful. Looked upon as a cutting weapon, the Japanese blade has been pronounced perfect by all experts; that perfection is the result of thorough work undertaken with only one aim in view: to turn out a sword which was not only reliable, but a credit to the maker as well; and, indeed, the names of the smiths are as well known as those of the foremost painters, they rank with the expert calligraphers, with the poets, with the writers and the statesmen, with those who made history, Masamune, Muramasa, are names which have found their way even amongst the novels of the West; not a dozen names of Japanese sculptors can be mentioned, although their works are to be found in any and every temple, but 11,000 names of swordsmiths remain.... Where the carver could repair a faulty chisel stroke the smith has no such resource, a slight flaw in welding his metal, a little dirt remaining between two layers of steel, and[Pg 4] where in a smithy can one exclude dirt? Overhaste in heating the metal resulting in a wrong temper, or in spots on the blade, and, lo, a fortnight's patient work was wasted, a patron offended, a reputation marred.

No less important than the smith's skill was that of the polisher grinding away the blade to its final shape, settling the planes and the curves, whose intersections are geometrically true on every side of the blade. A volume rather than a preface is required to do the scantiest justice to the Japanese blade, but space is limited, and the blades exhibited here speak for themselves.

H. L. J.

[Pg 5]


  1. KATANA. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 6 bu. 890, 685, 17 mm.[A] Ko Gunomé midare yakiba, deep Kaeri bōshi, signed Sasaki Niudo Ippo of Gōshū. Kwanyei period (1624-1643).
  2. KATANA. 855, 650, 11 mm. Narrow yakiba, engraved on one side with Ono no Tofu, the frog and willow, on the other with characters, Yanagi amé Kan Ki. [Plate.
  3. KATANA. 2 shaku, 1 sun. 795, 645, 13 mm. Very fine wave yakiba with deep niyé, signed Kagekuni of Settsu. (Manji period.)
  4. KATANA. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 8 bu. 880, 695, 11 mm. Midare yakiba Bōshi majiri, signed Kaneuji, in gold inlay, attributed to Kaneuji of Mino.
  5. KATANA. Large heavy blade. 2 shaku, 4 sun, 4 bu. 932, 710, 6. With long bōshi kaeri, midare yakiba, wave form with tsuyu, signed Korekazu, attributed to Fujiwara Korekazu of Yedo, Bushu. Circa Kwanbun (1661-1672).
  6. KATANA. 825, 645, 17. With Ogunomé yakiba, signed Tsuta Omi no Kami Sukenao, dated Tenwa 3, second month (1683).
  7. KATANA. 2 shaku, 3 sun, 5 bu. 917, 718, 18. Large Choji yakiba, bōshi kaeri, signed Awataguchi Ikkanshi Tadatsuna. Circa Kwanbun (1661-1672). [Plate.
  8. KATANA. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 5 bu. 892, 685, 10. With nokogiri yakiba, [Pg 6]double yasurime, signed Mutsu no Kami Daido, (Omichi of Mino). [Plate.
  9. KATANA. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 8 bu. 880, 695, 17 mm. With long wave yakiba and deep groove, signed Harumitsu of Osafuné, Bizen. [Plate.
  10. KATANA. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 4 bu. 885, 680, 19 mm. Narrow yakiba, maru bōshi, signed Kunimura, attributed to Kunimura of Kikuji Higo.
  11. KATANA. 2 shaku, 3 sun. 860, 70, 21. Hitatsura on all jigané but not on shinogi, signed Akihiro of Sōshu, dated second year of Teiji. [Plate.
  12. KATANA. 2 shaku, 1 sun, 5 bu. 840, 650, 33. Ogunomé midare yakiba with Rio no me tsuyu imitating splashing waves, signed Made at Toto (Yedo) by Kato (chounsai) Tsunatoshi, dated Bunsei 10, first month. [Plate.
  13. KATANA. 2 shaku, 5 sun, 3 bu. 1,010 mm., 755 mm., 8 mm. sori, 75 mm. bōshi, shinogi tapering from 10 to 8 mm. Very fine double yakiba, ko gunomé midare and hitatsura, signed Muramasa. [Plate.
  14. KATANA. 2 shaku, 3 sun, 4 bu. 920, 710, 23. Ko midare yakiba, signed Bushu no jiu Yamamoto Geki Toshinaga, Kyoho, 1716-1735. Jiugo mai Kabuto buse, i.e., made of metal folded fifteen times.
  15. SHOBU BLADE. 520, 400, 8. Uno kubi style, Kammuri otoshi, with Ken engraved and treble groove on other side up to the middle, unsigned, attributed to Hiromitsu.
  16. KATANA. Bizen blade. 2 shaku, 4 sun, 5 bu. 950, 740, 22. Broad gunomé midare yakiba, attributed to Yoshimitsu.
  17. KATANA. Very curved blade, the lengths being 950 mm., 758 mm. and sori 26. Ko midare yakiba, narrow shinogi, signed Fuyuhiro of [Pg 7]Sōshu (Sagami).
  18. KATANA. Broad blade. 2 shaku, 2 sun, 2 bu long. 940, 745, 18 mm. sori. With irregular yakiba in breaking waves style, the shinogi reduced on one side by two grooves (Hi), stopping a third of the way up, the portion nearer the heel being grooved singly and deeper, with tama reserve, single groove on other side, tapering nakago, signed Nagasoné Okisato Niudo Kotetsu Saku. [Plate.
  19. KATANA. The blade 2 shaku, 6 sun, 7 bu. 1,004 mm., 810, sori 10 mm. Choji midare yakiba, signed Kiushu, Higo Dotanuki Nobuyoshi (Shin-ka). Eiroku period. [Plate.
  20. KATANA. 2 shaku, 5 sun. 990, 752, 20. Broad blade with tapering nakago, midare yakiba, signed Kawachi no Kami, Minamoto Motoyuki (Hon-ko), dated Genroku 9, the eighth month. Saijo nichi Goku Shin Kitai, i.e., the very truest forging on the most auspicious day. [Plate.
  21. BIZEN KATANA. 2 shaku, 3 sun, 5 bu. 940, 710, sori 27 mm. Unsigned, grooved on both sides, attributed on its character to Kumotsugu (Unji) of Bizen, period Ōan (1368-1374). The double blood grooves on shinogi, the lower one ground down. [Plate.
  22. KATANA. 915, 710, 8. Broad blade with long boshi, wide shinogi on one side with engraved Ken, the other side with deep groove engraved with a Bonji in reserve. Unsigned. Wide midare yakiba. [Plate.
  23. KATANA. 2 shaku, 3 sun, 3 bu. 915, 705, 17. Hitatsura blade, signed Nobusada, of Kyoto. Eikyo period (1429-1440). [Plate.
  24. KATANA. 690, 560, 18. With midare yakiba, engraved Amakurikara and Bonji characters, much rubbed down, unsigned.
  25. KATANA. 878, 675, 6. Narrow yakiba with deep niyé and niòi, ken and Amakurikara ken horimono, signed Kotsuke no Suke, Minamoto [Pg 8]Yoshimasa. [Plate.
  26. KATANA. 940, 730, 17. Narrow yakiba, heavy blade, signed Yokoyama Sukemuné of Osafuné, Bizen, dated the third year of Bunkiu, the eighth month, 1863.
  27. KATANA. 920, 695, 8. Very heavy blade with broad straight yakiba, signed Yamato no Kuni Heijo (Hira-shiro) Fujiwara no Michiharu (Dōsei), inscribed Naniwa sattei (Satsuma) Temmangu shi tomo ni Koreō tsukuru ken no do tetsu wo motte, Keio 2 (1866), eighth month—made of the same iron as the sword which I made for Temmangu Satsuma Yashiki in Osaka.
  28. NARROW KATANA. 805, 635, 15. With straight yakiba, the Hi ground down, signed Riokai Muneyoshi, dated Taiyei 3 (1523), eighth month.
  29. KATANA. 840, 665, 17. Fine narrow blade with sanbon sugi yakiba, unsigned. [Plate.
  30. KATANA. 810, 610, 18. Gunomé midare yakiba, signed Sukemuné, engraved with Taishakuten as a Chinese warrior, sword in hand, standing on a dragon, and on the other side the characters Taishakuten, fittings of shakudo, and silver, with dragon and waves design. Red and black lacquer scabbard with dragon in silver and gold lacquer in relief. [Plate.
  31. WAKIZASHI. Shobu blade. 495, 370, 9. Curious yakiba, ishikaki style, signed Kuniyuki. [Plate.
  32. WAKIZASHI. Broad blade. 605, 455, 12 mm. sori. Large midare yakiba, Bōshi Kaeri, signed Nagasada (Ei-tei) and dated Keio, first year, fourth month.
  33. WAKIZASHI. Bizen blade. 1 shaku, 6 sun, 5 bu. 637, 495, 10. Grooved on both sides, midare yakiba, Kaku muné, tanzaku, signature, Bizen Osafuné Norimitsu, dated Kiotoku, fifth year, [Pg 9]second month (1456), interesting blade.
  34. WAKIZASHI. 1 shaku, 6 sun, 8 bu. 645, 510, 17. With midare yakiba, signed Kuninaga, attributed to Senjiuin in Shoō period, 1288-1292.
  35. WAKIZASHI. 580, 435, 12. With remarkable kiku-sui yakiba, signed Setsuyo Okamoto Yasutomo, dated Bunkwa third year, eighth month. Shakudo fittings, nanako, red sparrows, and man walking on a path. [Plate.
  36. WAKIZASHI. 590, 460, 15. Brass tsuba with stags, the fuchi and Kashira cranes in low relief. Mensoku sosei Niudo Taro Sadataka. Kozuka Jurojin, signed Joi.
  37. WAKIZASHI. Bizen blade. 550, 435, 17. With plain polished shakudo tsuba, all other mounts shibuichi inlaid with cranes, and water plants minute iroyé in relief, unsigned.
  38. WAKIZASHI. 650, 465, 10. Hitatsura blade, signed Fujiwara no Kanemichi (Kindo) Iga no Kami, Nihon Kaji Sasho; on the other side, sixteen-petal chrysanthemum and the characters, Jorai (Kaminari yoké, protection against thunder). [Plate.
  39. WAKIZASHI. 510, 395, 10. Shobu, kammuri otoshi, signed Kanemoto. Shakudo tsuba nanako with animals of the zodiac, dragon, menuki-fuchi and kashira, tiger and waves, shibuichi, signed Toshikagé.
  40. WAKIZASHI. Heavy blade. 510, 370. Signed Kanefusa. Mounted in shakudo nanako with Hotta mokko crests in relief.
  41. TANTO. 360, 260 mm. Straight hiratsukuri with horimono of Dragon and Ken, Amakurikara Rio, sugu-ha, signed Kagehira.
  42. TANTO. 375, 275. Unsigned, with silver mounts engraved with a creeper, signed Riushosai Takahisa. Black scabbard with Karakusa in [Pg 10]gold togidashi.
  43. TANTO. 250, 190. Signed Mitsuhiro. Mounted entirely in metal, embossed with dragons and tigers, partly gilt.
  44. TANTO. Kammuri otoshi. Suguha 350, 255. Signed Fujiwara no Ason Shizukuni (Chinkoku) Heianjo ni oite, dated Mèiji, 3. Made to the order of Taira no Ason Takechika. Copper Kozuka with bamboo in sumiyé, signed Dairiusai Mitsuhiro. Ribbed red scabbard.
  45. TANTO. 320, 240. Suguha, signed Kanesada, shibuichi mounts with cherry blossom on waves, signed Togintei Yoshiteru. Kozuka shibuichi with cherry blossom and maple leaves iroyé in relief, signed Goto Mitsumasa.
  46. TANTO. 370, 275. Signed Kanenori. Silver fittings, tiger and waves. Katakiri, signed Soyu, black scabbard with waves in relief. Ex Gilbertson, coll.
  47. TANTO. 440, 325. Mounted with shibuichi tsuba in the shape of two butterflies, small fittings, shakudo kebori and hirazogan, flowers of the four seasons, signed Sugioka Ikkio, Kozuka and Kogai to match, iroyé in relief. Red scabbard with fukiyosé gold. Ex Gilbertson, coll.
  48. TANTO. 370, 275. Fittings in Hosono school, signed Hakuōsai Toshihisa. The Kozuka, signed Hosono Sozaemon Masamori. Ex Gilbertson, coll.
  49. TANTO. 380, 280. Mounted in the style of the Tanaka school, all the fittings ivory with clouds in relief and gold nunomé, lacquer scabbard in Wakasa technique. Ex Gilbertson, coll.
  50. TANTO. Mounted in carved scabbard, inlaid with a mother-of-pearl snake. The tsuba shibuichi, with cranes in relief, signed Shokatei [Pg 11]Tomotsuné. Kashira with Kiri crest in gold on shakudo nanako. Ex Gilbertson, coll.
  51. TANTO. 370, 270. Narrow yakiba, signed Kanemune, the fittings nigurome with big nanako and plum blossoms in relief silver—Kozuka bamboo in shibuichi.
  52. AIGUCHI. 340, 240. Midareba. Shakudo mounts, with engraved floral mon, signed Kanahara Naomichi, Kozuka shakudo nanako, flowers of Autumn, iroyé in relief, black lacquer scabbard with suzuki grass and dew-drops of silver.
  53. AIGUCHI. 245. With narrow yakiba, fitted on silver mounts decorated with chidori and waves, Katakiri. Scabbard lacquered black with chidori decoration.
  54. BOKUTO (wooden sword) decorated with a rabbit and waves, signed Zeshin.


[A] The dimensions in millimetres represent the whole length, the length from Bōshi to Habaki moto, and the Sori respectively.

YAMANAKA & Co. Plate I.
YAMANAKA & Co. Plate II.
YAMANAKA & Co. Plate IV.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Japanese Swords, by Anonymous


***** This file should be named 41321-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Paul Clark, David Edwards and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive)

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation information page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at 809
North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887.  Email
contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the
Foundation's web site and official page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For forty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.

Send an e-mail to The Librarian.

Please give us your questions, comments, or suggestions. Tell us if you found any mistakes or omissions in the books here.