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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The International Jewish Cook Book by Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

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Title: The International Jewish Cook Book 1600 Recipes According to the Jewish Dietary Laws with the Rules for Kashering; The Favorite Recipes of America, Austria, Germany, Russia, France, Poland, Roumania, Etc., Etc.

Author: Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

Release Date: May 14, 2004 [EBook #12350]

Language: English

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK ***

Produced by Paul Murray, Sander van Rijnswou and PG Distributed Proofreaders. Produced from images from Feeding America: The Historic American Cookbook Project at Michigan State University (http://digital.lib.msu.edu/cookbooks/index.cfm)

THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK

By

FLORENCE KREISLER GREENBAUM

Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science

1600 RECIPES ACCORDING TO THE JEWISH DIETARY LAWS WITH the RULES for KASHERING

* * * * *

THE FAVORITE RECIPES OF
AMERICA, AUSTRIA, GERMANY,
RUSSIA, FRANCE, POLAND,
ROUMANIA, Etc., Etc.

SECOND EDITION

1919

*PUBLISHERS' NOTE*

It is with pleasure, and pardonable pride, that the Publishers announce the appearance of The International Jewish Cook Book, which, "though we do say it ourselves," is the best and most complete kosher cook book ever issued in this country. It is the direct successor to the "Aunt Babette Cook Book," which has enjoyed undisputed popularity for more than a generation and which is no longer published. The International Jewish Cook Book is, however, far superior to the older book. It is much larger and the recipes are prepared strictly in accordance with the Jewish dietary laws.

The author and compiler, Mrs. Florence K. Greenbaum, is a household efficiency woman, an expert Jewish cook, and thoroughly understands the scientific combining of foods. She is a graduate of Hunter College of New York City, where she made a special study of diet and the chemistry of foods. She was Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science in the Young Women's Hebrew Association of New York, and is now Instructor and Lecturer for the Association of Jewish Home Makers and the Central Jewish Institute, both under the auspices of the Bureau of Jewish Education (Kehillah).

Mrs. Greenbaum knows the housewife's problems through years of personal experience, and knows also how to economize. Many of these recipes have been used in her household for three generations and are still used daily in her home. There is no one better qualified to write a Jewish Cook Book than she.

Suggestions and additional recipes, for inclusion in later editions of the book, will be gratefully accepted by

THE PUBLISHERS. New York, February, 1918.

*PREFACE*

In compiling these recipes every effort has been made to bear in mind the resources of the Jewish kitchen, as well as the need of being economical and practical.

The aim throughout has been to lay special emphasis on those dishes which are characteristically Jewish—those time-honored recipes which have been handed down the generations by Jewish housewives (for the Sabbath, Passover, etc). But the book contains a great many other recipes besides these, for the Jewish cook is glad to learn from her neighbors. Here will be found the favorite recipes of Germany, Hungary, Austria, France, Russia, Poland, Roumania, etc.; also hundreds of recipes used in the American household. In fact, the book contains recipes of every kind of food appealing to the Jewish taste, which the Jewish housewife has been able to adapt to the dietary laws, thus making the Cook Book truly International.

The manner of presentation is clear and simple, and if directions are followed carefully, will insure success to the inexperienced housewife. For the book has been largely planned to assist her in preparing wholesome, attractive meals; to serve the simplest as well as the most elaborate repast—from appetizer to dessert—without transgressing the dietary laws. At the same time the book offers many valuable suggestions and hints to the most expert cook.

In this book are also directions for making meat substitutes and many economies of the hour, which have been added to meet the needs of the present day.

*REMARKS*

The Jewish housewife enjoys the enviable reputation of being a good cook; in fact she is quite famous for her savory and varied dishes. Her skill is due not so much to a different method of cooking as to her ingenuity in combining food materials. The very cuts of meat she has been always accustomed to use, are those which modern cooks are now advising all to use. The use of vegetables with just enough meat to flavor, as for instance in the Shabbos Shalet, is now being highly recommended.

While it is not given to each and every woman to be a good cook, she can easily acquire some knowledge of the principles of cooking, namely:

1. That heat from coal, charcoal, wood, gas or electricity is used as a medium for toasting, broiling or roasting.

2. That heat from water is used as a medium for boiling, simmering, stewing or steaming.

3. That heat from fat is used as a medium for deep fat frying.

4. That heat from heated surfaces is used in pan-broiling, sauté, baking, braising or pot-roasting.

The length of time required to cook different articles varies with the size and weight of same—and here is where the judgment of the housewife counts. She must understand how to keep the fire at the proper temperature, and how to manage the range or stove.

In planning meals try to avoid monotony; do not have the same foods for the same days each week. Try new and unknown dishes by way of variety. Pay attention to garnishing, thereby making the dishes attractive to the eye as well as to the palate.

The recipes in this book are planned for a family of five, but in some instances desserts, puddings and vegetables may be used for two meals. Cakes are good for several days.

Do not consider the use of eggs, milk and cream an extravagance where required for certain desserts or sauces for vegetables, as their use adds to the actual food value of the dish.

As a rule the typical Jewish dish contains a large proportion of fat which when combined with cereal or vegetable fruits, nuts, sugar or honey, forms a dish supplying all the nourishment required for a well-balanced meal. Many of these dishes, when combined with meat, require but a small proportion of same.

Wherever fat is called for, it is intended that melted fat or dripping be used. In many of the dishes where fat is required for frying, any of the good vegetable oils or butter substitutes may be used equally well. These substitutes may also be used in place of butter or fat when same is required as an ingredient for the dish itself. In such cases less fat must be used, and more salt added. It is well to follow the directions given on the containers of such substitutes.

It is understood that all meats be made kosher.

Before preparing any dish, gather all materials, and see that all the ingredients are at hand.

*RULES FOR KASHERING*

In the religious and dietary laws of the Jewish people, the term "kasher" is applied to the preparation of meat and poultry, and means "to render fit" or "proper" for eating.

1. To render meat "fit" for food, the animal must be killed and cut up according to the Jewish method of slaughter, and must be purchased from a Jewish butcher.

2. The meat should be put into a pan, especially reserved for this purpose, entirely covered with cold water, and left to soak for half an hour. Before removing the meat from the water every particle of blood must be washed off. It should then be put upon the salting board (a smooth wooden board), placed in a slanting position, or upon a board with numerous perforations, in order to allow the blood to freely flow down. The meat should then be profusely sprinkled on all sides with salt, and allowed to remain in salt for one hour. It is then removed, held over a sink or pan, and well rinsed with cold water three times, so that all the salt is washed off. Meat left for three days or more unsoaked and unsalted, may be used only for broiling over coals; it may not be cooked in any other way.

The ends of the hoofs and the claws of poultry must be cut off before the feet are kashered.

Bones with no meat or fat adhering to them must be soaked separately, and during the salting should not be placed near the meat.

3. The liver must be prepared apart from the meat. It must be cut open in both directions, washed in cold water, and broiled over the fire, and salted while it is broiling. It should be seared on all sides. Water must then be poured over it, to wash the blood away. It may then be used in any manner, as the heat has drawn out the blood. Small steaks and chops may be kashered in the same way.

4. The heart must be cut open, lengthwise, and the tip removed before being soaked, so that the blood may flow out. The lungs likewise must be cut open before being soaked. Milt must have veins removed.

5. The head and feet may be kashered with the hair or skin adhering to them. The head should, however, be cut open, the brain taken out, and kashered separately.

6. To kasher suet or fat for clarifying, remove skin, and proceed as with meat.

7. Joints from hind-quarters must not be used, until they have been "porged," which means that all veins of blood, forbidden fat, and prohibited sinew have been removed. In New York City no hind-quarter meat is used by orthodox Jews.

8. All poultry must be drawn, and the inside removed before putting in water.

Cut the head off and cut the skin along the neck; find the vein which lies between the tendons, and trace it as far back as possible; at the back of the neck it divides into two branches, and these must be removed.

Cut off the tips of the wings and the claws of the feet. Proceed as with meat, first cutting open the heart and the liver. Eggs found inside of poultry, with or without shells, must be soaked and when salted be placed in such a position that the blood from the meat does not flow upon them. Such eggs may not be eaten with milk foods.

In conducting a kosher kitchen care must be taken not to mix meat and milk, or meat and butter at the same meal.

The utensils used in the cooking and serving of meat dishes may not be used for milk dishes. They should never be mixed.

Only soaps and scouring powders which contain no animal fat are permitted to be used in washing utensils. Kosher soap, made according to directions for making hard soap, may be used in washing meat dishes and utensils.

To follow the spirit as well as the letter of the dietary laws, scrupulous cleanliness should always be observed in the storing, handling and serving of food.

It is very necessary to keep the hands clean, the flours and cereals clean, the ice-box clean, and the pots and pans clean.

*CONTENTS*

PUBLISHERS' NOTE PREFACE REMARKS RULES FOR KASHERING APPETIZERS SANDWICHES SOUPS GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS FISH SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES SAUCES FOR MEATS FRYING ENTRÉES MEATS POULTRY STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY VEGETABLES TIME TABLE FOR COOKING SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS) CEREALS EGGS CHEESE BREAD COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN) MUFFINS AND BISCUITS PANCAKES, FRITTERS, ETC. CAKES ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES PIES AND PASTRY COOKIES DESSERTS STEAMED PUDDINGS PUDDING SAUCES FROZEN DESSERTS CANDIES AND SWEETS BEVERAGES CANNED FRUITS JELLIES AND PRESERVES BRANDIED FRUITS CANNED VEGETABLES VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE PICKLES AND RELISHES PASSOVER DISHES INDEX

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES MEASUREMENT OF FOOD MATERIALS

*APPETIZERS*

CANAPÉS

For serving at the beginning of dinner and giving a zest to the appetite, canapés are extremely useful. They may be either hot or cold and made of anything that can be utilized for a sandwich filling. The foundation bread should be two days old and may be toasted or fried crouton fashion. The nicest way is to butter it lightly, then set it in a hot oven to brown delicately, or fry in hot fat.

The bread should be cut oblong, diamond shaped, in rounds, or with a cutter that has a fluted edge. While the toast is quite hot, spread with the prepared mixture and serve on a small plate with sprigs of watercress or points of lemon as a garnish.

Another way is to cut the bread into delicate fingers, pile it log-cabin fashion, and garnish the centre with a stuffed olive. For cheese canapés sprinkle the toast thickly with grated cheese, well seasoned with salt and pepper. Set in a hot oven until the cheese melts and serve immediately.

SARDINE CANAPÉS

Toast lightly diamond-shaped slices of stale bread and spread with a sardine mixture made as follows:—Skin and bone six sardines, put them in a bowl and run to a paste with a silver spoon. Add two tablespoons of lemon juice, a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, a dash of pepper, two teaspoons of chopped parsley and four tablespoons of creamed butter. Garnish with a border of whites of hard-boiled eggs, finely chopped, and on top scatter shredded olives.

WHITE CAVIAR

Take roe of any fish, remove skin, salt; set aside over night. Next day beat roe apart, pour boiling water over it and stir; when roe is white, pour off the water and let drain; then put in pan with two tablespoons of oil and salt, pepper, a little vinegar, and mix well. Let stand a few days before using.

This caviar may be substituted in all recipes for the Russian caviar or domestic caviar may be procured in some shops.

CAVIAR CANAPÉS

Cut the bread about one-quarter of an inch thick and two inches square (or round), and after it is toasted spread over each slice a teaspoon of ice cold caviar. Mix one teaspoon of chopped onion and one teaspoon chopped parsley; spread the mixture over the caviar and serve with quarters of lemon.

ANCHOVY CANAPÉS

Cut the bread as for caviar canapés and spread with anchovy paste. Chop separately the yolks and whites of hard-boiled eggs and cover the canapés, dividing them into quarters, with anchovies split in two lengthwise, and using yolks and whites in alternate quarters.

ANCHOVY CANAPÉS WITH TOMATOES

For each person take a thin slice toast covered with anchovy paste. Upon this place whole egg which has been boiled four minutes, so that it can be pealed whole and the yolk is still soft. Around the toast put tomato sauce.

CHOPPED ONION AND CHICKEN FAT

Chop one yellow onion very fine, add four tablespoons of chicken fat (melted), salt to taste. Serve on slices of rye bread. If desired, a hard-boiled egg chopped very fine may be mixed with the onions.

BRAIN (APPETIZER)

Cook brains, let cool and add salt; beat up with chopped onions, juice of one and a half lemons and olive oil. Serve on lettuce leaves.

BLACK OLIVES

Pit black olives, cut them very thin, and prepare as brain appetizer; beat well with fork.

CHICKEN LIVER PASTE, No. 1

Wash thoroughly several fowls' livers and then let them simmer until tender in a little strong soup stock, adding some sliced mushroom, minced onion, and a little pepper and salt. When thoroughly done mince the whole finely, or pound it in a mortar. Now put it back in the saucepan and mix well with the yolks of sufficient eggs to make the whole fairly moist. Warm over the fire, stirring frequently until the mixture is quite thick, taking care that it does not burn.

It should be served upon rounds of toast on a hot dish garnished with parsley.

IMITATION PATE DE FOI GRAS

Take as many livers and gizzards of any kind of fowl as you may have on hand; add to these three tablespoons of chicken or goose fat, a finely chopped onion, one tablespoon of pungent sauce, and salt and white pepper to taste. Boil the livers until quite done and drain; when cold, rub to a smooth paste. Take some of the fat and chopped onion and simmer together slowly for ten minutes. Strain through a thin muslin bag, pressing the bag tightly, turn into a bowl and mix with the seasoning; work all together for a long time, then grease a bowl or cups and press this mixture into them; when soft cut up the gizzards into bits and lay between the mixture. You may season this highly, or to suit taste.

CHICKEN LIVER PASTE, No. 2

Take one-quarter pound chicken livers that have been boiled soft; drain and rub through grater, add one-quarter cup of fresh mushrooms that have been fried for three minutes in two tablespoons of chicken fat, chop these, mix smooth with the liver, moistening with the fat used in frying the mushrooms, season with salt, pepper, paprika and a little onion and lemon juice. Spread on rye bread slices. Garnish plate with a red radish or sprigs of parsley.

CHOPPED HERRING

Soak herring a few hours, when washed and cleaned, bone and chop. To one herring take one onion, one sour apple, a slice of white bread which has been soaked in vinegar, chop all these; add one teaspoon oil, a little cinnamon and pepper. Put on platter in shape of a herring with head at top and tail at bottom of dish, and sprinkle the chopped white of a hard-boiled egg over fish and then the chopped yolk.

CHEESE BALLS

Take mashed cream cheese—add butter, cream and a little paprika. You can chop either green peppers, almonds or olives in this mixture, or the juice of an onion. Roll into small balls and serve on lettuce leaves. This is also very good for sandwiches.

EGG APPETIZER

Boil eggs hard. Cut slice off the end, so that the egg will stand firm. Dip egg in French dressing, then with a pastry bag arrange sardellen butter on the top of egg. Have ready small squares of toasted bread, spread with a thin layer of sardellen butter, on which to stand the eggs. Caviar, mixed with some finely chopped onion, pepper and lemon juice, may be used instead of the sardellen butter, but mayonnaise must be used over the caviar.

DEVILED EGGS WITH HOT SAUCE

Take six hard-boiled eggs, cut lengthwise, remove yolk and add to same: one dessertspoon of melted butter, Cayenne pepper, salt and chopped parsley. Mash this mixture very fine and refill the whites of the eggs and turn over on platter.

*Sauce.*—One tablespoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour, a pinch of Cayenne pepper, salt and one pint of milk. Stir this mixture continually until it thickens; beat the yolk of one egg and pour the hot gravy over the same. Dress with chopped parsley and eat very hot. Sherry wine can be added if desired.

STUFFED YELLOW TOMATOES

Take small yellow tomatoes, scrape out the centre and fill with caviar.
Serve on lettuce or watercress.

A DELICIOUS APPETIZER

Take as many slices of delicately browned toast as people to serve, several large, firm tomatoes sliced, one green pepper, and store cheese. Place a slice of tomato on each slice of toast and season with salt and pepper and a dot of butter. Place several long, curly strips of pepper around the tomato, and cover with a thin slice of the cheese. Place in the oven until the cheese is melted. Serve piping hot.

CELERY RELISH

Boil about six pieces of celery root. When soft, peel and mash. Season with salt, pepper, a little onion powder, a teaspoon of home-made mustard and plenty of mayonnaise. Shape into pyramids, put mayonnaise on the top of the pyramid, and on top of that either a little well-seasoned caviar or some sardellen butter shaped in a pastry bag. Serve on a slice of beets and a lettuce leaf.

SARDELLEN

Take one-quarter pound salted sardellen and soak in water over night. Bone the next morning, put in cloth and press until dry; chop very fine, almost to a paste; take one-half pound sweet butter, stir to a cream and add the sardellen. Serve on toasted cracker or bread. Sprinkle with the grated yellow and grated white of egg.

STUFFED EGGS

Hard boil eggs, drop into cold water, remove shells, cut each in half lengthwise. Turn out yolks into a bowl. Carefully place whites together in pairs, mash yolks with back of a spoon. For every six yolks put into bowl one tablespoon melted butter, one-half teaspoon mustard (the kind prepared for table), one teaspoon salt, dash of cayenne pepper. Rub these together thoroughly with yolks. Make little balls of this paste the size of the yolks. Fit one ball into each pair whites.

NUT AND CHEESE RELISH

Mix one package cream cheese with one cup of chopped nut meats, one teaspoon of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of whipped cream, salt and red pepper. Roll into balls and serve cold, garnished with parsley and chopped nuts.

GRAPE-FRUIT COCKTAIL

Cut the grape-fruit into halves, crosswise, and scoop out the pulp, rejecting the white inner skin as well as the seeds. Clean the shells; cut the edges with a sharp knife into scallops and throw them into cold water. Set the pulp on the ice. At serving time put a teaspoon of cracked ice in the bottom of each shell; fill with the pulp, mixed thoroughly with powdered sugar and a little sherry, if desired; and place a maraschino cherry or bit of bright-colored jelly in the centre of each. Lay on paper doilies or surround with bits of asparagus fern.

AMBROSIA

Fill glass with alternate layers of sliced orange and cocoanut; cover with powdered sugar and place a maraschino cherry on the top of each.

PEACH COCKTAIL

Fill the glasses with sliced peaches; cover with orange or lemon juice; sweeten to taste; add a little shaved ice and serve.

Apricot and cherry cocktails may be made in the same way.

RASPBERRY COCKTAIL

Mash a pint of ripe, red currants; strain them through cheesecloth; pour the juice over a pint of red raspberries and set on the ice to chill. At serving time sweeten to taste and pour into the glasses, putting one teaspoon of powdered sugar on the top of each.

PINEAPPLE AND BANANA COCKTAIL

Take equal parts of banana and fresh or canned pineapple; cut into small cubes and cover with lemon or pineapple juice. Serve in glasses or orange shells placed on autumn leaves or sprays of green fern.

STRAWBERRY COCKTAIL

Slice five or six large strawberries into each glass and squeeze over them the juice of an orange. At serving time add one heaping teaspoon of powdered sugar and one tablespoon of shaved ice.

MUSK MELONS

Cut melon in half, seed and put on ice one hour before serving. When ready to serve, fill with crushed ice and sprinkle with, powdered sugar. Allow one-half melon for each person. Very refreshing for summer luncheons or dinners. For dinner serve before soup.

FILLED LEMONS

Select good-sized lemons; cut off tip to stand the lemon upright; cut top for cover. Scoop out all the lemon pulp, and put in a bowl; put shells in a bowl of cold water. For six lemons take one box of boneless sardines, six anchovies, and two green peppers, cut very fine. Wet with lemon-juice until moist; fill in shells after wiping dry; insert a pimento on top; put on cover of lemon; serve on doily with horseradish and watercress.

RED PEPPER CANAPÉS

Mix together two chopped hard-boiled eggs, one tablespoon of chopped red peppers (canned), a saltspoon of salt, a tiny pinch of mustard and two tablespoons of grated American cheese with sufficient melted butter to form a paste; spread over the rounds of fried bread and place in a very hot oven for about three minutes. Serve on a folded napkin, garnished with watercress.

SALTED PEANUTS

Shell and skin freshly roasted peanuts and proceed as in salting almonds.

SALTED ALMONDS

Pour boiling water on the almonds; cool and remove the skins; dry thoroughly and brown in a hot oven, using a half tablespoon of butter or olive oil (preferably the oil) to each cup of nuts, which must be shaken frequently. When brown, sprinkle well with salt and spread on paper to dry and cool.

A still easier way to prepare the nuts is to cook them over the fire, using a larger quantity of olive oil. As the oil can be saved and used again, this method is not necessarily extravagant.

*SANDWICHES*

Bread should be twenty-four hours old and cut in thin, even slices. If fancy forms are desired, shape before spreading with butter. Cream butter and spread evenly.

ANCHOVY SANDWICHES

Pound the anchovies to a paste and mix with an equal quantity of olives stoned and finely chopped.

CELERY SANDWICHES

Two cups of chopped celery, two tablespoons of chopped walnuts, two tablespoons of chopped olives, quarter of a cup of Mayonnaise dressing. Spread between slices of thin buttered bread.

FISH SANDWICHES

Spread one piece of bread with any kind of cold fish that has been shredded and mixed with tartar sauce. Then put a lettuce leaf on that and then a slice of hard-boiled egg that has been dipped in tartar sauce. Cover with a slice of buttered bread.

NUT AND RAISIN SANDWICHES

Take equal quantities of nuts and raisins; moisten with cream or grape juice and spread on thin slices of bread.

BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

Season one cup of cottage cheese with salt, cayenne, and add one pimento cut in shreds. Cut white and brown bread in finger lengths about one inch wide. Spread with cheese mixture and place a brown and white slice together.

CHEESE AND NUT SANDWICHES

Cut thin rounds from rye bread. Spread with the following mixture: take one cream cheese, rub to a cream, season to taste with salt and paprika, add one stalk of chopped celery, and one-fourth cup of chopped nut meats. Spread on buttered bread and place a slice of stuffed olive on top, in the centre of each piece of bread.

LETTUCE SANDWICHES

Put fresh lettuce leaves, washed and dried, between thin layers of bread. Spread with Mayonnaise or Boiled Dressing.

OLIVE SANDWICHES

Take either ripe or green olives; remove the seeds; mince and mix thoroughly with Mayonnaise dressing. Spread between slices of whole-wheat or graham bread.

SARDINE SANDWICHES

Remove the skin and bones from the sardines. Rub to a paste, adding an equal quantity of chopped hard-boiled eggs, seasoned with salt, cayenne, lemon juice or vinegar. Moisten with melted butter and spread between slices of bread.

DATE AND FIG SANDWICHES

Wash equal quantities of dates and figs; stone the dates; add blanched almonds in quantity about one-fourth of the entire bulk; then run the whole mixture through a food chopper. Moisten with orange juice and press tightly into baking-powder tins. When ready to use, dip the box in hot water; turn out the mixture; slice and place between thin slices of buttered bread.

FIG SANDWICHES

Remove the stems and chop the figs fine. Put in a double boiler with a little water and cook until a paste is formed. Add a few drops of lemon juice; set aside; when cool spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

EGG SANDWICHES

Hard boil the eggs, place them immediately into cold water. When cold; remove the shells carefully, cut the eggs in half lengthwise and butter slightly. Lay one or two sardellen or appetite silds on one half of the egg and press the one half gently on the other half which has the sardellen. The egg must appear whole. Now tie lengthwise and across with the narrowest, various colored ribbons you can find.

CHESTNUT SANDWICHES

One slice each of white and brown bread, cut thin and buttered, and spread with chestnuts that have been boiled tender, peeled and rubbed through a sieve, then mashed with hard-boiled eggs to a paste and moistened with Mayonnaise.

SALMON AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

Flake one cup salmon and rub it to a paste. Add mustard, salt, and cayenne. Spread on the bread, cover with a layer of thin slices of cucumber, then another piece of bread, press lightly and arrange with sprigs of parsley on the platter.

WHITE AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

If a novel sandwich is wanted, butter alternate slices of brown and white bread and pile them one above the other in a loaf. Cut the new loaf across the slices, butter them and pile them so that when this second loaf is cut, the slices will be in white and brown blocks. Press the slices very closely together before cutting at all.

TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICHES

The filling for the toasted cheese sandwiches calls for a cup of soft, mild cheese, finely cut, and stirred over the fire with a tablespoon of butter until the cheese is melted. Enough milk to moisten, perhaps not more than one-eighth of a cup, is then added, with salt, mustard, and paprika to taste, and the whole is stirred until creamy and smooth. Slices of bread are very thinly buttered, the cheese mixture spread on generously, each slice covered with another slice, and set away until the filling cools and hardens, when the sandwiches are toasted on both sides and served hot.

POACHED EGG SANDWICHES

Slice as many pieces of bread, from a round loaf, as you have persons to serve. Toast these slices and let cool. Across each slice place three strips of pimentoes (use the canned pimentoes), on top of that place a cold poached egg, put a teaspoon of Mayonnaise on the top of the egg and sprigs of watercress encircling the toast.

MUSTARD SARDINE PASTE FOR SANDWICHES

Take one box of mustard sardines; bone and mash; add to the mixture one tablespoon of tomato catsup, one teaspoon of Worcestershire sauce, juice of one lemon, a pinch of cayenne pepper, as much white pepper as will cover the end of a knife, two tablespoons of vinegar, and one tablespoon of olive oil. Mix thoroughly until it becomes a paste. Then spread on thinly cut bread for sandwiches.

CAVIAR AND SALMON SANDWICHES

Take a piece of rye bread, cut round (with a biscuit cutter), spread with mustard; put some caviar in centre of the bread, strips of smoked salmon around the caviar and strips of pickle around the salmon.

RIBBON SANDWICHES

Cut two, slices of white bread and two of brown. Butter three and spread with a thick paste made of hard-boiled egg very finely chopped and mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Build the slices up one above the other, alternating brown and white, and placing the unbuttered slice on top. Before serving, slice down as you would a layer cake.

EGG AND OLIVE SANDWICHES

Chop four eggs which have been boiled fifteen minutes, add two tablespoons of chopped olives, season and moisten with olive oil and vinegar. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread.

RUSSIAN SANDWICHES

Spread bread with thin slices of Neufchatel cheese, cover with finely chopped olives moistened with mayonnaise dressing.

SURPRISE SANDWICHES

Take orange marmalade, pecan nuts and cream cheese in equal quantities and after mixing thoroughly spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

CHICKEN SANDWICHES

Mince some cold roast or boiled chicken in a chopping bowl, then mix the gravy with it, adding a few hard-boiled eggs, which have been minced to a powder. Mix all into a soft paste. Then cut thin slices of bread, spread the chicken between the slices (if desired you may add a little mustard); press the pieces gently together.

CHICKEN SANDWICHES WITH MAYONNAISE

Grind up chicken in meat chopper. To each cup of chicken add one tablespoon of mayonnaise, and one tablespoon of chicken soup. Mix into soft paste, and put in finger-rolls.

DEVILED TONGUE SANDWICHES

Grind up tongue (root will do) in meat chopper; to a cup of ground tongue add one teaspoon of mustard, one tablespoon of soup, and one teaspoon of mayonnaise. Mix into soft paste; spread on white bread cut very thin.

MINCED GOOSE SANDWICHES

Take either boiled or roast goose (which has been highly seasoned) and mince in a chopping bowl, add one or two pickles, according to quantity, or a teaspoon of catsup. Spread thin slices of bread or nice fresh rolls, with a thin coating of goose oil, slightly salted, then spread the minced goose and cover with a layer of bread which has been previously spread.

VEAL SANDWICHES

May be prepared as above, or slice the veal in thin slices and spread with mustard.

BOILED, SMOKED, OR PICKLED TONGUE SANDWICHES

Remove the crust from the bread (unless it is very soft), place the slices of tongue (cut very thin) and lettuce leaves between the slices.

*SOUPS*

Soups are wholesome and palatable and should form part of the meal whenever possible. It is a good plan to have some sort of vegetable or meat stock always at hand, as this renders the making of the soup both easy and economical. With milk at hand, cream soups are easily made.

SOUP STOCK

In making soup, bring the cold water in the soup pot with the meat and bones to a boil slowly, and let it simmer for hours, never boiling and never ceasing to simmer. If clear soup is not desired soup may be allowed to boil. Bones, both fresh and those partly cooked, meats of all kinds, vegetables of various sorts, all may be added to the stock pot, to give flavor and nutriment to the soup.

One quart of cold water is used to each pound of meat for soup; to four quarts of water, one each of vegetables of medium size and a bouquet.

Make the soup in a closely covered kettle used for no other purpose. Remove scum when it first appears; after soup has simmered for four or five hours add vegetables and a bouquet.

Parsley wrapped around peppercorn, bayleaf, six cloves and other herbs, excepting sage, and tied, makes what is called a bouquet and may be easily removed from the soup.

Root celery, parsley, onions, carrots, asparagus and potatoes are the best vegetables to add to the soup stock. Never use celery leaves for beef soup. You may use celery leaves in potato soup, but sparingly, with chopped parsley leaves.

Vegetables, spices and salt should always be added the last hour of cooking. Strain into an earthen bowl and let cool uncovered, by so doing stock is less apt to ferment.

A cake of fat forms on the stock when cold, which excludes air and should not be removed until stock is used. To remove fat run a knife around edge of bowl and carefully remove the same. A small quantity will remain, which should be removed by passing a cloth, wrung out of hot water, around edge and over top of stock. This fat should be clarified and used for drippings. If time cannot be allowed for stock to cool before using, take off as much fat as possible with a spoon, and remove the remainder by passing tissue or any absorbent paper over the surface.

Bouillon should always be thickened with yolks of eggs, beat up with a spoon of cold water. Ordinary beef soup or tomato soup may be thickened with flour. To do this properly heat a scant spoon of soup drippings, stir in briskly a spoon of flour, and add gradually a large quantity of soup to prevent it becoming lumpy.

WHITE STOCK

Veal, turkey, chicken and fish are used.

BROWN STOCK

Follow directions given for bouillon, adding a slice of beef and browning some of the meat in the marrow from the bone.

BEET SOUP—RUSSIAN STYLE (FLEISCHIG)

Cut one large beet and one-half pound of onion in thick pieces and put in kettle with one pound of fat brisket of beef; cover with water and let cook slowly two hours; add three-fourths of a cup of sugar and a little citric acid to make it sweet and sour and let cook another hour; season and serve hot.

BORSHT

Take some red beetroots, wash thoroughly and peel, and then boil in a moderate quantity of water from two to three hours over a slow fire, by which time a strong red liquor should have been obtained. Strain off the liquor, adding lemon juice, sugar, and salt to taste, and when it has cooled a little, stir in sufficient yolks of eggs to slightly thicken it. May be used either cold or hot. In the latter case a little home-made beef stock may be added to the beet soup.

If after straining off the soup the remaining beetroot is not too much boiled away, it may be chopped fine with a little onion, vinegar and dripping, flavored with pepper and salt, and used as a vegetable.

SCHALET OR TSCHOLNT (SHABBAS SOUP)

Wash one pint of white haricot beans and one pint of coarse barley and put them into a covered pot or pan with some pieces of fat meat and some pieces of marrow bone, or the backs of two fat geese which have been skinned and well spiced with ginger and garlic. Season with pepper and salt and add sufficient water to cover. Cover the pot up tightly. If one has a coal range it can be placed in the oven on Friday afternoon and let remain there until Saturday noon. The heat of the oven will be sufficient to bake the Schalet if there was a nice clear fire when the porridge was put in the oven. If this dish cannot be baked at home it may be sent to a neighboring baker to be placed in the oven there to remain until Saturday noon, when it is called for. This takes the place of soup for the Sabbath dinner.

BOUILLON

Put on one three-pound chicken to boil in six quarts cold water. Take one and one-half or two pounds of beef and the same quantity thick part of veal, put in a baking-pan, set in the stove and brown quickly with just enough water to keep from burning. When brown, cut the meat in pieces, add this with all the juice it has drawn, to the chicken soup. Set on the back of the stove, and cook slowly all day. Set in a cold place, or on ice over night, and next morning after it is congealed, skim off every particle of fat.

Melt and season to taste when ready to serve. Excellent for the sick. When used for the table, cut up carrots and French peas already cooked can be added while heating.

If cooked on gas stove, cook over the simmering flame the same number of hours.

CONSOMMÉ

Take three pounds of beef, cut in dice and cover with three quarts of cold water. Simmer slowly for four hours. The last hour add one-half cup each of carrots, celery, onion, and season with one-half teaspoon of peppercorns and one tablespoon of salt. Strain, cool, remove fat and clear (allowing one egg-shell broken fine and the slightly beaten white of one egg to each quart of stock). Add to the stock, stir constantly until it has reached the boiling point. Boil two minutes and serve.

CHICKEN SOUP, No. 1

Take one large chicken, cook with four quarts of water for two or three hours. Skim carefully, when it begins to boil add parsley root, an onion, some asparagus, cut into bits. Season with salt, strain and beat up the yolk of an egg with one tablespoon of cold water, add to soup just before serving. This soup should not be too thin. Rice, barley, noodles or dumplings may be added. Make use of the chicken, either for salad or stew.

CHICKEN SOUP, No. 2

Take the carcass of a cold, cooked chicken and break into small pieces. Add one-half cup of chopped celery and one onion chopped fine. Cover with cold water; simmer slowly for two hours. Strain, add salt and pepper to taste.

CHICKEN BROTH

Cut the chicken into small pieces and place it in a deep earthen dish; add one quart of water; cover it and set over a kettle of boiling water, letting it steam until the meat of the chicken has become very tender. Strain off the broth and let it stand over night. In the morning remove the fat and return the liquid to the original earthen dish.

JULIENNE SOUP

Have soup stock ready. Boil in water until tender one cup green peas, three carrots cut up in small pieces, and some cabbage chopped fine. Brown two tablespoons of flour in a skillet in hot fat, then stir in the vegetables. Fry some livers and gizzards of fowls, if handy, and add, then stir in the strained soup stock.

RICE BROTH

May be made either of beef or mutton, adding all kinds of vegetables. Boil one-half cup of rice separately in a farina kettle. Strain the beef or mutton broth. Add the rice and boil one-half hour longer, with potatoes, cut into dice shape; use about two potatoes; then add the beaten yolk of an egg. Strained stock of chicken broth added to this soup makes it very palatable and nutritious for the sick.

MOCK TURTLE SOUP

Take one calf's head, wash well; put on to boil with four and one-half quarts of water; add two red peppers, onions, celery, carrots, cloves, salt to taste, and a little cabbage; boil six hours; also, have ready some meat stock; the next day put fat in a skillet with two large tablespoons of flour; let it brown; then, take the calf's head and cut all the meat from it in pieces; add the calf's tongue, cut in dice. Slice hard-boiled eggs, one glass of sherry; and one lemon sliced; put all in the stock; allow it to come just to a boil.

MUTTON BROTH

Cut three pounds of neck of lamb or lean shoulder into small pieces; cover closely and boil with three quarts of water, slowly, for two hours; add two tablespoons well-washed rice to the boiling soup. Cook an hour longer, slowly; watch carefully and stir from time to time. Strain and thicken it with a little flour; salt and pepper to taste. Particularly nice for invalids.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

Add to three quarts of liquor, in which fowls have been boiled, the following vegetables: three onions, two carrots, and one head of celery cut in small dice. Keep the kettle over a high heat until soup reaches the boiling point; then place where it will simmer for twenty-five minutes. Add one tablespoon of curry powder, one tablespoon of flour mixed together; add to the hot soup and cook five minutes. Pass through a sieve. Serve with small pieces of chicken or veal cut in it.

FARINA SOUP

When the soup stock has been strained and every particle of fat removed, return it to the kettle to boil. When it boils hard stir in carefully quarter of a cup of farina, do this slowly to prevent the farina from forming lumps. Stir into the soup bowl the yolk of one egg, add a teaspoon of cold water. Pour the soup into the bowl gradually and stir constantly until all has been poured into the bowl. Serve at once.

GREEN KERN SOUP

Soak one-half cup of green kern in a bowl of water over night. Put on two pounds of soup meat, add a carrot, an onion, a stalk of celery, a sprig of parsley, one or two tomatoes, a potato, in fact any vegetable you may happen to have at hand. Cover up closely and let it boil slowly over a low heat three or four hours. Put the green kern on to boil in water slightly salted, as it boils down keep adding soup stock from the kettle of soup on the stove, always straining through a hair sieve, until all has been used. Serve as it is or strain through a colander and put pieces of toasted bread into the soup.

Another way of using the green kern is to grind it to a powder.

NOODLE SOUP

For six persons, select a piece of meat off the neck, about two and one-half pounds; add three quarts of water, an onion, one celery root, two carrots, a large potato, some parsley, three tomatoes and the giblets of poultry. Cook in a closely covered kettle, letting the soup simmer for four or five hours. Remove every bit of scum that rises. Strain; add salt and remove every particle of fat; put in noodles; boil about five minutes and serve at once. If allowed to stand it will become thick.

MUSHROOM AND BARLEY SOUP

Take one quart of hot bouillon, add a quarter pound barley which has been boiled in water; and one ounce of dried mushrooms which have been thoroughly washed and cut in pieces, an onion, carrot, bayleaf, parsley and dill. Boil all these and when the vegetables are nearly tender, remove from soup, add the meat from the bouillon, cut up in small pieces, let soup come to a boil and serve.

OXTAIL SOUP

Wash two large oxtails and cut into pieces. Cut one onion fine and fry in one tablespoon of drippings. When brown, add oxtails to brown, then put into soup kettle with four quarts cold water. Add one tablespoon of salt, one tablespoon of mixed herbs, four cloves, four peppercorns. Simmer for three or four hours. Skim off fat, strain. Vegetables cut into fancy shapes and boiled twenty minutes may be added.

GREEN PEA SOUP

Make your soup stock as usual, adding a pint of washed pea-pods to the soup. Heat a tablespoon of drippings, put in the peas, with a little chopped parsley, cover closely and let simmer; keep adding soup stock when dry. When the peas are tender put into the strained soup. Season with one teaspoon of salt and two teaspoons of sugar, add drop dumplings to this soup before serving.

PIGEON SOUP

Make a beef soup, and an hour before wanted add a pigeon. Boil slowly, with all kinds of vegetables, provided your patient is allowed to have them. Strain, add the beaten yolk of an egg, salt to taste.

TURKEY SOUP

Cut up any bones or meat of cold turkey, and cook like soup made of left-over chicken and chicken bones.

OKRA GUMBO SOUP (SOUTHERN)

Take one quart of ripe tomatoes, stew with one quart of okra, cut into small rings. Put this on to boil with about two quarts or water and a piece of soup meat (no bone), chop up an onion, a carrot and a sprig of parsley, add this to the soup. Fricassee one chicken with some rice, dish up with the soup, putting a piece of chicken and one tablespoon of rice into each soup plate before adding the soup. Let the soup simmer four or five hours; season with salt and pepper. A little corn and Lima beans may be added; they should be cooked with the soup for several hours. Cut the soup meat into small cubes and leave in the soup to serve.

TCHORBA—TURKISH SOUP

Take one pound of meat, cover with water and boil till meat is tender. Boil rice in another pan until it is creamy, when ready to serve, add one beaten egg and juice of half a lemon.

Broken rice is best for this dish.

BARLEY SOUP

Take one cup of barley, two onions cut fine, one-half cup of carrots diced, one teaspoon of salt, pepper to taste; add two quarts of water and simmer two or three hours. When water has evaporated add soup; if you are making fresh soup, keep adding the "top soup," strained, to the barley and let boil until tender, one-half cup of celery root boiled with the barley improves the flavor.

DRIED PEA SOUP

Soak one cup of picked and cleaned dried split peas in cold water over night, drain, put on with two quarts cold water, a smoked beef-cheek or any other smoked meat; let boil slowly but steadily four hours or more; add one-half cup of celery, diced, one small onion cut fine, one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, cook until the meat and peas are tender. Remove meat when tender. Skim fat off the top of the soup. Heat one tablespoon of the fat in a frying pan, add one tablespoon of flour and gradually the rest of the soup. Season to taste and serve with the smoked meat, adding croutons.

LENTIL SOUP (LINZEN), No. 1

Soak two cups of lentils over night in cold water. Drain and add to a sliced onion which has been browned in two tablespoons of drippings; when these have been fried for five minutes, add three stalks of celery cut in small pieces or some celery seed, pepper and salt to taste, and two quarts of warm water, boil all these slowly, stirring occasionally until the lentils are quite soft. Pass all through a sieve, return to saucepan heat again and serve.

LENTIL SOUP, No. 2

Made same as Dried Pea Soup. One cup of strained tomatoes may be added or small slices of sausage.

SOUR SOUP (FOR PURIM)

Take one pound of soup meat and two soup bones, put on to boil in boiling water. Cut two leeks in slices like noodles, some cooked tomatoes which have been cooled and strained, some cauliflower, two tablespoons of sugar, a pinch sour salt, pepper and salt and let cook steadily. When the soup is done thicken it with two egg yolks that have been beaten up with a little salt and some cold water. Do not cook after adding yolks of eggs.

TOMATO SOUP

Take a large soup bone or two pounds of soup meat, the latter preferred, one or two onions, a few potatoes, a few carrots, a turnip, soup greens and a can of tomatoes or a quart of fresh ones, cook two hours, and in season add two ears of sweet corn grated. Season with salt and pepper. Thicken with a tablespoon of flour, dissolved in cold water. A nice addition to this soup is a handful of noodles cut into round disks with a thimble.

VEAL SOUP

Boil a piece of veal, off the neck, and one or two veal bones in two quarts of water, add a sprig of parsley, one onion, cut up into small pieces. Strain and thicken with the yolks of two eggs slightly beaten with a tablespoon of cold water. Season with salt and pepper to taste.

VEGETABLE SOUP

Take a small soup bone, cover with cold water. Cut one-half a cup each of celery, carrots, and onion. Brown in fat, cooking five to ten minutes; add one tablespoon of chopped parsley and one-half cup of potatoes. Add to soup bone and cook one hour. Season with salt and pepper. Remove bone and serve.

HOW TO MAKE CREAM SOUPS

Cream soups are all made by blending two tablespoons of butter with two tablespoons of flour and then adding slowly one cup of cold milk or half cream and milk. One cup for a thin soup or purée, to one quart of liquid. More according to the thickness of soup desired. Any cooked vegetable or fish may be added to the cream sauce. Less milk is used when the water in which the vegetables are cooked is added.

Purées are made from vegetables or fish, forced through a strainer and retained in soup, milk and seasonings. Generally thicker than cream soup.

Use a double boiler in making cream sauces and the cream sauce foundation for soups.

To warm over a thick soup it is best to put it in a double boiler. It must not be covered. If one does not have a double boiler set soup boiler in a pan of hot water over fire.

Cream soups and purées are so nutritious that with bread and butter, they furnish a satisfactory meal.

CREAM OF ALMOND SOUP

Blanch, and grind or pound one-half pound almonds, let simmer slowly in one pint of milk for five minutes. Melt one tablespoon of butter, blend with one of flour. Do not allow to bubble. Add one cup of milk and thicken slightly. Then add the almond mixture and simmer again until creamy. Remove from fire and add one cup of cream. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Cream may be whipped or left plain.

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP

Break three stalks of celery in one-inch pieces and pound in a mortar. Cook in double boiler with one slice of onion and three cups of milk for twenty minutes. Remove onion, heat two tablespoons of butter, add two tablespoons of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of salt; first two-thirds of a cup, and gradually the rest of the celery broth, add one cup of cream; cook until smooth and serve at once.

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS SOUP

Proceed as with cream of celery soup, substituting one-half bundle of fresh asparagus or an equal amount of canned for the stalk of celery. Or, the tips of a bundle of asparagus may be cut off for table use and the remainder used for soup. In either case the asparagus will be better if mashed through a colander, thus removing the woody portions.

CREAM OF CAULIFLOWER SOUP

Take a solid head of cauliflower, scald it to take away the strong taste; separate the flowers and proceed as with cream of celery soup.

CREAM OF CORN SOUP

Take a can of corn or six ears of corn. Run a sharp knife down through the center of each row of kernels, and with the back of a knife press out the pulp, leaving the husk on the cob. Break the cobs and put them on to boil in sufficient cold water to cover them. Boil thirty minutes and strain the liquor. Return the liquor to the fire, and when boiling add the corn pulp and bay leaf. Cook fifteen minutes; add the cream sauce and serve.

CREAM OF HERRING SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Place two cups of milk, two cups of water, one small onion, salt and pepper to taste in a saucepan, and boil for ten minutes, add two herrings which have been previously soaked and cut in small pieces; cook until herring is tender.

MILK, OR CREAM SOUP

Heat a quart of milk or cream, add a tablespoon of sweet butter and thicken with a spoon of flour or corn starch, wet with cold milk. Pour, boiling, over pieces of toasted bread cut into dices; crackers may also be used.

FISH CHOWDER

Skin and bone one and one-half pounds of codfish or haddock. Cut six large tomatoes, six large potatoes, two large onions in small pieces, add salt, pepper, three pints of water and cook one hour. Add one-half pint of cream, one-fourth cup of butter, and paprika. Cook five minutes and serve.

MOCK FISH CHOWDER

Omit fish and use same ingredients, sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.

GLOBE ARTICHOKE OR TURNIP SOUP

Heat two tablespoons of butter, add one and one-half pounds of sliced turnips or artichokes and stir them in the butter, add one tablespoon of flour, a little salt, three cups of hot milk, three cups of hot water, stirring them in slowly. When the vegetables are done rub them through a sieve, put them back in the saucepan, add a little sugar and more seasoning, if required, and heat thoroughly. A little cream or butter may be put into the tureen, and the soup stirred into it.

SPINACH SOUP

Wash, pick over and cook two quarts of spinach for twenty minutes; drain, chop and rub through a sieve and return to the water in which it was cooked, add one-half cup of chopped onions, cook until thoroughly done, thicken with a white sauce made by melting two tablespoons of butter to which is added two tablespoons of flour; stir until smooth, add two cups of milk; season with one-half teaspoon of salt and pepper and add the spinach mixture.

CREAM OF LETTUCE SOUP

Proceed as with spinach, substituting lettuce for spinach.

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP

Cook one quart tomatoes (fresh or canned) with one pint water until done, and strain through a sieve. Meanwhile melt two tablespoons of butter, add two tablespoons of flour, add gradually one and one-half cups of milk (or half cream and half milk), one teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of pepper; add a little chopped parsley and celery, and let this boil for fifteen minutes. Just before ready to serve add one-fourth teaspoon of baking soda to the hot strained tomatoes, pour gradually into the cream sauce stirring constantly and serve at once.

CREAM OF LENTIL SOUP

Soak one cup of lentils over night. Drain and boil slowly for one hour in water containing one-half teaspoon of baking soda, drain and boil again very gently in fresh water; when the lentils are tender drain off most of the liquid and return to the fire. Add two tablespoons of butter, or butter substitute, two teaspoons of salt, and one-half teaspoon of sugar. Bring three cups of milk to a boil in the double-boiler. Just before serving mash the lentils through a strainer directly into the milk. Serve in cups and pass croutons with the soup.

ONION SOUP

Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoon of butter until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoons of flour and stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croutons.

CREAM WINE SOUP

Put one cup of white wine and one-half cup of cold water on to boil, add a few pieces of stick cinnamon and seven lumps of cut loaf sugar; while boiling scald a cup of sweet cream in double boiler. Have ready the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, pour over this the hot cream, stirring all the time, then pour in the boiling wine, being careful to stir well or it will curdle. Very nice for invalids. Can be eaten hot or cold.

VEGETABLE SOUP (MILCHIG)

Brown one-half cup of chopped onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one and a half quarts of boiling water, two cups of shredded cabbage one-half cup of chopped carrot, one leek, one tablespoon of chopped peppers, one tablespoon of chopped celery. Boil rapidly for ten minutes, then gently for one hour. Add one medium-sized potato diced and a tomato, one and a half teaspoons of salt and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, a pinch of paprika and thyme. Cook one hour longer. Have the cover partially off the kettle during the entire time. Ten minutes before serving thicken with two tablespoons of flour mixed with one-fourth cup of cold milk.

BRAUNE MEHLSUPPE (BROWN FLOUR SOUP), No. 1

Heat a spoon of butter in a spider, add a spoon of flour, stir briskly, but do not let it get black; pour boiling water over it, add salt and caraway seeds.

BROWN FLOUR SOUP, No. 2

Heat two tablespoons of fresh butter in a spider, add four tablespoons of flour to it and brown to light golden brown, then add one quart water, stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper and a little nutmeg. Add one pint of milk, let boil up once or twice and serve at once.

BEER SOUP

To one pint of beer add one cup of water, let come to a boil, season with salt and cinnamon if desired. Beat two egg yolks well with a little sugar and flour mixed, add one cup of milk, stir until smooth, stir all together in the hot beer mixture, let come almost to the boiling point, fold in the beaten whites of the two eggs and serve at once with croutons. If desired for a meat meal equal parts of water and beer may be used instead of milk.

SOUR MILK SOUP

Let the milk stand until it jellies, but does not separate. Put it into a saucepan and let simmer one minute. Then thicken with two generous tablespoons of flour; blend to a smooth paste with butter. Strain through a fine sieve and serve in cups or soup plates and sprinkle the top with maple sugar.

POTATO SOUP

Boil and mash three or four potatoes, one tablespoon of butter, one-half tablespoon of flour, and one teaspoon of chopped onion, letting the onion cook in the butter a few minutes before adding the flour. When this is cooked add to it a pint of milk, making a thin, white sauce. Add this to the mashed potato and pass the whole through a strainer. Return it to the fire for a few minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with salt and pepper. Sprinkle on the soup chopped parsley and a few croutons.

*For Fleischig Soup.*—This soup may be made with fat instead of butter, and the water in which the potatoes have been boiled may be used instead of the milk; any left-over meat gravy will give the soup a rich flavor.

GREEN PEA PURÉE

Cook one quart of green peas until very tender. Then mash through colander. To this amount heat one quart of milk in double boiler. Add butter, salt and pepper to taste, and last the mashed green peas.

LEEK SOUP

Put a small piece of butter in saucepan and then six or eight leeks cut in small pieces. Keep turning for about five minutes so they will get brown; add water for amount desired; season with salt and pepper and put in piece of stale bread. Strain through the strainer. Put in croutons and serve with grated cheese.

RED WINE SOUP

Put on to boil one cup of good red wine and one-half cup of water, sweeten to taste, add three whole cloves and three small pieces of cinnamon bark, let boil ten minutes, and pour while boiling over the well-beaten yolk of one egg. Eat hot or cold. This quantity serves one person.

SPLIT PEA SOUP (MILCHIG)

Soak peas in lukewarm water over night. Use one quart of peas to one gallon of water. Boil about two hours with the following vegetables: a few potatoes, a large celery root, a little parsley and a little onion, a small carrot cut up in cubes and a small clove of garlic. When boiled down to half the quantity, press all through colander. If soup is too thin, take a tablespoon of flour blended with a little cold water in a saucepan and add to the peas already strained. Serve with croutons.

TOMATO SOUP WITH RICE

Brown slightly one minced onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one can of tomatoes or a quart of medium sized tomatoes cut in small pieces, season with salt, pepper, one tablespoon of sugar and a pinch of paprika. Simmer a half hour, strain and thicken with one tablespoon of flour moistened with cold water, add the strained tomatoes and one cup of boiled rice; let come to a boil and serve.

MILK AND CHEESE SOUP

Thicken three cups of milk with one-half tablespoon of flour and cook thoroughly in a double boiler, stirring very often. When ready to serve add one cup of grated cheese and season with salt and paprika.

BLACK BEAN SOUP

Soak one pint of beans over night, drain, add cold water and rinse thoroughly. Fry two tablespoons of chopped onion in two tablespoons of butter, put in with the beans, add two stalks of celery or a piece of celery root and two quarts of water. Cook slowly until the beans are soft, three or four hours, add more boiling water as it boils away; rub through a strainer, add one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, one-fourth teaspoon of mustard, a few grains of cayenne. Heat one tablespoon of butter in saucepan with two tablespoons of flour, then two-thirds cup and then the rest of the soup gradually; cut a lemon (removing seeds) and two hard-boiled eggs in slices and serve in the soup.

BARLEY AND VEGETABLE SOUP

Take a half cup of coarse barley and two quarts of water. Let boil for one hour and skim. Then add two onions, a bunch of carrots, parsley, two turnips, one green pepper and six tomatoes (all chopped fine). Add a few green peas, lima beans, two ears of corn cut from cob; pepper and salt to taste. Cook for one hour or more until done. Then add a small piece of butter, quarter teaspoon of sage and thyme, if you like, and if soup is too thick add more water.

BEER SOUP (PARVE)

Mix the beer with one-third water, boil with sugar and the grated crust of stale rye bread, add stick cinnamon and a little lemon juice. Pour over small pieces of zwieback (rusk). Some boil a handful of dried currants. When done add both currants and juice.

BEET SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Cut two small beets in strips, cover with water and let cook until tender, add citric acid (sour salt) and a little sugar to make sweet and sour, a little salt, and three-quarter cup of sour cream. Serve cold. Sweet cream may be used and while hot gradually poured over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, keeping the soup over the stove and stirring all the time until thick and smooth. Remove from stove and serve cold.

CHERRY SOUP

This soup is a summer soup and is to be eaten cold. Cook two tablespoons of sago in one cup of boiling water until tender, add more as water boils down. Put one quart of large red or black cherries, one cup of claret, one tablespoon of broken cinnamon, one-fourth cup of sugar, and one-half lemon sliced fine, up to boil and let boil fifteen minutes; add the cooked sago, let boil up and pour very gradually over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Serve cold. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, gooseberry, apple, plum or rhubarb soups are prepared the same way, each cooked until tender and sweetened to taste. The juice of lemon may be used instead of the wine.

FRUIT SOUP

Take two pounds of plums, cherries, or red currants and raspberries, which carefully pick and wash, and boil to a pulp with a pint of water. Let it slightly cool and then stir in the beaten yolk of an egg and a little sugar. Strain the soup, which should be served cold.

COLD SOUR SOUP

Take a pound of sour grass (sorrel), remove leaves, wash well, cut and squeeze well. Peel three potatoes, mince a bunch of young onions, salt and set on to boil, when boiling add the sour grass and let boil well, add two tablespoons of sugar, and a bit of sour salt, let simmer a bit, afterward add two well-beaten eggs. Do not boil this soup after adding the eggs. This soup is to be eaten cold. It can be kept for some time in jars.

*GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS*

NOODLES

Beat one large egg slightly with one-fourth teaspoon of salt, add enough flour to make a stiff dough; work it well for fifteen or twenty minutes, adding flour when necessary. When the dough is smooth place on slightly floured board and roll out very thin and set aside on a clean towel for an hour or more to dry. Fold in a tight roll and cut crosswise in fine threads. Toss them up lightly with fingers to separate well, and spread them on the board to dry. When thoroughly dry, put in a jar covered with cheese cloth for future use. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup, ten minutes before serving.

Noodles for vegetables or for puddings are made in the same way, but to each egg, one-half egg-shell full of cold water may be added. The strips are cut one-half inch wide.

PLAETCHEN

Take noodle dough, roll out thin in same manner as noodles, when dry cut in three-inch strips, place the strips on top of one another, then cut into one-half inch strips, crosswise, cut again to form one-half inch squares. Dry same as noodles. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup.

KREPLECH OR BUTTERFLIES

Roll noodle dough into pieces two and one-half inches square. Place on each one tablespoon of force-meat, then fold squares into three corned pockets, pressing edges well together. Drop in boiling soup or salted water and boil fifteen minutes.

FORCE-MEAT FOR KREPLECH

Chop one pound of beef, soup meat, cold veal, or take lamb chopped very fine, season with one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, ginger or nutmeg, one-half teaspoon of onion juice, mix with one egg. This force-meat may also be made into balls one-half inch in diameter, roll the balls in flour and cook them in the boiling soup, or fry them in fat.

BAKING POWDER DUMPLINGS

Sift one cup of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of baking powder, stir in scant one-half cup of milk or water and mix to a smooth batter. Drop one teaspoonful at a time in the boiling soup; cover kettle, let boil five minutes and serve at once.

CROUTONS

Cut stale bread into cubes, place in pan and brown in the oven; or butter the bread, cut into cubes and then brown the same way. Fry small cubes of stale bread in deep hot fat until brown or fry them in a little butter or fat in a hot spider until brown.

PFÄRVEL OR GRATED EGG FOR SOUP

Into the yolk of one egg stir enough flour until it is too stiff to work. Grate on coarse grater, and spread on board to dry. After soup is strained, put in and boil ten minutes before serving.

SPATZEN

Beat one egg well, add one-half teaspoon of salt, three-fourths cup of flour and one-third cup of water, stirring to a stiff, smooth batter. Drop by teaspoons into boiling soup ten minutes before serving.

EGG CUSTARD

Beat slightly the yolks of two eggs, add two tablespoons of milk and a few grains of salt. Pour into small buttered cup, place in pan of hot water and bake until firm; cool, remove from cup and cut in fancy shapes with French vegetable cutters.

GRATED IRISH POTATO

Peel, wash and grate one large Irish potato, or two medium-sized ones. Put it in a sieve and let hot water run over it until it is perfectly white. Have the white of one egg beaten to a very stiff froth, then stir in the potatoes and twenty minutes before serving add it to the boiling soup. Beat the yolk of one egg up in the soup tureen, and pour the hot soup over it, stirring carefully at first.

FARINA DUMPLINGS

Put in a double boiler one kitchen spoon of fresh butter, stir in one cup of milk. When it begins to boil stir in enough farina to thicken. Take off the stove and when cold add the yolks of two eggs and the stiffly-beaten whites, and a little salt and nutmeg and one-half cup of grated almonds if desired. Let cool, then make into little balls, and ten minutes before soup is to be served, drop in boiler and let boil up once or twice.

BOILED FLOUR BALLS WITH ALMONDS

Two yolks of eggs beaten very light, add a pinch of salt, pepper and finely-chopped parsley. Add six blanched almonds grated, enough sifted flour to make stiff batter, then add the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs and one-half teaspoon of baking powder. Drop by teaspoons in soup ten minutes before serving.

EINLAUF (EGG DROP)

Beat one egg, add one-eighth teaspoon of salt, three tablespoons of flour and one-fourth cup of water, stir until smooth. Pour slowly from a considerable height from the end of a spoon into the boiling soup. Cook two or three minutes and serve hot; add one teaspoon of chopped parsley to the soup.

EGG DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS

Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a smooth paste, add a little salt and grated nutmeg and one-half teaspoon of melted butter. Add the chopped whites of two eggs and a raw egg yolk to be able to mold the dough into little marbles, put in boiling soup one minute.

SCHWEM KLOESSE

Take three tablespoons of flour; stir with one egg and one-half cup of milk; pour this in a pan in which some butter was melted; stir until it loosens from the pan. When it is cold, add two more eggs and some salt, and shortly before needed form in little dumplings and put in boiling hot soup for five minutes.

DUMPLINGS FOR CREAM SOUPS

Scald some flour with milk or water, mix in a small piece of butter and salt, and boil until thick. When cool beat in yolk of an egg, if too stiff add the beaten white.

DROP DUMPLINGS

Break into a cup the whites of three eggs; fill the cup with milk; put it with a tablespoon of fresh butter and one cup of sifted flour in a spider and stir as it boils until it leaves the spider clean. Set aside until cool and stir in the yolks of three eggs. Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg, mix thoroughly and drop by teaspoons in the boiling soup ten minutes before ready to be served.

LIVER KLOESSE (DUMPLINGS)

Brown a small onion minced in one tablespoon of chicken fat, add a small liver chopped fine, chopped parsley, two tablespoons of flour. Season with nutmeg, red and white pepper, and add two eggs. Drop with teaspoon in the boiling soup, let cook ten minutes—serve.

FRITTER BEANS

Beat one egg until light, add three-fourths teaspoon of salt, one-half cup of flour and two tablespoons of water. Put through colander into deep hot fat and fry until brown. Drain and pour hot broth over them.

SPONGE DUMPLINGS

Separate three eggs, beat the yolks, and add one cup of soup stock, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, then add the beaten whites. Pour into a greased cup and place in pan of hot water and steam until firm; cool, remove from cup and cut into small dumplings with a teaspoon; pour the boiling soup over and just before serving add chopped parsley.

*FISH*

Fish that is not fresh is a very dangerous food and great care should be taken in selecting only fish fit to eat. If the fish is hard in body and the eyes are clear and bright, the gills a bright red and slimy, the flesh so firm that when pressed the marks of the fingers do not remain, the scales not dry or easy to loosen, then the fish is fresh.

In the refrigerator fish will taint butter and other foods if placed in the same compartment, so that in most cases it is better to lay it on a plate on a pan of ice, or wrap it in parchment or waxed paper and put it in the ice box.

Pickerel weighing more than five pounds should not be bought. If belly is thick it is likely that there is another fish inside. This smaller fish or any found in any other fish may not be used as food.

Salt fish should be soaked in fresh water, skin side up, to draw out the salt.

Each fish is at its best in its season, for instance:—

Bluefish, Butterfish, Sea, Striped Bass, Porgies, Sea-trout or Weakfish are best from April to September.

Fluke and Flounders are good all year round, but the fluke is better than the flounder in summer. Carp may be had all year, but care must be taken that it has not been in polluted water.

Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Mackerel, Redsnapper, Salmon, Whitefish are good all year.

In the different states of the United States there are laws governing the fishing for trout, so the season for that fish differs in the various states.

Black Bass, Perch, Pickerel and Pike are in season from June 1st to
December 1st.

Shad, April to June.

Smelts, November 10th to April.

TO CLEAN FISH

The fish may be cleaned at the market, but needs to be looked over carefully before cooking.

To remove the scales hold the fish by the tail and scrape firmly toward the head with a small sharp knife, held with the blade slanting toward the tail. Scrape slowly so that the scales will not fly, and rinse the knife frequently in cold water. If the fish is to be served whole, leave the head and tail on and trim the fins; otherwise remove them.

TO OPEN FISH

To open small fish cut under the gills and squeeze out the contents by pressing upward from the middle with the thumb and finger. To open large fish split them from the gills halfway down the body toward the tail; remove the entrails and scrape and clean, opening far enough to remove all the blood from the backbone, and wiping the inside thoroughly with a cloth wrung out of cold, salted water.

TO SKIN FISH

To skin a fish remove the fins along the back and cut off a narrow strip of the skin the entire length of the back. Then slip the knife under the skin that lies over the bony part of the gills and work slowly toward the tail. Do the same with the other side.

TO BONE FISH

To bone a fish clean it first and remove the head. Then, beginning at the tail, run a sharp knife under the flesh close to the bone, scraping the flesh away clean from the bone. Work up one side toward the head; then repeat the same process on the other side of the bone. Lift the bone carefully and pull out any small bones that may be left in the flesh.

BOILED FISH

To cook fish properly is very important, as no food, perhaps, is so insipid as fish if carelessly cooked. It must be well done and properly salted. A good rule to cook fish by is the following: Allow ten minutes to the first pound and five minutes for each additional pound; for example: boil a fish weighing five pounds thirty minutes. By pulling out a fin you may ascertain whether your fish is done; if it comes out easily and the meat is an opaque white, your fish has boiled long enough. Always set your fish on to boil in hot water, hot from the teakettle, adding salt and a dash of vinegar to keep the meat firm; an onion, a head of celery and parsley roots are always an acceptable flavor to any kind of boiled fish, no matter what kind of sauce you intend to serve with the fish. If you wish to serve the fish whole, tie it in a napkin and lay it on an old plate at the bottom of the kettle; if you have a regular "fish kettle" this is not necessary. In boiling fish avoid using too much water.

To thicken sauces, where flour is used, take a level teaspoon of flour to a cup of sauce, or the yolk of an egg to a cup of sauce.

BAKED FISH

Wash and dry the fish, rubbing inside and outside with salt; stuff with a bread stuffing and sew. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and place in a hot oven without water. As soon as it begins to brown add hot water and butter and baste every ten minutes. Bake until done, allowing an hour or more for a large fish, twenty or thirty minutes for a small one. Remove to a hot platter; draw out the strings; garnish with slices of lemon well covered with chopped parsley and serve with Hollandaise sauce.

BROILED FISH

For broiling, large fish should be split down the back and head and tail removed; salmon and halibut should be cut into one-inch slices, and smelts and other small fish left whole. Wipe the fish as dry as possible; sprinkle with salt and pepper and if the fish is dry and white brush the flesh side well with olive oil or butter. Put in a well-greased broiler, placing the thickest parts of the fish toward the middle or back of the broiler. Hold over a hot fire until the flesh side is nicely browned; then cook the skin side just long enough to make the skin crisp. Small fish require from ten to fifteen minutes, large fish from fifteen to twenty-five. To remove from the broiler loosen one side first, then the other, and lift carefully with a cake turner. Place on a platter; spread with butter and stand in the oven for a few minutes. Garnish with lemon and serve with Maître d'Hôtel butter.

JEWISH METHOD OF FRYING FISH

Scale the fish with the utmost thoroughness, remove the entrails, wash very thoroughly, and salt both inside and out. Then cut the fish into convenient slices, place them on a strainer and leave them there for an hour.

Meanwhile, place some flour in one plate and some beaten eggs in another, and heat a large frying-pan half full of oil or butter. Now wipe your fish slices thoroughly with a clean cloth, dip them first in flour and then in beaten eggs and finally fry until browned.

In frying fish very hot oil is required. If a crumb of bread will brown in twenty seconds the oil is hot enough. Put fish in a frying basket, then into the hot oil and cook five minutes. Drain on brown paper and arrange on platter. Do not stick knife or fork into fish while it is frying.

When the oil has cooled, strain it, pour it into a jar, cover it and it will be ready for use another time. It can be used again for fish only.

ANOTHER METHOD OF FRYING FISH

Thoroughly mix six ounces of flour with an ounce of olive oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt. Stir in one gill of tepid water and allow the whole to stand for half an hour in a cool place. Next beat the white of an egg stiff and stir into the batter. Dip each fish into the mixture, then roll in bread crumbs and cook in boiling oil. Butter must not be used. In frying fish do not allow the fish to remain in the spider after it has been nicely browned, for this absorbs the fat and destroys the delicate flavor. Be sure that the fish is done. This rule applies to fish that is sautéd.

SAUTÉD FISH

Clean fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in flour or cornmeal and cook in spider with just enough hot butter to prevent it sticking to the pan. Shake the pan occasionally. Brown well on under side, then turn and brown on the other side.

LEMON FISH

Boil three tablespoons of vinegar, one sliced onion, six whole peppers, salt, one piece of stick cinnamon, and a little water, then add sliced fish. When fish has boiled twenty minutes remove and arrange on platter. Strain the gravy and add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, juice of two lemons, sugar to taste and twelve grated almonds. Let all come to a boil, then pour over the fish, sprinkle finely chopped parsley on top and garnish with sliced lemons. Bluefish, mackerel, shad, salmon and porgies may be cooked with this sauce.

SWEET SOUR FISH

First cut up and salt the fish. Shad, trout or carp can be used. Put on fish kettle with one and one-half cups of water and one cup of vinegar, add one onion cut in round slices, one dozen raisins, one lemon cut in round slices, two bay leaves, six cloves. When this mixture begins to boil, lay in your fish and cook thoroughly. When done remove fish to platter.

Put liquor back on stove, add three tablespoons of granulated sugar (which has been melted and browned in a pie plate without water), then add two tablespoons of flour which has been rubbed smooth with a little water. Let boil well and pour over fish. If not sweet enough add more sugar. Serve cold.

SWEET AND SOUR FISH

Place the fish in strong salt water for one hour before cooking. Take three parts of water and one of vinegar, put in saucepan with some sliced onions and some raisins, and let boil until tender. Add brown sugar to taste, a piece of rye bread from which the crust has been removed, and some molasses. Boil the sauce, then place the fish in and let all cook twenty minutes. When done, arrange on platter with sliced lemon and chopped parsley.

SWEET SOUR FISH WITH WINE

Put on to boil in fish kettle, one glass water, one-half glass vinegar, two tablespoons of brown sugar, one-half dozen cloves, one-half teaspoon of ground cinnamon, one onion cut in round slices. Boil thoroughly, then strain and add to it one lemon cut in round slices, one goblet of red wine, one dozen raisins, one tablespoon of pounded almonds; put on stove again, and when it comes to a boil, add fish that has been cut up and salted. Cook until done, remove fish to a platter, and to the liquor add a small piece Leb-kuchen or ginger cake, and stir in the well-beaten yolks of four eggs; stir carefully or it will curdle. If not sweet enough add more sugar. Pour over fish. Shad or trout is the best fish to use.

FISH STOCK

Put in a saucepan a tablespoon of butter or butter substitute, add a tablespoon each of chopped onion, carrot and turnip. Fry them without browning, then add fish-bones, head, and trimmings, a stalk of celery, sprigs of parsley and of thyme, a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice of lemon. Cover with water and let them simmer for an hour or more. Season with salt and pepper and strain.

PIKE WITH EGG SAUCE

Clean the fish thoroughly, and wash it in hot water, wipe dry and salt inside and out. If you heat the salt it will penetrate through the meat of the fish in less time. Take a kettle, lay in it a piece of butter about the size of an egg; cut up an onion, some celery root, parsley root and a few slices of lemon, lay the fish in, either whole or cut up in slices; boil in enough water to just cover the fish, and add more salt if required, add a dozen whole peppers, black or white; season with ground white pepper. Let the fish boil quickly. In the meantime beat up the yolks of two eggs, and pound a dozen almonds to a paste, add to the beaten yolks, together with a tablespoon of cold water. When done remove the fish to a large platter; but to ascertain whether the fish has cooked long enough, take hold of the fins, if they come out readily your fish has cooked enough. Strain the sauce through a sieve, taking out the slices of lemon and with them garnish the top of the fish; add the strained sauce to the beaten eggs, stirring constantly as you do so; then return the sauce to the kettle, and stir until it boils, remove quickly and pour it over the fish. When it is cold garnish with curly parsley.

GEFILLTE FISCH

Prepare trout, pickerel or pike in the following manner: After the fish has been scaled and thoroughly cleaned, remove all the meat that adheres to the skin, being careful not to injure the skin; take out all the meat from head to tail, cut open along the backbone, removing it also; but do not disfigure the head and tail; chop the meat in a chopping bowl, then heat about a quarter of a pound of butter in a spider, add two tablespoons chopped parsley, and some soaked white bread; remove from the fire and add an onion grated, salt, pepper, pounded almonds, the yolks of two eggs, also a very little nutmeg grated. Mix all thoroughly and fill the skin until it looks natural. Boil in salt water, containing a piece of butter, celery root, parsley and an onion; when done remove from the fire and lay on a platter. The fish should be cooked for one and one-quarter hours, or until done. Thicken the sauce with yolks of two eggs, adding a few slices of lemon.

This fish may be baked but must be rolled in flour and dotted with bits of butter.

RUSSIAN FISH CAKES

Take three pounds of fish (weakfish or carp, pickerel or haddock or whitefish, any fat fish with a fish poor in it). Remove skin and bones from the fish and chop flesh very fine, add a good-sized onion, minced or grated, make a depression in the centre of the chopped fish and add three-quarters cup of water, one-half cup of soft bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, one-fourth cup of sugar, two egg whites and two tablespoons of melted butter. Chop until very smooth and form into cakes containing a generous tablespoonful each. Put the bones and skins into a saucepan with an onion sliced and a tablespoon of butter and add the fish cakes. Cover with water and simmer for one and a quarter hours. Then remove the cakes and strain off the gravy into the two egg yolks which have been slightly beaten together with one teaspoon of sugar; stir over the heat until thickened, but do not boil it. Pour over fish cakes and serve either hot or cold. The butter and sugar may be omitted if so desired.

GEFILLTE FISCH WITH EGG SAUCE

Cut a five-pound haddock into four-inch slices. Cut a big hole into each slice, preserving the backbone and skin. Put this meat, cut from the fish, into a wooden tray, add to it four large onions and a sprig of parsley. Chop until very fine, then add two eggs, a dash of pepper and cinnamon, a pinch of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar. To this add enough cracker dust to stiffen it. Put this filling into the holes cut in the fish.

Take a saucepan, put in one sliced onion, a sprig of parsley, a small sliced carrot, a dash of pepper, and a pinch of salt. Put the fish into the saucepan, cover with cold water, and let it boil slowly for one hour. At the end of the hour take out the fish, and put on a platter. Preserve the water or gravy in which the fish was boiled for the sauce.

Egg sauce for fish: Beat the yokes of two eggs thoroughly. Into the beaten yolks slowly pour the gravy in which the fish was boiled, stirring constantly. Stand this on the back of the stove to boil for five minutes, stirring constantly so as to prevent burning.

FILLED FISH—TURKISH STYLE

No. 1. Bone some fat fish, boil in salt and water; when done take a little of the fish soup, one egg, beat until light, add gradually the juice of one-half lemon.

FRITADA

No. 2. Steam the fish and bone. Take four good-sized tomatoes, cut them up, add chopped parsley, scallions or leeks cut in small pieces, a little celery, salt and pepper to taste and four eggs well-beaten; mix all these ingredients very well with the boned fish, form in omelet shape. Place in oven in pan greased with olive oil and bake until well browned.

HECHT (PICKEREL)

This fish is best prepared "scharf." Clean your fish thoroughly and salt the day previous; wrap it in a clean towel and lay it on ice until wanted. Line a kettle with celery and parsley roots; cut up an onion, add a lump of fresh butter, and pack the fish in the kettle, head first, either whole or cut up; sprinkle a little salt and white pepper over all and add about a dozen peppercorns; put on enough water to just cover, and add a whole lemon cut in slices. Do not let the fish boil quickly. Add about a dozen pounded almonds. By this time the fish will be ready to turn, then beat up the yolks of two eggs in a bowl, to be added to the sauce after the fish is boiled. Try the fish with a fork and if the meat loosens readily it is done. Take up each peace carefully, if it has been cut up, and arrange on a large platter, head first and so on, make the fish appear whole, and garnish with the slices of lemon and sprigs of parsley; then mince up some parsley and garnish top of the fish, around the lemon slices. Thicken the gravy by adding the beaten yolks, add a tablespoon of cold water to the yolks before adding to the boiling sauce; stir, remove from the fire at once and pour over the fish. If you prefer the sauce strained, then strain before adding the yolks of the eggs and almonds.

Haddock, sea-bass, pike, perch, weakfish and porgies may be cooked "scharf."

FRESH COD OR STRIPED BASS

Cut into pieces ready to serve, after which salt them for an hour. Into the fish kettle put a quantity of water, large onion sliced, carrot also sliced, turnip, celery root, and boil fifteen minutes. Add the fish and two tablespoons of butter, tiny piece of cinnamon, pepper to taste. Boil fifteen minutes longer, then add teaspoon of flour mixed with cold water. Boil up well and add salt or pepper if needed. Remove fish and arrange on platter. Beat yolks of two eggs with a tablespoon of cold water; after straining out vegetables, add the hot gravy in which fish was boiled. Return to fire and stir till thick enough. Garnish with chopped parsley.

AHILADO SAUCE (TURKISH)

Mix some tomato sauce, olive oil, parsley, salt and pepper. Boil sauce first, and add boiled sea-bass or flounders.

BOILED TROUT

Cut up a celery root, one onion, and a sprig of parsley, tie the fish in a napkin and lay it on this bed of roots; pour in enough water to cover and add a dash of vinegar—the vinegar keeps the fish firm—then boil over a quick fire and add more salt to the water in which the fish has been boiled. Lay your fish on a hot platter and prepare the following sauce: set a cup of sweet cream in a kettle, heat it, add a tablespoon of fresh butter, salt and pepper, and thicken with a tablespoon of flour which has been wet with a little cold milk, stir this paste into the cream and boil about one minute, stirring constantly; pour over the fish. Boil two eggs, and while they are boiling, blanch about a dozen or more almonds and stick them into the fish, points up; cover the eggs with cold water, peel them, separate the whites from the yolks, chop each separately; garnish the fish, first with a row of chopped yolks, then whites, until all is used: lay chopped parsley all around the platter.

Fresh cod and striped bass may be cooked in this way.

FISH PIQUANT

Cook any large fish in salt water—salmon is particularly nice prepared in this style—add one cup of vinegar, onions, celery root and parsley. When the fish is cooked enough, remove it from the fire, kettle and all—letting the fish remain in its sauce until the following sauce is prepared:—

Take the yolks of two eggs, one-half teaspoon of Colman's mustard (dry), salt, pepper, a tablespoon of butter, a tablespoon of vinegar, one-half glass water and some fish gravy. Boil in double boiler until thick. Take some parsley, green onions, capers, shallots and one large vinegar pickle and some astragon, chop all up very fine; chop up the hard-boiled whites separately and then add the sauce; mix all this together thoroughly, then taste to see if seasoned to suit.

SALMON CUTLETS

Take the remains of some boiled salmon or a small can of salmon, three tablespoons of mashed potatoes, one of bread crumbs, one of chopped parsley, a little flour, mace, an egg, pepper and salt.

Mix the ingredients well together, bind with the egg, let stand an hour, then form into little flat cutlets, roll in bread crumbs and fry in hot oil, drain on paper and send to table garnished with parsley.

PAPRIKA CARP

Slice and salt three pounds of carp. Steam four sliced onions with one cup of water, to which has been added one teaspoon of paprika, add the sliced carp and cook very slowly until the fish is done.

REDSNAPPER WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Scale thoroughly, salt and pepper inside and out, and lay upon ice, wrapped in a clean cloth overnight. When ready to cook cut up the celery or parsley root, or both, two large onions, a carrot or two, and let this come to a boil in about one quart of water, then lay in the fish, whole or in pieces; let the water almost cover the fish; add a lump of fresh butter and three or four tomatoes (out of season you may use canned tomatoes, say three or four large spoonfuls); let the fish boil half an hour, turning it occasionally. Try it by taking hold of the fins, if they come out readily, the fish is done. Take it up carefully; lay on a large platter and strain the sauce; let it boil, thicken it with the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, adding the sauce gradually to the eggs and stirring constantly. Garnish the fish with chopped parsley, letting a quantity mix with the sauce.

Redsnapper is also very good fried.

BONED SMELTS, SAUTÉD

Take a dozen raw smelts; split them from the back lengthwise, leaving the head and tail intact; take out the large center bone without opening the stomach and season with salt. Put four ounces of butter into a saucepan, and when quite hot place the smelts in it, so that the side which was cut open is underneath. When they have attained a nice color, turn them over and finish cooking. When ready, arrange them on a very hot dish, pour the butter in which they were cooked over them, squeeze a little lemon on them, then add over all some finely chopped green parsley. Serve.

FISH WITH HORSERADISH SAUCE

Clean three pounds of fresh salmon, bone, salt and let stand several hours. Place in fish kettle with boiling salt water (one teaspoon of salt to one quart of water), and let boil one-half hour or until well cooked. Lift out carefully, place on hot platter and pour over one-fourth cup of melted butter and sprinkle well with one tablespoon of parsley. Serve in a separate bowl the following sauce; a large spoonful with each portion of fish: Peel one-half pound of horseradish root, grate and mix well with one pint of cream beaten stiff. The fish must be hot and the sauce cold.

FISH WITH SAUERKRAUT

Fry an onion in butter (or vegetable oil), add sauerkraut and cook. Boil the fish in salt water, then bone and shred. Fry two minced onions in butter or oil, put them into the kettle with the fish, add two egg yolks, butter or oil, a little pepper and a tablespoon of breadcrumbs; steam for half hour and serve with the kraut.

FILLET OF SOLE À LA MOUQUIN

Thoroughly wash and pick over a pound of spinach, put it over the fire with no more water than clings to the leaves and cook for ten minutes; at the end of that time drain the spinach and chop it fine. Have ready thin fillets of flounder, halibut, or whitefish. Cover them with acidulated warm water—a slice of lemon in the water is all that is wanted, and add a slice of onion, a sprig of parsley and a bit of bay leaf. Simmer for ten minutes and drain. Put the minced spinach into the bottom of the buttered baking-dish, arrange the fillets on it, cover with a cream sauce to which a tablespoon of grated cheese has been added, and brown in the oven.

FILLET DE SOLE À LA CREOLE

Fillet some large flounders, and have fishman send you all the bones; put the bones on to boil; wash, dry, and season the fillets; roll them (putting in some bits of butter), and fasten each one with a wooden toothpick. Strain the water from the bones; thicken with a little brown flour and onion; add to this one-half can of tomatoes, a little cayenne pepper, salt, and chopped green peppers. Let this sauce simmer for a couple of hours (this need not be strained); put the fillets in a casserole, and pour some of this sauce over them, and put in the oven for about fifteen minutes. Then pour over the rest of the tomato sauce, sprinkle a little chopped parsley and serve. One can add a few mushrooms to the sauce. The mushrooms must be fried in butter before being added to the sauce.

BAKED BLACK BASS

After having carefully cleaned, salt well and lay it in the baking-pan with a small cup of water, and strew flakes of butter on top, also salt, pepper and a little chopped parsley. Bake about one hour, basting often until brown. Serve on a heated platter; garnish with parsley and lemon and make a sauce by adding a glass of sherry, a little catsup and thicken with a teaspoon of flour, adding this to fish gravy. Serve potatoes with fish, boiled in the usual way, making a sauce of two tablespoons of butter. Add a bunch of parsley chopped very fine, salt and pepper to taste, a small cup of sweet cream thickened with a tablespoon of flour. Pour over potatoes.

BAKED FLOUNDERS

Clean, wipe dry, add salt and pepper and lay them in a pan; put flakes of butter on top, an onion cut up, some minced celery and a few bread crumbs. A cup of hot water put into the pan will prevent burning. Baste often; bake until brown.

BAKED BASS À LA WELLINGTON

Remove the scales and clean. Do not remove the head, tail, or fins. Put into a double boiler one tablespoon of butter, two cups of stale bread crumbs, one tablespoon of chopped onion, one teaspoon of chopped parsley, two teaspoons of chopped capers, one-fourth cup of sherry. Heat all the above ingredients, season with paprika and salt, and stuff the bass with the mixture. Sew up the fish, put into a hot oven, bake and baste with sherry wine and butter.

A fish weighing four or five pounds is required for the above recipe.

BAKED FISH—TURKISH STYLE

Take perch and stuff with steamed onion to which has been added one well-beaten egg, two tomatoes cut up in small pieces, some bread crumbs, chopped parsley or celery, salt and pepper to taste. Bake until the fish is nicely browned.

SAUCE AGRISTOGA

Fry any fish in oil, and serve the following:—

Beat very well two whole eggs, add two tablespoons of flour diluted with cold water, add gradually the juice of one lemon.

ZUEMIMO SAUCE

Heat one teaspoon of oil, add one tablespoon of flour, add slowly one-half cup of vinegar diluted with water; season with salt and sugar. If no other fish can be procured, salt herring may be used.

SHAD ROE

Parboil the roe in salted water ten minutes. Drain; season with salt, pepper and melted butter; form into balls, roll in beaten egg and cracker crumbs and fry in hot oil or any butter substitute.

The roe can be baked and served with tomato sauce.

BAKED SHAD

Clean and split a three-pound shad. Place in a buttered dripping pan. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush with melted butter and bake in a hot oven thirty minutes.

SCALLOPED FISH ROE

Boil three large roes in water with a little vinegar for ten minutes. Plunge into cold water; wipe the roe dry. Mash the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs into a cup of melted butter, teaspoon of anchovy paste, tablespoon of chopped parsley, juice of half a lemon, salt and pepper to taste. Add a cup of bread crumbs and then mix in lightly the roe that has been broken into pieces. Put all in baking dish, cover with bread crumbs and flakes of butter, and brown in oven.

BAKED MACKEREL

Split fish, clean, and remove head and tail. Put in buttered pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper and dot over with butter (allowing one tablespoon to a medium-sized fish), pour over two-thirds of a cup of milk. Bake twenty-five minutes in a hot oven.

STUFFED HERRING

Make a dressing of two tablespoons of bread crumbs, one tablespoon of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of butter, juice of one-half lemon, and pepper and salt to taste. Add enough hot water to make soft. Fill the herrings, roll up, tie in shape. Cover with greased paper and bake ten to fifteen minutes.

FISH WITH GARLIC

Clean, salt fish one half hour, wash and dry with a clean cloth; cut garlic very thin, rub over fish; place in oven to bake; bake until odor of garlic has disappeared; then let fish cool.

BAKED CHOPPED HERRING

Soak herring one hour in water and then one and a half in sweet milk, skin, bone and chop; cut up a medium-sized onion, fry in butter until golden brown, add a cup of cream, two egg yolks and one-fourth cup of white bread crumbs, then put in a little more cream. Butter pan, sprinkle with crumbs or cracker dust, then put in herring, pepper slightly. Bake in moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.

MARINIRTE (PICKLED) HERRING

Take new Holland herring, remove the heads and scales, wash well, open them and take out the milch and lay the herring and milch in milk or water over night. Next day lay the herring in a stone jar with alternate layers of onions cut up, also lemon cut in slices, a few cloves, whole peppers and a few bay leaves, some capers and whole mustard seed. Take the milch and rub it through a hair sieve, the more of them you have the better for the sauce; stir in a spoon of brown sugar and vinegar and pour it over the herring.

SALT HERRING

Soak salt herring over night in cold water, that the salt may be drawn out. Drain and serve with boiled potatoes, or bone and place in kettle of cold water, let come to a boil and let simmer a few minutes until tender, drain and pour melted butter over them and serve hot with boiled or fried potatoes.

BROILED SALT MACKEREL

Freshen the fish by soaking it over night in cold water, with the skin uppermost. Drain and wipe dry, remove the head and tail; place it upon a butter broiler, and slowly broil to a light brown. Place upon a hot dish, add pepper, bits of butter, a sprinkling of parsley and a little lemon juice.

BOILED SALT MACKEREL

Soak mackerel over night in cold water, with the skin side up, that the salt may be drawn out, change the water often, and less time is required. Drain. Place mackerel in shallow kettle, pour water over to cover and boil ten to fifteen minutes or until flesh separates from the bone. Remove to platter and pour hot, melted butter over and serve with hot potatoes.

They may also be boiled and served with a White Sauce.

MARINIRTE FISH

Take pickerel, pike or any fish that is not fat, cut into two-inch slices, wash well, salt and set aside in a cool place for a few hours. When ready to cook, wash slightly so as not to remove all salt from fish. Take heads and set up to boil with a whole onion for twenty-five minutes, then add the other pieces and two cups of vinegar, one cup of water, four bay leaves and twelve allspice, a little pepper and ginger. Cook for thirty-five minutes longer. Taste fish, add a little water or a little more vinegar to taste. Then remove fish carefully so as not to break the pieces and let cool. Strain the sauce, return fish to same, adding a few bay leaves and allspice. Set in a cool place until sauce forms a jelly around the fish. Can be kept covered and in a cool place for some time.

SOUSED HERRING

Split and half three herrings, roll and tie them up. Place them in a pie plate, pour over them a cup of vinegar, add whole peppers, salt, cloves to taste and two bay leaves. Bake in a slow oven until soft (about twenty minutes).

SALMON LOAF

Blend together one can of salmon, one cup of grated bread crumbs, two beaten eggs, one cup of milk, one teaspoon of lemon juice, one-half teaspoon of paprika, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of chopped parsley and one tablespoon of onion juice. Place in a greased baking dish. Sprinkle top with thin layer of bread crumbs. Bake in hot oven for thirty minutes or until the crumbs that cover the dish are browned. Serve with a white sauce.

CREAM SALMON

Remove salmon from the can, place it in a colander and wash under running water or scald with boiling water. Break into small pieces, stir into one cup of hot cream sauce; bring all to a boil and serve in patty cups or on toasted bread or crackers.

PICKLE FOR SALMON

Take equal parts of vinegar, white wine and water. Boil these with a little mace, a clove or two, a bit of ginger root, one or two whole peppers and some grated horseradish. Take out the last named ingredient when sufficiently boiled, and pour the pickle over the salmon, previously boiled in strong salt and water.

KEDGEREE

Cut up in small pieces about a pound of any kind of cooked fish except herring. Boil two eggs hard and chop up. Take one cup of rice and boil in the following manner:—After washing it well and putting it on in boiling water, with a little salt, let it boil for ten minutes, drain it almost dry and let it steam with the lid closely shut for ten minutes longer without stirring. Take a clean pot and put in the fish, eggs, rice, a good dessertspoon of butter, and pepper and salt to taste. Stir over the fire until quite hot. Press into a mould and turn it out at once and serve.

SWISS CREAMED FISH

Mix smoothly in one cup of cold water a teaspoon of flour. Stir it into one cup of boiling milk and when thick and smooth add the meat of any cold fish, picked free from skin and bones. Season with salt, pepper and a tablespoon of butter. If the cream is desired to be extra rich one well-beaten egg may be added one minute before removing from the fire. Serve hot. A pinch of cayenne or a saltspoon of paprika is relished by many.

COD FISH BALLS

Put the fish to soak over night in lukewarm water. Change again in the morning and wash off all the salt. Cut into pieces and boil about fifteen minutes, pour off this water and put on to boil again with boiling water. Boil twenty minutes this time, drain off every bit of water, put on a platter to cool and pick to pieces as fine as possible, removing every bit of skin and bone. When this is done, add an equal quantity of mashed potatoes, a tablespoon of butter, a very little salt and pepper, beat up one egg and a little milk, if necessary, mix with a fork. Flour your hands well and form into biscuit-shaped balls. Fry in hot oil.

FINNAN HADDIE

Parboil ten minutes and then broil like fresh fish.

To bake, place the fish in a pan, add one cup of milk and one cup of water; cover. Cook ten minutes in hot oven. Remove cover, drain, spread with butter and season with pepper.

FINNAN HADDIE AND MACARONI

Break up and cook until tender about a package of macaroni. Pick up the finnan haddie until you have about three-quarters as much as you have macaroni. Mix in a greased baking-dish and pour over a drawn butter sauce, made with cornstarch or with any good milk or cream dressing, then cover with bread or cracker crumbs or leave plain to brown in oven. Bake from twenty to thirty minutes.

SCALLOPED FISH, No. 1

Line a buttered baking-dish with cold flaked fish. Sprinkle with salt and pepper; add a layer of cold cooked rice, dot with butter; repeat and cover with cracker or bread crumbs. Bake fifteen to twenty minutes.

SCALLOPED FISH, No. 2

Butter a dish, place in a layer of cold cooked fish, sprinkle with bread crumbs, parsley, salt, butter and pepper; repeat. Cover with white sauce, using one tablespoon of flour to two tablespoons of butter and one cup of milk. Sprinkle top with buttered bread crumbs and bake.

*SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES*

These sauces are made by combining butter and flour and thinning with water or other liquid. A sauce should never be thickened by adding a mixture of flour and water, as in that case the flour is seldom well cooked; or by adding flour alone, as this way is certain to cause lumps. The flour should be allowed to cook before the liquid is added.

All sauces containing butter and milk should be cooked in a double boiler.

If so desired, any neutral oil—that is, vegetable or nut oil—may be substituted for the butter called for in the recipe.

Care in preparation of a sauce is of as much importance as is the preparation of the dish the sauce garnishes.

DRAWN BUTTER SAUCE

Melt two tablespoons of butter and stir in two tablespoons of flour. Add carefully one cup of boiling water, then season with one-half teaspoon of salt and a dash of pepper and paprika.

Many sauces are made with drawn butter as a foundation. For caper sauce add three tablespoons of capers.

For egg sauce add one egg, hard-boiled and chopped fine.

BEARNAISE SAUCE

There are several ways of making Bearnaise sauce. This is one very simple rule: Bring to the boil two tablespoons each of vinegar and water. Simmer in it for ten minutes a slice of onion. Take out the onion and add the yolks of three eggs beaten very light. Take from the fire, add salt and pepper to season, and four tablespoons of butter beaten to a cream, and added slowly.

*Quick Bearnaise Sauce.*—Beat the yolks of four eggs with four tablespoons of oil and four of water. Add a cup of boiling water and cook slowly until thick and smooth. Take from the fire, and add minced onion, capers, olives, pickles, and parsley and a little tarragon vinegar.

CUCUMBER SAUCE

Pare two large cucumbers; remove seeds, if large; chop fine and squeeze dry. Season with salt, vinegar, paprika and add one-half cup of cream.

SAUCE HOLLANDAISE

Mix one tablespoon of butter and one of flour in a saucepan and add gradually half a pint of boiling water. Stir until it just reaches the boiling point; take from the fire and add the yolks of two eggs. Into another saucepan put a slice of onion, a bay leaf, and a clove of garlic; add four tablespoons of vinegar, and stand this over the fire until the vinegar is reduced one-half. Turn this into the sauce, stir for a moment; strain through a fine sieve; add half a teaspoon of salt and serve. This sauce may be varied by adding lemon juice instead of vinegar, or by using the water in which the fish was boiled. It is one of the daintiest of all sauces.

MUSTARD SAUCE

Mix two tablespoons of vinegar and one of mustard, one teaspoon of oil or butter melted, pepper and salt to taste. Add this to two hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, with a small onion and about the same quantity of parsley as eggs; and mix all well together.

MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL BUTTER

Work into one-half cup of butter all the lemon juice it will take, and add a teaspoon of minced parsley.

PICKLE SAUCE

Cream two tablespoons of butter, add one teaspoon of salt and one tablespoon of chopped pickle. A speck of red pepper may be added.

SARDELLEN, OR HERRING SAUCE

Brown a spoon of flour in heated fat, add a quantity of hot fish stock and a few sardellen chopped fine, which you have previously washed in cold water, also a finely-chopped onion. Let this boil a few minutes, add a little vinegar and sugar; strain this sauce through a wire sieve and add a few capers and a wineglass of white wine and let it boil up once again and thicken with the yolk of one egg.

SAUCE VINAIGRETTE

Rub the mixing bowl with a clove of garlic, add one-half teaspoon of salt, dash of white pepper, and a teaspoon of cold water or a bit of ice, then four tablespoons of oil. Mix until the salt is dissolved, remove the ice and add ten drops of tabasco sauce, two tablespoons tarragon vinegar, one tablespoon grated onion, one tablespoon chopped parsley and one chopped gherkin.

ANCHOVY SAUCE

Mix six tablespoons of melted butter and one and one-half teaspoons anchovy paste, place in double boiler and allow to boil for about six minutes. Flavor with lemon juice.

SAUCE PIQUANTE

To one pint of drawn butter add one tablespoon each of vinegar and lemon juice and two tablespoons each of chopped capers, pickles, and olives, one-half teaspoon onion juice, a few grains cayenne pepper.

SAUCE TARTARE

Add to a half pint of well-made mayonnaise dressing two olives, one gherkin and one small onion, chopped fine. Chop sufficient parsley to make a tablespoonful, crush it in a bowl and add it first to the mayonnaise. Stir in at least a tablespoon of drained capers and serve with fried or broiled fish.

WHITE SAUCE (FOR VEGETABLES)

Place two tablespoons of butter in a saucepan; stir until melted: add two tablespoons of flour mixed with one-fourth of a teaspoon of salt and a few grains of pepper. Stir until smooth. Add one cup of milk gradually and continue to stir until well mixed and thick. Chopped parsley may be added. Used for creamed vegetables—potatoes, celery, onion, peas, etc.

CREAM MUSTARD SAUCE

Make white sauce as directed above. Mix one tablespoon of mustard with a teaspoon of cold water and stir into the sauce about two minutes before serving. The quantity of mustard may be increased or diminished, as one may desire the flavor strong or mild.

CURRY SAUCE

Use one teaspoon of curry in the flour while making white sauce.

SPANISH SAUCE

Cook one onion and green pepper chopped fine in hot butter; add four tablespoons of flour, stir until smooth. Add two cups of strained tomatoes. Season with salt and pepper.

TOMATO SAUCE

Brown one tablespoon butter with one minced onion, then add one tablespoon of flour. When brown stir in two cups of tomatoes which have previously been cooked and strained, add also one teaspoon of sugar, a pinch of salt, pepper, and red pepper, also one tablespoon of vinegar and one tablespoon of tomato catsup.

*SAUCES FOR MEATS*

APPLE SAUCE

Pare and quarter tart apples. Put them in a saucepan with just enough water to keep them from burning; bring to a boil quickly and cook until the pieces are soft. Then press through a colander and add four tablespoons of sugar (or less) to each pint of apples.

If desired, cinnamon or grated nutmeg may be sprinkled over the top after the apple sauce is in the serving dish, or a little stick cinnamon or lemon peel may be cooked with the apples. Serve with goose.

BROWN SAUCE

Fry one tablespoon chopped onion in one tablespoon fat. Add one tablespoon of flour, one cup of soup stock, one teaspoon lemon juice, salt and pepper to taste. Strain before serving.

The following sauces can be made by using brown sauce as a foundation:

*Mushroom Sauce.*—Add one-half cup mushrooms.

*Olive Sauce.*—Add a dozen olives, chopped fine.

*Wine Sauce.*—Add one-half cup wine and one tablespoon currant jelly.
Thicken with flour.

CRANBERRY SAUCE

To one pint of cranberries take one and one-quarter cups of water.

Put the cranberries on with the water and cook until soft; strain through a cloth; weigh and add three-fourths of a pound of sugar to every pint of juice. Cook ten minutes; pour into molds and set aside to cool. Serve with poultry, game or mutton.

STEWED CRANBERRIES

Boil together one and one-half cups of sugar and one cup of water for seven minutes, then add three cups of cranberries, well washed and picked, and cook until the berries burst. Serve the same as cranberry sauce.

SAUCE BORDELAISE

Nice for broiled steaks. Take one medium-sized onion, chopped very fine and browned in fat; add a cup of strong beef gravy and a cup of claret or white wine; add pepper, salt and a trifle of finely-chopped parsley; allow this to simmer and thicken with a little browned flour.

CARAWAY, OR KIMMEL SAUCE

Heat a tablespoon drippings in a spider; add a little flour; stir smooth with a cup of soup stock, added at once, and half a teaspoon of caraway seeds.

ONION SAUCE

Stew some finely-chopped onions in fat; you may add half a clove of garlic, cut extremely fine; brown a very little flour in this, season with salt and pepper and add enough soup stock to thin it.

LEMON SAUCE

Boil some soup stock with a few slices of lemon, a little sugar and grated nutmeg; add chopped parsley; thicken with a teaspoon of flour or yolk of egg. Mostly used for stewed poultry.

MINT SAUCE

Chop some mint fine; boil half a cup of vinegar with one tablespoon of sugar; throw in the mint and boil up once; pour in a sauceboat and cool off a little before serving.

RAISIN SAUCE

Brown some fat in a spider, stir in a tablespoon of flour; stir until it becomes a smooth paste; then add hot soup, stirring constantly; add a handful of raisins, some pounded almonds, a few slices of lemon, also a tablespoon of vinegar; brown sugar to taste: flavor with a few cloves and cinnamon, and if you choose to do so, grate in part of a stick of horseradish and the crust of a rye loaf. Very nice for fat beef.

HORSERADISH SAUCE, No. 1

Grate a good-sized stick of horseradish; take some soup stock and a tablespoon of fat, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated stale bread, a few pounded almonds. Let all boil up and then add the meat.

HORSERADISH SAUCE, No. 2

Heat one tablespoon of fat in a frying-pan, when hot cut up one-quarter of an onion in it, and fry light brown, then brown one tablespoon cracker meal or flour and add two tablespoons of grated horseradish; let this brown a bit, then add some soup stock, one tablespoon of brown sugar, two cloves, two bay leaves, salt, pepper and two tablespoons of vinegar. Let cook a few minutes then add one more tablespoon of horseradish and if necessary a little more sugar or vinegar. Lay the meat in this sauce and cover on back of stove until ready to serve. If gas stove is used, place over the simmering flame.

KNOBLAUCH SAUCE (GARLIC)

Heat a tablespoon of drippings, either of meat or goose in a frying-pan; cut up one or two cloves of garlic very fine and let it brown slightly in the heated fat; add a tablespoon of flour, a cup of soup stock or warm water, salt, pepper to taste.

MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL SAUCE

Take a heaping tablespoon of drippings or goose-fat, heat it in a spider, stir two teaspoons of flour into this, then add gradually and carefully a small cup of hot soup or water, the former is preferable; add some chopped parsley, also the juice of a lemon; salt and pepper; stir up well. May be used either with roast or boiled meats.

*FRYING*

PREPARED BREAD CRUMBS FOR FRYING

All scraps of bread should be saved for crumbs, the crusts being separated from the white part, then dried, rolled, and sifted, and put away until needed in a covered glass jar.

The brown crumbs are good for the first coating, the white ones for the outside, as they give better color. Cracker crumbs give a smooth surface, but for most things bread crumbs are preferable.

For meats a little salt and pepper, and for sweet articles, a little sugar, should be mixed with the crumbs. Crumbs left on the board should be dried, sifted, and kept to be used again.

FRYING

Frying is cooking in very hot fat or oil, and the secret of success is to have the fat hot enough to harden the outer surface of the article to be fried immediately and deep enough to cover these articles of food. As the fat or oil can be saved and used many times, the use of a large quantity is not extravagant.

To fry easily one must have, in addition to the deep, straight-sided frying-pan, a frying-basket, made from galvanized wire, with a side handle. The bale handles are apt to become heated, and in looking for something to lift them, the foods are over-fried. The frying-pan must be at least six inches deep with a flat bottom; iron, granite ware or copper may be used, the first two are preferable. There must be sufficient fat to wholly cover the articles fried, but the pan must not be too full, or there is danger of overflow when heavy articles are put in. After each frying, drain the fat or oil, put it into a receptacle kept for the purpose, and use it over and over again as long as it lasts. As the quantity begins to lessen, add sufficient fresh fat or oil to keep up the amount.

Always put the fat or oil in the frying-pan before you stand it over the fire.

Wait until it is properly heated before putting in the articles to be fried.

Fry a few articles at a time. Too many will cool the fat or oil below the point of proper frying and they will absorb grease and be unpalatable.

Put articles to be fried in the wire frying-basket and lower into the boiling hot fat or oil. Test the fat by lowering a piece of stale bread into it, if the bread browns in thirty seconds the fat is sufficiently hot.

Fry croquettes a light brown; drain over the fat, lift the frying-basket from the hot fat to a round plate, remove the articles from the basket quickly to brown paper, drain a moment and serve.

When frying fish or any food that is to be used at a milk meal, use oil. Olive oil is the best, but is very expensive for general use. Any other good vegetable oil or nut oil will do as substitute.

When the food is intended for a meat meal; fat may be prepared according to the following directions and used in the same manner as oil.

TO RENDER GOOSE, DUCK OR BEEF FAT

Cut the fat into small pieces. Put in a deep, iron kettle and cover with cold water. Place on the stove uncovered; when the water has nearly all evaporated, set the kettle back and let the fat try out slowly. When the fat is still and scraps are shriveled and crisp at the bottom of the kettle, strain the fat through a cloth into a stone crock, cover and set it away in a cool place. The water may be omitted and the scraps slowly tried out on back of stove or in moderate oven. When fat is tried out, pour in crock.

Several slices of raw potato put with the fat will aid in the clarifying.

All kinds of fats are good for drippings except mutton fat, turkey fat and fat from smoked meats which has too strong a flavor to be used for frying, but save it with other fat that may be unsuitable for frying, and when six pounds are collected make it into hard soap.

TO MAKE WHITE HARD SOAP

Save every scrap of fat each day; try out all that has accumulated; however small the quantity. This is done by placing the scraps in a frying-pan on the back of the range. If the heat is low, and the grease is not allowed to get hot enough to smoke or burn, there will be no odor from it. Turn the melted grease into tin pails and keep them covered. When six pounds of fat have been obtained, turn it into a dish-pan; add a generous amount of hot water, and stand it on the range until the grease is entirely melted. Stir it well together; then stand it aside to cool. This is clarifying the grease. The clean grease will rise to the top, and when it has cooled can be taken off in a cake, and such impurities as have not settled in the water can be scraped off the bottom of the cake of fat.

Put the clean grease into the dish-pan and melt it. Put a can of Babbitt's lye in a tin pail; add to it a quart of cold water, and stir it with a stick or wooden spoon until it is dissolved. It will get hot when the water is added; let it stand until it cools. Remove the melted grease from the fire, and pour in the lye slowly, stirring all the time. Add two tablespoons of ammonia. Stir the mixture constantly for twenty minutes or half an hour, or until the soap begins to set.

Let it stand until perfectly hard; then cut it into square cakes. This makes a very good, white hard soap which will float on water.

*ENTRÉES*

CROQUETTES

Combine ingredients as directed in the recipe, roll the mixture lightly between the hands into a ball. Have a plentiful supply of bread crumbs spread evenly on a board; roll the ball lightly on the crumbs into the shape of a cylinder, and flatten each end by dropping it lightly on the board; put it in the egg (to each egg add one tablespoon of water, and beat together), and with a spoon moisten the croquette completely with the egg; lift it out on a knife-blade, and again roll lightly in the crumbs. Have every part entirely covered, so there will be no opening through which the grease may be absorbed. Where a light yellow color is wanted, use fresh white crumbs grated from the loaf (or rubbed through a purée sieve) for the outside, and do not use the yolk of the egg. Coarse fresh crumbs are used for fish croquettes, which are usually made in the form of chops, or half heart shape. A small hole is pricked in the pointed end after frying, and a sprig of parsley inserted. Have all the croquettes of perfectly uniform size and shape, and lay them aside on a dish, not touching one another, for an hour or more before frying. This will make the crust more firm.

The white of an egg alone may be used for egging them, but not the yolk alone. Whip the egg with the water, just enough to break it, as air-bubbles in the egg will break in frying, and let the grease penetrate. Serve the croquettes on a platter, spread them on a napkin and garnish with sprigs of parsley.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES, No. 1

Cook one-half tablespoon of flour in one tablespoon chicken-fat, add one-half cup of soup stock gradually, and one-half teaspoon each of onion juice, lemon juice, salt, and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, one and one-half cups of veal or chicken, chopped very fine, one pair of brains which have been boiled, mix these well, remove from the fire and add one well-beaten egg. Turn this mixture out on a flat dish and place in ice-box to cool. Then roll into small cones, dip in beaten egg, roll again in powdered bread or cracker crumbs and drop them into boiling fat, fry until a delicate brown.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES, No. 2

Chop the chicken very fine, using the white meat alone, or the dark meat alone, or both together. Season with salt, pepper, onion-juice, and lemon-juice. Chopped mushrooms, sweetbreads, calf's brains, tongue, or truffles are used with chicken, and a combination of two or more of them much improves the quality of the croquettes.

CROQUETTES OF CALF'S BRAINS

Lay the brains in salt water an hour, or until they look perfectly white, then take out one at a time, pat with your hands to loosen the outer skin and pull it off. Beat or rub them to a smooth paste with a wooden spoon, season with salt and pepper and a very little mace; add a beaten egg and about one-half cup of bread crumbs. Heat fat in a spider and fry large spoonfuls of this mixture in it.

MEAT CROQUETTES

Veal, mutton, lamb, beef and turkey croquettes may be prepared in the same way as chicken croquettes.

MEAT AND BOILED HOMINY CROQUETTES

Equal proportions.

SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES

Cut the boiled sweetbreads into small dice with a silver knife. Mix with mushrooms, using half the quantity of mushrooms that you have of sweetbreads. Use two eggs in the sauce.

VEAL CROQUETTES

Veal is often mixed with chicken, or is used alone as a substitute for chicken. Season in same manner and make the same combinations.

CAULIFLOWER CROQUETTES

Finely chop cold cooked cauliflower, mix in one small, finely chopped onion, one small bunch of parsley finely chopped, one-half cup of bread crumbs and one well-beaten egg. Carefully mix and mold into croquette forms, dip in cracker dust and fry in deep, smoking fat until a light brown.

EGGPLANT CROQUETTES (ROUMANIAN)

Peel the eggplant, place in hot water and boil until tender, drain, add two eggs, salt, pepper, two tablespoons of matzoth or white flour or bread crumbs, beat together; fry in butter or oil by tablespoonfuls.

CROQUETTES OF FISH

Take any kind of boiled fish, separate it from the bones carefully, chop with a little parsley, salt and pepper to taste. Beat up one egg with one teaspoon of milk and flour. Roll the fish into balls and turn them in the beaten egg and cracker crumbs or bread. Fry a light brown. Serve with any sauce or a mayonnaise.

POTATO CROQUETTES

Work into two cups of mashed potatoes, a tablespoon of melted butter, until smooth and soft; add one egg well-beaten and beat all together with a wooden spoon. Season with salt and nutmeg. Roll each in beaten egg then in bread crumbs, fry in hot oil or butter substitute. If desired chicken-fat may be substituted for the butter and the croquettes fried in deep fat or oil.

SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES

Press through a ricer sufficient hot baked sweet potatoes to measure one pint. Place over the fire. Add one teaspoon of butter or drippings, the beaten yolks of two eggs, pepper and salt to taste, and beat well with a fork until the mixture leaves the sides of the pan. Cool slightly, form into cones, roll in fine bread crumbs; dip in beaten eggs, roll again in crumbs and fry in hot oil or fat.

PEANUT AND RICE CROQUETTES

To one cup of freshly cooked rice allow one cup of peanut butter, four tablespoons of minced celery, one teaspoon of grated onion, one tablespoon of canned tomatoes, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix well; add the white of one egg, reserving the yolk for coating the croquettes. Shape into croquettes and let stand in a cold place for an hour, then coat with the egg yolk mixed with one tablespoon of water and roll in stale bread crumb dust until well covered. Fry in any hot oil or butter substitute.

RICE CROQUETTES, No. 1

Separate the white and yolk of one egg and reserve about half the yolk for coating the croquette. Beat the rest with the white. Mix with two cups of boiled or steamed rice and one-half teaspoon of salt, form into oblong croquettes or small balls. Mix the reserved part of the egg yolk with a tablespoon of cold water. Dip croquettes in this and then roll in fine bread crumbs. Repeat until well-coated, then fry brown in deep oil.

RICE CROQUETTES, No. 2

Put on with cold water one cup of rice, and let boil until tender. Drain, and mix with the rice, one tablespoon of butter, yolks of three eggs, and pinch of salt. About one tablespoon of flour may be added to hold the croquettes together. Beat the whites of the three eggs to a stiff froth, reserving some of the beaten white for egging croquettes, mix this in last, shape into croquettes and fry in hot oil or butter substitute. Place on platter and serve with a lump of jelly on each croquette.

CALF'S BRAINS (SOUR)

Lay the brains in ice-water and then skin. They will skin easily by taking them up in your hands and patting them, this will help to loosen all the skin and clotted blood that adheres to them. Lay in cold salted water for an hour at least, then put on to boil in half vinegar and half water (a crust of rye bread improves the flavor of the sauce). Add one onion, cut up fine, ten whole peppers, one bay leaf, one or two cloves and a little salt, boil altogether about fifteen minutes. Serve on a platter and decorate with parsley. Eat cold.

CALF'S BRAINS FRIED

Clean as described in calf's brains cooked sour; wipe dry, roll in rolled cracker flour, season with salt and pepper and fry as you would cutlets.

BRAINS (SWEET AND SOUR)

Clean as described above. Lay in ice-cold salted water for an hour. Cut up an onion, a few slices of celery root, a few whole peppers, a little salt and a crust of rye bread. Lay the brains upon this bed of herbs and barely cover with vinegar and water. Boil about fifteen minutes, then lift out the brains, with a perforated skimmer, and lay upon a platter to cool. Take a "lebkuchen," some brown sugar, a tablespoon of molasses, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, a few seedless raisins and a few pounded almonds. Moisten this with vinegar and add the boiling sauce. Boil the sauce ten minutes longer and pour scalding over the brains. Eat cold and decorate with slices of lemon.

DEVILED BRAINS

Put one tablespoon of fat in skillet, and when hot add two tablespoons of flour, rub until smooth, and brown lightly, then add one-half can of tomatoes, season with salt, pepper, finely-chopped parsley, and a dash of cayenne pepper, and the brains which have previously been cleaned, scalded with boiling water, and cut in small pieces. Cook a few minutes, and then fill the shells with the mixture. Over each shell sprinkle bread crumbs, and a little chicken-fat. Put shells in pan and brown nicely. Serve with green peas.

BRAINS WITH EGG SAUCE

Wash brains well, skin, boil fifteen minutes in salt water; slice in stew-pan some onions, salt, pepper, ginger and a cup of stock. Put in the brains with a little marjoram; let it cook gently for one-half hour. Mix yolks of two eggs, juice of a lemon, a teaspoon of flour, a little chopped parsley; when it is rubbed smooth, stir it into saucepan; stir well to prevent curdling.

JELLIED CHICKEN

Boil a chicken in as little water as possible until the meat falls from the bones, chop rather fine and season with pepper and salt. Put into a mold a layer of the chopped meat and then a layer of hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices. Fill the mold with alternate layers of meat and eggs until nearly full. Boil down the liquor left in the kettle until half the quantity. While warm, add one-quarter of a cup aspic, pour into the mold over the meat. Set in a cool place overnight to jelly.

PRESSED CHICKEN

Boil one or more chickens just as you would for fricassee, using as little water as possible. When tender remove all the meat from the bone and take off all the skin. Chop as fine as possible in a chopping bowl (it ought to be chopped as fine as powder). Add all the liquor the chicken was boiled in, which ought to be very little and well seasoned. Press it into the shape of a brick between two platters, and put a heavy weight over it so as to press hard. Set away to cool in ice-chest and garnish nicely with parsley and slices of lemon before sending to the table. It should be placed whole upon the table, and sliced as served. Serve pickles and olives with it. Veal may be pressed in the same way, some use half veal and half chicken, which is equally nice.

HOME-MADE CHICKEN TAMALES

Boil till tender one large chicken. Have two quarts of stock left when chicken is done. Remove chicken and cut into medium-sized pieces. Into the stock pour gradually one cup of corn meal or farina, stirring until it thickens. If not the proper consistency, add a little more meal. Season with one tablespoon of chili sauce, three tablespoons of tomato catsup, salt, one teaspoon of Spanish pepper sauce. Simmer gently thirty minutes, then add chicken. Serve in ramekins.

CHICKEN FRICASSEE, WITH NOODLES

Prepare a rich "Chicken Fricassee" (recipe for which you will find among poultry recipes), but have a little more gravy than usual. Boil some noodles or macaroni in salted water, drain, let cold water run through them, shake them well and boil up once with chicken. Serve together on a large platter.

SWEETBREAD GLACÉ, SAUCE JARDINIÈRE WITH SPAGHETTI

Put on some poultry drippings to heat in a saucepan, cut up an onion, shredded very fine and then put in the sweetbreads, which have been picked over carefully and lain in salt water an hour before boiling. Salt and pepper the sweetbreads before putting in the kettle, slice two tomatoes on top and cover up tight and set on the back of stove to simmer slowly. Turn once in a while and add a little soup stock. Boil one-half cup of string beans, half a can of canned peas, one-half cup of currants, cut up extremely fine, with a tablespoon of drippings, a little salt and ground ginger. When the vegetables are tender, add to the simmering sweetbreads. Thicken the sauce with a teaspoon of flour. Have the sauce boiled down quite thick. Boil the spaghetti in salted water until tender. Serve with the sweetbreads.

CHICKEN À LA SWEETBREAD

Take the breast of chicken that has been fricasseed, cut up into small pieces, and add mushrooms. Make brown sauce. Serve in paté shells.

SWEETBREADS

Wash the sweetbreads very carefully and remove all bits of skin and fatty matter. Cover with cold water, salt and boil for fifteen minutes. Then remove from the boiling water and cover with cold water. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, roll in beaten egg and bread crumbs, and fry a nice brown in hot fat.

SWEETBREAD SAUTÉ WITH MUSHROOMS

Clean sweetbread, boil until tender, and cut in small pieces. Take one tablespoon of fat, blend in one tablespoon of flour; add half the liquor of a can of mushrooms and enough soup stock to make the necessary amount of gravy; add a little catsup, mushroom catsup, and a few drops of kitchen bouquet, a clove of garlic, and a small onion; salt and pepper to taste. Cook this about an hour, and then remove garlic and onion. Add sweetbreads, mushrooms, and two hard-boiled eggs chopped very fine.

VEAL SWEETBREADS (FRIED)

Wash and lay your sweetbreads in slightly salted cold water for an hour; Pull off carefully all the outer skin, wipe dry and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Heat some goose-fat in a spider, lay in the sweetbreads and fry slowly on the back of the stove, turning frequently until they are a nice brown.

CALF'S FEET, PRUNES AND CHESTNUTS

Two calf's feet, sawed into joints, seasoned with pepper and salt a day before using. Place in an iron pot, one-half pound Italian chestnuts that have been scalded and skinned, then the calf's feet, one-eighth pound of raisins, one pound of fine prunes, one small onion, one small head of celery root, two olives cut in small pieces, one-eighth teaspoon of paprika, one cup of soup stock. Stew slowly for five hours, and add one hour before serving, while boiling, a wine glass claret and a wine glass sherry. Do not stir.

CALF'S FEET, SCHARF

Take calf's feet, saw into joints; put on to boil within cold water and boil slowly until the gristle loosens from the bones. Season with salt, pepper; and a clove or two of garlic. Serve hot or cold to taste.

CALF'S FOOT JELLY, No. 1

After carefully washing one calf's foot, split and put it on with one quart water. Boil from four to five hours. Strain and let stand overnight. Put on stove next day and when it begins to boil add the stiff-beaten whites of two eggs; boil till clear, then strain through cheesecloth. Add sherry and sugar to taste. Let it become firm before serving.

SULZE VON KALBSFUESSEN (CALF'S FOOT JELLY), No. 2

Take one calf's head and four calf's feet, and clean carefully. Let them lay in cold water for half an hour. Set on to boil with four quarts of water. Add two or three small onions, a few cloves, salt, one teaspoon of whole peppers, two or three bay leaves, juice of a large lemon (extract the seeds), one cup of white wine and a little white wine vinegar (just enough to give a tart taste). Let this boil slowly for five or six hours (it must boil until it is reduced one-half). Then strain, through a fine hair sieve and let it stand ten or twelve hours. Remove the meat from the bones and when cold cut into fine pieces. Add also the boiled brains (which must be taken up carefully to avoid falling to pieces). Skim off every particle of fat from the jelly and melt slowly. Add one teaspoon of sugar and the whipped whites of three eggs, and boil very fast for about fifteen minutes, skimming well. Taste, and if not tart enough, add a dash of vinegar. Strain through a flannel bag, do not squeeze or shake it until the jelly ceases to run freely. Remove the bowl and put another under, into which you may press out what remains in the bag (this will not be as clear, but tastes quite as good). Wet your mould, put in the jelly and set in a cool place. In order to have a variety, wet another mould and put in the bits of meat, cut up, and the brains and, lastly, the jelly; set this on ice. It must be thick, so that you can cut it into slices to serve.

ASPIC (SULZ)

Set on to boil two calf's feet, chopped up, one pound of beef and one calf's head with one quart water and one cup of white wine. Add one celery root, three small onions, a bunch of parsley, one dozen whole peppercorns, half a dozen cloves, two bay leaves and a teaspoon of fine salt. Boil steadily for eight hours and then pour through a fine hair sieve. When cold remove every particle of fat and set on to boil again, skimming until clear. Then break two eggs, shells and all, into a deep bowl, beat them up with one cup of vinegar, pour some of the soup stock into this and set all back on the stove to boil up once, stirring all the while. Then remove from the fire and pour through a jelly-bag as you would jelly. Pour into jelly-glasses or one large mould. Set on ice.

GANSLEBER IN SULZ (GOOSE-LIVER ASPIC)

Fry a large goose liver in goose-fat. Season with salt, pepper, a few whole cloves and a very little onion. Cut it up in slices and mix with the sulz and the whites of hard-boiled eggs.

GANSLEBER PURÉE IN SULZ

After the liver is fried, rub it through a sieve or colander and mix with sulz.

GOOSE LIVER

If very large cut in half, dry well on a clean cloth, after having lain in salted water for an hour. Season with fine salt and pepper, fry in very hot goose-fat and add a few cloves. While frying cut up a little onion very fine and add. Then cover closely and smother in this way until you wish to serve. Dredge the liver with flour before frying and turn occasionally. Serve with a slice of lemon on each piece of liver.

GOOSE LIVER WITH GLACÉD CHESTNUTS

Prepare as above and garnish with chestnuts which have been prepared thus: Scald until perfectly white, heat some goose-fat, add nuts, a little sugar and glaze a light brown.

GOOSE LIVER WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE

Take a large white goose liver, lay in salt water for an hour (this rule applies to all kinds of liver), wipe dry, salt, pepper and dredge with flour. Fry in hot goose-fat. Cut up a piece of onion, add a few cloves, a few slices of celery, cut very fine, whole peppers, one bay leaf, and some mushrooms. Cover closely and stew a few minutes. Add lemon juice to sauce.

SPANISH LIVER

Boil in salt water one-half pound calf's liver. Drain and cut into small cubes. Chop one onion, one tablespoon parsley, some mint; add two cloves, a little cinnamon, a little tabasco sauce, one tablespoon olive oil, and one cup of soup stock. Add one cup of bread crumbs which have been soaked in hot water and then drained. Mix all with the liver and bring to a boil. Serve with Spanish rice.

STEWED MILT

Clean the milt thoroughly and boil with your soup meat. Set to boil with cold water and let it boil about two hours. Then take it out and cut into finger lengths and prepare the following sauce: Heat one tablespoon of drippings in a spider. When hot cut up a clove of garlic very fine and brown slightly in the fat. Add a tablespoon of flour, stirring briskly, pepper and salt to taste and thin with soup stock, then the pieces of milt and let it simmer slowly. If the sauce is too thick add more water or soup stock. Some add a few caraway seeds instead of the garlic, which is a matter of taste.

GEFILLTE MILZ (MILT)

Clean the milt by taking off the thin outer skin and every particle of fat that adheres to it. Lay it on a clean board, make an incision with a knife through the centre of the milt, taking care not to cut through the lower skin, and scrape with the edge of a spoon, taking out all the flesh you can without tearing the milt and put it into a bowl until wanted. In the meantime dry the bread, which you have previously soaked in water, in a spider in which you have heated some suet or goose oil, and cut up part of an onion in it very fine. When the bread is thoroughly dried, add it to the flesh scraped from the milt. Also two eggs, one-half teaspoon of salt, pepper, nutmeg and a very little thyme (leave out the latter if you object to the flavor), and add a speck of ground ginger instead. Now work all thoroughly with your hands and fill in the milt. The way to do this is to fill it lengthwise all through the centre and sew it up; when done prick it with a fork in several places to prevent its bursting while boiling. You can parboil it after it is filled in the soup you are to have for dinner, then take it up carefully and brown slightly in a spider of heated fat; or form the mixture into a huge ball and bake it in the oven with flakes of fat put here and there, basting often. Bake until a hard crust is formed over it.

CALF'S LIVER SMOTHERED IN ONIONS

Heat some goose fat in a stew-pan with a close-fitting lid. Cut up an onion in it and when the onion is of a light yellow color, place in the liver which you have previously sprinkled with fine salt and dredged with flour. Add a bay leaf, five cloves and two peppercorns. Cover up tight and stew the liver, turning it occasionally and when required adding a little hot water.

CHICKEN LIVERS

Slice three or four livers from chicken or other fowl and dredge well with flour. Fry one minced onion in one tablespoon of fat until light brown. Put in the liver and shake the pan over the fire to sear all sides. Add one-half teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of paprika and one-half cup of strong soup stock. Allow it to boil up once. Add one tablespoon claret or sherry and serve immediately on toast.

KISCHKES—RUSSIAN STYLE

Buy beef casings of butcher. Make a filling of fat, flour (using one-third cup fat to one cup flour) and chopped onions. Season well with salt and pepper, cut them in short lengths, fasten one end, stuff and then fasten the open end. If they are not already cleaned the surface exposed after filling the casing is scraped until cleaned after having been plunged into boiling water. Slice two large onions in a roasting-pan, and roast the kischkes slowly until well done and well browned. Baste frequently with liquid in the pan.

KISCHKES

Prepare as above. If the large casings are used they need not be cut in shorter lengths. Boil for three hours in plenty of water and when done, put in frying-pan with one tablespoon of fat, cover and let brown nicely. Serve hot.

HASHED CALF'S LUNG AND HEART

Lay the lung and heart in water for half an hour and then put on to boil in a soup kettle with your soap meat intended for dinner. When soft, remove from the soup and chop up quite fine. Heat one tablespoon of goose fat in a spider; chop up an onion very fine and add to the heated fat. When yellow, add the hashed lung and heart, salt, pepper, soup stock and thicken with flour. You may prepare this sweet and sour by adding a little vinegar and brown sugar, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon and one tablespoon of molasses; boil slowly; keep covered until ready to serve.

TRIPE À LA CREOLE

Boil tripe with onion, parsley, celery, and seasoning; cut in small pieces, then boil up in the following sauce: Take one tablespoon of fat, brown it with two tablespoons of flour; then add one can of boiled and strained tomatoes, one can of mushrooms, salt and pepper to taste. Serve in ramekins.

TRIPE, FAMILY STYLE

Scald and scrape two pounds tripe and cut into inch squares. Take big kitchen spoon of drippings and put in four large onions quartered and three small cloves of garlic cut up very fine. Let steam, but not brown. When onions begin to cook, put in tripe and steam half an hour. Then cover tripe with water and let cook slowly three hours. Boil a few potatoes and cut in dice shapes and add to it. Half an hour before serving, add the following, after taking off as much fat from the tripe as possible: Three tablespoons of flour thinned with little water; add catsup, paprika, ginger, and one teaspoon of salt. It should all be quite thick, like paste, when cooked.

BOILED TONGUE, (SWEET AND SOUR)

Lay the fresh tongue in cold water for a couple of hours and then put it on to boil in enough water to barely cover it, adding salt. Boil until tender. To ascertain when tender run a fork through the thickest part. A good rule is to boil it, closely covered, from three to four hours steadily. Pare off the thick skin which covers the tongue, cut into even slices, sprinkle a little fine salt over each piece and then prepare the following sauce: Put one tablespoon of drippings in a kettle or spider (goose fat is very good). Cut up an onion in it, add a tablespoon of flour and stir, adding gradually about a pint of the liquor in which the tongue was boiled. Cut up a lemon in slices, remove the seeds, and add two dozen raisins, a few pounded almonds, a stick of cinnamon and a few cloves. Sweeten with four tablespoons of brown sugar in which you have put one-half teaspoon of ground cinnamon, one tablespoon of molasses and two tablespoons of vinegar. Let this boil, lay in the slices of tongue and boil up for a few minutes.

FILLED TONGUE

Take a pickled tongue, cut it open; chop or grind some corned beef; add one egg; brown a little onion, and add some soaked bread; fill tongue with it, and sew it up and boil until done.

SMOKED TONGUE

Put on to boil in a large kettle, fill with cold water, enough to completely cover the tongue; keep adding hot water as it boils down so as to keep it covered with water until done. Keep covered with a lid while boiling and put a heavy weight on the top of the lid so as not to let the steam escape. (If you have an old flat iron use it as a weight.) It should boil very slowly and steadily for four hours. When tongue is cooked set it outdoors to cool in the liquor in which it was boiled. If the tongue is very dry, soak overnight before boiling. In serving slice very thin and garnish with parsley.

SMOTHERED TONGUE

Scald tongue, and then skin. Season well with salt and pepper and slice an onion over it. Let it stand overnight. Put some drippings in a covered iron pot, and then the tongue, with whatever juice the seasoning drew. Cover closely and let it cook slowly until tender—about three hours.

PICKLED BEEF TONGUE

Select a large, fresh beef tongue. Soak in cold water one-half hour. Crush a piece of saltpetre, size of walnut, one teacup of salt, one teaspoon of pepper, three small cloves of garlic cut fine; mix seasoning. Drain water off tongue. With a pointed knife prick tongue; rub in seasoning. Put tongue in crock; add the balance of salt, etc.; cover with plate and weight. Allow to stand from four to five days. Without washing off the seasoning, boil in fresh water until tender.

*MEATS*

The majority of the cuts of meat which are kosher are those which require long, slow cooking. These cuts of meat are the most nutritious ones and by long, slow cooking can be made as acceptable as the more expensive cuts of meat; they are best boiled or braised.

In order to shut in the juices the meat should at first be subjected to a high degree of heat for a short time. A crust or case will then be formed on the outside, after which the heat should be lowered and the cooking proceed slowly.

This rule holds good for baking, where the oven must be very hot for the first few minutes only; for boiling, where the water must be boiling and covered for a time, and then placed where it will simmer only; for broiling, where the meat must be placed close to the red-hot coals or under the broiler flame of the gas stove at first, then held farther away.

Do not pierce the meat with a fork while cooking, as it makes an outlet for the juices. If necessary, to turn it, use two spoons.

PAN ROAST BEEF

Take a piece of cross-rib or shoulder, about two and one-half to three pounds, put in a small frying-pan with very little fat; have the pan very hot, let the meat brown on all sides, turning it continually until all sides are done, which will require thirty minutes altogether. Lift the meat out of pan to a hot platter, brown some onions, serve these with the meat.

AN EASY POT ROAST

Take four pounds of brisket, season with salt, pepper and ginger, add three tablespoons of tomatoes and an onion cut up. Cover with water in an iron pot and a close-fitting cover, put in oven and bake from three to four hours.

POT ROAST. BRAISED BEEF

Heat some fat or goose fat in a deep iron pot, cut half an onion very fine and when it is slightly browned put in the meat. Cover up closely and let the meat brown on all sides. Salt to taste, add a scant half teaspoon of paprika, half a cup of hot water and simmer an hour longer, keeping covered closely all the time. Add one-half a sweet green pepper (seeds removed), one small carrot cut in slices, two tablespoons of tomatoes and two onions sliced.

Two and a half pounds of brisket shoulder or any other meat suitable for pot roasting will require three hours slow cooking. Shoulder of lamb may also be cooked in this style.

When the meat is tender, remove to a warm platter, strain the gravy, rubbing the thick part through the sieve and after removing any fat serve in a sauce boat.

If any meat is left over it can be sliced and warmed over in the gravy, but the gravy must be warmed first and the meat cook for a short time only as it is already done enough and too much cooking will render it tasteless.

BRISKET OF BEEF (BRUSTDECKEL)

If the brisket has been used for soup, take it out of the soup when it is tender and prepare it with a horseradish sauce, garlic sauce or onion sauce. (See "Sauces for Meats".)

BRISKET OF BEEF WITH SAUERKRAUT

Take about three pounds of fat, young beef (you may make soup stock of it first), then take out the bones, salt it well and lay it in the bottom of a kettle, put a quart of sauerkraut on top of it and let it boil slowly until tender. Add vinegar if necessary, thicken with a grated raw potato and add a little brown sugar. Some like a few caraway seeds added.

SAUERBRATEN

Take a piece of cross-rib or middle cut of chuck about three pounds, and put it in a deep earthen jar and pour enough boiling vinegar over it to cover; you may take one-third water. Add to the vinegar when boiling four bay leaves, some whole peppercorns, cloves and whole mace. Pour this over the meat and turn it daily. In summer three days is the longest time allowed for the meat to remain in this pickle; but in winter eight days is not too long. When ready to boil, heat one tablespoon drippings in a stew-pan. Cut up one or two onions in it; stew until tender and then put in the beef, salting it on both sides before stewing. Stew closely covered and if not acid enough add some of the brine in which it was pickled. Stew about three hours and thicken the gravy with flour.

ROLLED BEEF—POT-ROASTED

Take one pound and one-half of tenderloin, sprinkle it with parsley and onion; season with pepper and salt; roll and tie it. Place it in a pan with soup stock (or water if you have no stock), carrot and bay leaf and pot roast for one and one-half hours. Serve with tomato or brown sauce.

MOCK DUCK

Take the tenderloin, lay it flat on a board after removing the fat. Make a stuffing as for poultry. See "To Stuff Poultry". Spread this mixture on the meat evenly; then roll and tie it with white twine; turn in the ends to make it even and shapely.

Cut into dice an onion, turnip, and carrot, and place them in a baking-pan; lay the rolled meat on the bed of vegetables; pour in enough stock or water to cover the pan one inch deep; add a bouquet made of parsley, one bay leaf and three cloves; cover with another pan, and let cook slowly for four hours, basting frequently. It can be done in a pot just as well, and should be covered as tight as possible; when cooked, strain off the vegetables; thicken the gravy with one tablespoon of flour browned in fat and serve it with the meat. Long, slow cooking is required to make the meat tender. If cooked too fast it will not be good.

MARROWBONES

Have the bones cut into pieces two or three inches long; scrape and wash them very clean; spread a little thick dough on each end to keep the marrow in; then tie each bone in a piece of cloth and boil them for one hour. Remove the cloth and paste, and place each bone on a square of toast; sprinkle with red pepper and serve very hot. Or the marrow-bone can be boiled without being cut, the marrow then removed with a spoon and placed on squares of hot toast. Serve for luncheon.

ROAST BEEF, No. 1

Take prime rib roast. Cut up a small onion, a celery root and part of a carrot into rather small pieces and add to these two or three sprigs of parsley and one bay leaf. Sprinkle these over the bottom of the dripping-pan and place your roast on this bed. The oven should be very hot when the roast is first put in, but when the roast is browned sufficiently to retain its juices, moderate the heat and roast more slowly until the meat is done. Do not season until the roast is browned, and then add salt and pepper. Enough juice and fat will drop from the roast to give the necessary broth for basting. Baste frequently and turn occasionally, being very careful, however, not to stick a fork into the roast.

ROAST BEEF, No. 2

Season meat with salt and paprika. Dredge with flour. Place on rack in dripping-pan with two or three tablespoons fat, in hot oven, to brown quickly. Reduce heat and baste every ten minutes with the fat that has fried out. When meat is about half done, turn it over, dredge with flour, finish browning. If necessary, add a small quantity of water. Allow fifteen to twenty minutes for each pound of meat.

Three pounds is the smallest roast practicable.

ROAST BEEF (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Place a piece of cross-rib or shoulder weighing three pounds in roasting-pan, slice some onions over it, season with salt and pepper, add some water and let it cook well. Then peel a few potatoes and put them under the meat. When the meat becomes brown, turn it and cook until it browns on the other side.

WIENER BRATEN—VIENNA ROAST

Take a shoulder, have the bone taken out and then pound the meat well with a mallet. Lay it in vinegar for twenty-four hours. Heat some fat or goose oil in a deep pan or kettle which has a cover that fits air tight and lay the meat in the hot fat and sprinkle the upper side with salt, pepper and ginger. Put an onion in with the meat; stick about half a dozen cloves in the onion and add one bay leaf. Now turn the meat over and sprinkle the other side with salt, pepper and ginger. Cut up one or two tomatoes and pour some soup stock over all, and a dash of white wine. Cover closely and stew very slowly for three or four hours, turning the meat now and then; in doing so do not pierce with the fork, as this will allow the juice to escape. Do not add any water. Make enough potato pancakes to serve one or two to each person with "Wiener Braten."

TO BROIL STEAK BY GAS

Wipe steak with a damp cloth. Trim off the surplus fat. When the oven has been heated for from five to seven minutes, lay steak on a rack, greased, as near the flame as possible, the position of the rack depending on the thickness of the steak. Let the steak sear on each side, thereby retaining the juice. Then lower the rack somewhat, and allow the steak to broil to the degree required. Just before taking from the oven, salt and pepper and spread with melted chicken fat.

You can get just as good results in preparing chops and fish in the broiling oven.

BROILED BEEFSTEAK

Heat the gridiron, put in the steak, turn the gridiron over the hot coals at intervals of two minutes and then repeatedly at intervals of one minute. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve on a hot platter.

Chops are done in the same way, but the gridiron is turned twice at intervals of two minutes and six times at intervals of one minute.

FRIED STEAK WITH ONIONS

Season the steak with salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. If tough, chop on both sides with a sharp knife. Lay in a pan of hot fat, when brown on one side, turn and brown on the other. While the steak is frying, heat some fat in another fryer and drop in four of five white onions that have been cut up. Fry crisp but not black. Remove the steak to a hot platter, stir one tablespoon of flour in the fryer until smooth, add one-half cup of boiling water. Lay the crisp onions over the steak, then over all pour the brown gravy.

FRIED BEEFSTEAK

Take third cut of chuck or the tenderloin. Have the spider very hot, use just enough fat to grease the spider. Lay in the steak, turning very often to keep in the juice, season with salt and pepper. Serve on a hot platter.

BRUNSWICK STEW

Cook one pound of brisket of beef and three pounds of young chicken with one pint of soup stock or water, one pint of Lima beans, four ears of cut corn (cut from cob), three potatoes diced, two tomatoes quartered; one small onion, one teaspoon of paprika and one teaspoon of salt. Let all these simmer until tender, and before serving remove the meat and any visible chicken bones.

This stew may be made of breast of veal omitting the chicken and brisket.

BREAST FLANK (SHORT RIBS) AND YELLOW TURNIPS

Get the small ribs and put on with plenty of water, an onion, pepper and salt. After boiling about one and one-half hours add a large yellow turnip cut in small pieces; one-half hour before serving add six potatoes cut in small pieces. Water must be added as necessary. A little sugar will improve flavor, and as it simmers the turnip will soften and give the whole dish the appearance of a stew.

MEAT OLIVES

Have a flank steak cut in three inch squares. Spread each piece with the following dressing: one cup of bread crumbs, two tablespoons of minced parsley; one chopped onion, a dash of red pepper and one teaspoon of salt. Moisten with one-fourth cup of melted fat. Roll up and tie in shape. Cover with water and simmer until meat is tender. Take the olives from the sauce and brown in the oven. Thicken the sauce with one-fourth cup of flour moistened with water to form a thin paste.

SHORT RIB OF BEEF, SPANISH

Get the small ribs of beef and put on with water enough to cover, seasoning with salt, pepper, an onion and a tiny clove of garlic. Let it cook about two hours, then add a can of tomatoes and season highly either with red peppers or paprika. Cook at least three hours.

BRAISED OXTAILS

Two oxtails, jointed and washed; six onions sliced and browned in pot with oxtails. When nicely browned add water enough to cover and stew slowly one hour; then add two carrots, if small; one green pepper, sprig of parsley, one-half cup of tomatoes and six small potatoes, and cook until tender. Thicken with browned flour. Cook separately eight lengths of macaroni; place cooked macaroni on dish and pour ragout over it and serve hot.

To brown flour take one-half cup of flour, put in pan over moderate heat and stir until nicely browned.

HUNGARIAN GOULASH

Have two pounds of beef cut into one inch squares. Dredge in flour and fry until brown. Cover with water and simmer for two hours; the last half-hour add one tablespoon of salt and one-eighth of a teaspoon of pepper. Make a sauce by cooking one cup of tomatoes and one stalk of celery cut in small pieces, a bay leaf and two whole cloves, for twenty-five minutes; rub through a sieve, add to stock in which meat was cooked. Thicken with four tablespoons of flour moistened with two tablespoons of water. Serve meat with cooked diced potatoes, carrots, and green and red peppers cut in strips.

RUSSIAN GOULASH

To one pound beef, free from fat and cut up as pan stew, add one chopped green pepper, one large onion, two blades of garlic (cut fine), pepper and salt, with just enough water to cover. Let this simmer until meat is very tender. Add a little water as needed. Put in medium sized can of tomatoes an hour or so before using and have ready two cups of cooked spaghetti or macaroni and put this into the meat until thoroughly heated. This must not be too wet; let water cook away just before adding the tomatoes.

BEEF LOAF

To two pounds of chopped beef take three egg yolks, three tablespoons of parsley, three tablespoons of melted chicken-fat, four heaping tablespoons of soft bread crumbs, one-half teaspoon of kitchen bouquet, two teaspoons of lemon juice, grated peel of one lemon, one teaspoon of salt, one-half teaspoon of onion-juice and one teaspoon of pepper. Mix and bake twenty-five minutes in a quick oven with one-fourth cup of melted chicken-fat, and one-half cup of boiling water. Baste often.

HAMBURGER STEAK

Take one pound of raw beef, cut off fat and stringy pieces, chop extremely fine, season with salt and pepper, grate in part of an onion or fry with onions. Make into round cakes a little less than one-half inch thick. Heat pan blue hot, grease lightly; add cakes, count sixty, then turn them and cook on the other side until brown. When well browned they are done if liked rare. Cook ten minutes if liked well done.

BITKI (RUSSIAN HAMBURGER STEAK)

Take two cups of clear beef chopped, and two cups of bread crumbs that have been soaked in a little water, leaving them quite moist, mix thoroughly with the beef, season with pepper and salt and shape into individual cakes. Fry as directed for Hamburger Steak.

CHOPPED MEAT WITH RAISINS (ROUMANIAN)

Take a pound of chopped meat, add grated onion, an egg, matzoth flour, white pepper, mix and form into small balls, put in pot with one-half cup of water, fat, sugar, a quarter cup of large black raisins, a few slices of lemon and let stew one-half hour, then thicken gravy with tablespoon of flour browned in a tablespoon of fat and serve.

CARNATZLICH (ROUMANIAN)

One pound of tenderloin, chopped, add an egg, a little paprika, black pepper, salt and four cloves of garlic (which have been scraped, and let stand in a little salt for ten minutes, and then mashed so it looks like dough). Form this meat mixture into short sausage-like rolls; boil one-half hour and serve at once.

Serve this dish with Slaitta. (See Vegetables.)

BAKED HASH

Mix together one cup of chopped meat, one cup of cold mashed potatoes, one-half an onion, minced, one well-beaten egg and one-half cup of soup stock. Season rather highly with salt, if unsalted meat is used, paprika and celery salt, turn into greased baking dish and bake for twenty minutes in a well-heated oven. The same mixture may be fried, but will not taste as good.

SOUP MEAT

The meat must be cooked until very tender then lift it out of the soup and lay upon a platter and season while hot. Heat a tablespoon of fat or drippings of roast beef in a spider, cut up a few slices of onion in it, also half a clove of garlic, add a tablespoon of flour, stirring all the time; then add soup stock or rich gravy, and the soup meat, which has been seasoned with salt, pepper and ginger. You must sprinkle the spices on both sides of the meat, and add one-half teaspoon of caraway seed to the sauce, and if too thick add more soup stock and a little boiling water. Cover closely and let it simmer about fifteen minutes.

LEFT-OVER MEAT

There are many ways to utilize left-over meat.

Indeed, not one particle of meat should ever be wasted.

Cold roasts of beef, lamb, mutton or any cold joint roasted or boiled may be made into soups, stews, minces or used for sandwiches, or just served cold with vegetables or salads.

SPAGHETTI AND MEAT

Break spaghetti in small pieces and boil until tender. Put left-over meat through chopper and mix with the spaghetti, salt, pepper, and a little onion juice. Grease a baking dish and put in the meat and spaghetti, sprinkle on top with bread crumbs and bake in a moderate oven.

MEAT PIE

Cut any left-over beef, lamb or veal in small pieces, removing all excess of fat; parboil one green pepper (seeds removed) cut in strips, two cups of potatoes and one-half cup of carrots cut in dice, and one onion chopped fine. Add to the meat. Thicken with one-fourth cup of flour moistened in cold water. Put in a baking dish. The crust is made as follows: One cup of flour, one heaping teaspoon of drippings, pinch of salt, one-fourth teaspoon of baking powder, one teaspoon of sugar and cold water to mix, about one-third cup. Roll out to fit baking dish, cut holes for steam to escape, after covering the contents of the dish. Bake in a quick hot oven one-half hour.

PICKLED MEAT—HOME-MADE CORNED BEEF

Take four quarts of water, adding enough salt to float an egg, boil this salted water, when cool take four or five pounds brisket of beef, seasoned with whole and ground peppers, one large clove of garlic, pierced in different parts of the beef, one tablespoon of sugar, one bay leaf and one teaspoon of saltpetre. Put meat into deep stone pot, pour the boiled water over it and store in a cool place for ten days or two weeks.

BOILED CORNED BEEF

Put corned beef into cold water; using enough to cover it well; let it come slowly to the boiling-point; then place where it will simmer only; allow thirty minutes or more to each pound. It is improved by adding a few soup vegetables the last hour of cooking.

If the piece can be used a second time, trim it to good shape; place it again in the water in which it was boiled; let it get heated through; then set aside to cool in the water, and under pressure, a plate or deep dish holding a flat-iron being set on top of the meat. The water need not rise above the meat sufficiently to wet the iron. When cooled under pressure the meat is more firm and cuts better into slices.

Cabbage is usually served with hot corned beef, but should not be boiled with it.

ENCHILADAS

Make a dough of cornmeal and wheat flour and water. Roll it out in thin, round cakes; cook quickly in a pan that has not been greased, then roll in a cloth to keep soft and warm. Grind one cup of sausage, add one-half grated onion, one tablespoon of Worcestershire sauce, and fill the warm cakes with this mixture. Roll them when filled, and pour over them a sauce made of two tablespoons of drippings into which two tablespoons of flour have been smoothed. Add one cup of soup stock, one cup of strained tomatoes, two tablespoons of vinegar, one tablespoon of Spanish pepper sauce.

VIENNA SAUSAGE

Wash and put on in boiling water. Boil ten minutes, fill a deep dish with hot water, put sausages in, cover, and serve in hot water. To be eaten with grated horseradish or French mustard.

SMOKED BEEF

Soak overnight in cold water; next morning place it in cold water, and simmer till quite tender, reckoning one-half hour to the pound.

ROAST VEAL

The shoulder and breast of veal are best for roasting. Always buy veal that is fat and white. Prepare for the oven in the following manner: Wash and then dry; rub it well with salt, a very little ground ginger, and dredge it well with flour. Lay in roasting-pan and put slices of onion on top with a few tablespoons of goose-fat or drippings. Cover tightly and roast, allowing twenty minutes to the pound and baste frequently. Veal must be well done. When cold it slices up as nicely as turkey.

BREAST OF VEAL—ROASTED

Roast as directed above. Have the butcher cut a pocket to receive the stuffing. Prepare bread stuffing and sew up the pocket. Sprinkle a little caraway seed on top of the roast. A tablespoon of lemon juice adds to the flavor. Baste often.

STEWED VEAL

Prepare as above, but do not have the meat cut in small pieces. If desired one-half teaspoon of caraway seed may be used instead of the parsley. Mashed potatoes and green peas or stewed tomatoes are usually served with veal.

Any of the flour or potato dumplings are excellent served with stewed or fricasseed veal.

FRICASSEED VEAL WITH CAULIFLOWER

Use the breast or shoulder for this purpose, the former being preferable, and cut it up into pieces, not too small. Sprinkle each piece slightly with fine salt and ginger. Heat a tablespoon of goose-oil or poultry drippings in a stew-pan, and lay the veal in it. Cut up an onion and one or two tomatoes (a tablespoon of canned tomatoes will do), and add to this a little water, and stew two hours, closely covered. When done mix a teaspoon of flour and a little water and add to the veal. Chop up a few sprigs of parsley, add it and boil up once and serve. Place the cauliflower around the platter in which you serve the veal. Boil the cauliflower in salt and water, closely covered.

STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL

Have the blade removed, and fill the space with a stuffing made of bread crumbs, thyme, lemon juice, salt, pepper to taste and one egg, also chopped mushrooms if desired. Sew up the opening, press and tie it into good shape and roast. The stuffing may be made of minced meat, cut from the veal, and highly seasoned.

VEAL LOAF

Take two pounds of chopped veal, four tablespoons of bread crumbs, two beaten eggs, season with salt, pepper, ginger, nutmeg and a little water. Add a tablespoon of chicken-fat; grease the pan, mix ingredients thoroughly, form into a loaf, spread or lay piece of chicken-fat on top. Bake in oblong tin until done, basting frequently.

SHOULDER OR NECK OF VEAL—HUNGARIAN STYLE

Brown four onions light brown in a tablespoon of fat, add one teaspoon mixed paprika, and the meat cut in pieces; leave the pan uncovered for a few moments, cover; add one sweet green pepper, cut up, and let cook; add a little water whenever the gravy boils down; when the meat is tender serve with dumplings.

CALF'S HEARTS

Remove veins and arteries from the hearts. Stuff with a highly seasoned bread dressing and sew. Dredge in flour, brown in hot fat, cover with hot water, and place on the back of the stove or in a hot oven. Cook slowly for two or three hours. Thicken the liquor with flour and serve with the hearts.

IRISH STEW

Cut one and one-half pounds of lamb into small pieces. Dredge each piece of meat in flour. Brown in the frying-pan. Put in kettle, cover with water and cook slowly one hour or until tender. Add one quart of potatoes cut in small dice, one-half a cup of carrots and three onions, after cooking thirty minutes. Season with salt, pepper, and thicken with two tablespoons of flour moistened in enough cold water to form a smooth paste. Serve with dumplings. (See Dumplings, in "Garnishes and Dumplings for Soups".)

LAMB AND MACARONI

Dilute one can of concentrated tomato sauce with one quart of water; mince two medium-sized onions very fine and fry slowly in olive oil or drippings until they are a golden brown, and add to tomatoes. Fry one and one-half pounds of lean neck of lamb in a little drippings until the meat is nicely browned all over and add to the tomatoes, season with one clove of garlic, two bay leaves, two teaspoons of sugar, pepper and salt, and let it simmer for about one and one-half hours, or until the meat is tender and the sauce has become the consistency of thick cream. Have ready some boiled macaroni, put in with the meat and stir well. Serve hot.

Short ribs of beef may be cooked in the same manner.

LAMB STEW—TOCANE

Brown slices of leek or young onions in one tablespoon of drippings, add neck or breast of lamb, cut in small pieces; season with white pepper, salt and parsley; cook until tender, just before serving season with dill.

CURRIED MUTTON

Have three pounds of mutton cut in one inch squares. Wipe, put in kettle and cover with cold water. Cook for five minutes, drain and again cover with boiling water. Add one cup of chopped onion, one teaspoon of peppercorns, and one-half of a red pepper, cut in small strips. Place on back of stove and allow it to simmer until tender. Strain liquor and thicken with flour. Add two tablespoons of drippings, one tablespoon of minced parsley, one teaspoon of curry powder, and one-half teaspoon of salt. Serve with molded rice.

GEWETSH (SERVIAN)

Brown one large onion in a tablespoon of fat, add one teaspoon of paprika and two pounds of neck or shoulder of lamb, cook one hour; have ready one pound of rice that has been boiled for twenty minutes. Take a twelve inch pudding dish, grease, place a layer of sliced tomatoes on bottom of pan, then half the rice, half the meat, two sliced green peppers, sprinkle a little salt and pour part of gravy over this; place another layer of tomatoes, rice, meat, with two sliced peppers and tomatoes on top, salt, and pour remainder of gravy, put lumps of fat here and there; bake in hot oven three-quarters of an hour. Use plenty of gravy and fat for this dish or else it will be too dry. Six large tomatoes are required.

ROAST MUTTON WITH POTATOES

Take a shoulder of mutton—must be young and tender—wash the meat well and dry with a clean towel. Rub well with salt, ginger and a speck of pepper, and dredge well with flour. Lay it in a covered roasting-pan. Put a few pieces of whole mace and a few slices of onion on top; pour a cup of water into the pan. Cover it up tight and set in a hot oven to roast, basting frequently. Allow twenty minutes to the pound for roasting mutton; it should be well done. Add more water if necessary (always add hot water so as not to stop the process of boiling), skim the gravy well and serve with currant or cranberry jelly. Pare potatoes of uniform size and wash and salt them about three-quarters of an hour before dinner. Lay the potatoes in pan around the roast and sprinkle them with salt and return to the oven to roast. Let them brown nicely.

BREAST OF MUTTON STEWED WITH CARROTS

Salt the mutton on both sides, adding a little ground ginger; put on to boil in cold water, cover up tightly and stew slowly. In the meantime pare and cut up the carrots, add these and cover up again. Pare and cut up about half a dozen potatoes into dice shape and add them three-quarters of an hour before dinner. Cover up again, and when done, make a sauce as follows: Skim off about two tablespoons of fat from the mutton stew, put this in a spider and heat. Brown a tablespoon of flour in the fat, add a heaping tablespoon of brown sugar, some cinnamon and pour the gravy of the stew into the spider, letting it boil up once, and then pour all over the carrots and Stew until ready to serve.

White turnips may be used instead of carrots.

MUTTON OR LAMB CHOPS

Trim off some of the fat and heat in the spider. Season the chops with salt and pepper, or salt and ginger. Have the spider very hot with very little fat in it. To be nice and tender they must be sautéd quickly to a nice brown. Or the chops may be broiled over the hot coals or in gas broiler, eight or ten minutes is all the time required; serve at once.

SHOULDER OF MUTTON STUFFED

Have the butcher carefully remove the blade from the shoulder and fill the space with a bread stuffing; See "Bread Dressing for Fowl". Sew up the opening, roast in the oven with a very little water in the pan, and baste frequently. Serve with the gravy from the pan after the grease has been carefully removed.

*POULTRY*

TO DRESS AND CLEAN POULTRY

Singe by holding the fowl over a flame from gas, alcohol or burning paper. Pick off pin feathers. Cut off the nails, then cut off the head, turn back the skin and cut the neck off quite close; take out windpipe and crop, cutting off close to the body. Cut through the skin around the leg one inch below the leg joint; take out the tendons and break the leg at the joint; in old birds each tendon must be removed separately by using a skewer.

Make an incision just below the breast bone large enough to insert your hand, take out the fat and loosen the entrails with your forefinger. When everything is removed, cut off the wings close to the body, also the neck, feet and head. Separate the gall from the liver. In doing this be very careful not to break the gall, which has a very thin skin. Scrape all the fat off carefully that adheres to the entrails and lay it in a separate dish of water overnight. Cut open the gizzard, clean and pull off the skin, or inner lining.

Make Kosher as directed in "Rules for Kashering".

If you make use of the head, which you may in soup, cut off the top of the bill, split open the head, lengthwise, take out the brains, eyes and tongue.

Clean the gizzard and feet by laying them in scalding water for a few moments, this will loosen the skin, which can then be easily removed.

Remove the oil bag from the upper side of tail.

After making Kosher and cleaning poultry, season all fowls for several hours before cooking. Salt, pepper, and ginger are the proper seasoning. Some like a tiny bit of garlic rubbed inside and outside, especially for goose or duck.

Dress and clean goose, duck, squab, and turkey as directed for chicken.

TO TRUSS A CHICKEN

Press the thighs and wings close against the body; fasten securely with skewers and tie with string. Draw the skin of the neck to the back and fasten it.

ROAST CHICKEN

Stuff and truss a chicken, season with pepper and salt and dredge with flour. Put in a roasting-pan with two or three tablespoons of chicken-fat if the chicken is not especially fat. When heated add hot water and baste frequently. The oven should be hot and the time necessary for a large chicken will be about an hour and a half. When done, remove the chicken, pour off the grease and make a brown sauce in the pan.

CHICKEN CASSEROLE

Bake chicken in covered casserole until nearly tender, then add three potatoes cut in dice; boil small pieces of carrots, green peas, and small white onions—each to be boiled separately. Just before serving, thicken gravy with a teaspoon of flour mixed with a half cup of soup stock or water. Season to taste and place vegetables around the dish.

BOILED CHICKEN, BAKED

Make chicken soup with an old hen. Remove chicken from soup just as soon as tender. Place in roasting-pan with three tablespoons of chicken-fat, one onion sliced, one clove of garlic, one-half teaspoon each of salt and paprika. Sprinkle with soft bread crumbs. Baste frequently and when sufficiently browned, cut in pieces for serving. Place on platter with the strained gravy pour over the chicken and serve.

BROILED SPRING CHICKEN

Take young spring chickens of one to one and one-half pounds in weight, and split down the back, break the joints and remove the breast bone. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and rub well with chicken-fat. Place in broiler and broil twenty minutes over a clear fire, or under the flame in broiling oven of gas stove, being careful to turn broiler that all parts may be equally browned. The flesh side must be exposed to the fire the greater part of the time as the skin side will brown quickly. Remove to hot platter.

Or chicken may be placed in dripping pan, skin side down, seasoned with salt and pepper and spread with chicken-fat, and bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven and then broiled to finish.

Serve with giblet sauce.

FRIED SPRING CHICKEN

Cut it up as for fricassee and see that every piece is wiped dry. Have ready heated in a spider some goose-fat or other poultry drippings. Season each piece of chicken with salt and ground ginger, or pepper. Roll each piece of chicken in sifted cracker or bread crumbs (which you have previously seasoned with salt). Fry in the spider, turning often, and browning evenly. You may cut up some parsley and add while frying. If the chicken is quite large, it is better to steam it before frying.

GIBLETS

Heart, liver and gizzard constitute the giblets, and to these the neck is usually added. Wash them; put them in cold water and cook until tender. This will take several hours. Serve with the chicken; or mash the liver, mince the heart and gizzard and add them to the brown sauce. Save the stock in which they are cooked for making the sauce.

CHICKEN FRICASSEE

Take a chicken, cut off the wings, legs and neck. Separate the breast from the chicken, leaving it whole. Cut the back into two pieces. Prepare a mixture of salt, ginger and a little pepper in a saucer and dust each piece of chicken with this mixture. When you are ready to cook the chicken, take all the particles of fat you have removed from it and lay in the bottom of the kettle, also a small onion, cut up, some parsley root and celery. Lay the chicken upon this, breast first, then the leg and so on. Cover up tight and let it stew slowly on the back of the stove (or over a low gas flame), adding hot water when necessary. Just before serving chop up some parsley, fine, and rub a teaspoon of flour in a little cold water, and add. Let it boil up once. Shake the kettle back and forth to prevent becoming lumpy. The parsley root and celery may be omitted if so desired.

Duck can be prepared in this manner.

CHICKEN WITH RICE

Joint a chicken; season with salt and ground ginger and boil with water enough to cover. Allow one-half pound of rice to one chicken. Boil this after chicken is tender. Serve together on a large platter.

CHICKEN (TURKISH STYLE)

Brown a chicken, cover with water and season, cook until tender. When chicken is tender; slash the skin of chestnuts, put them in oven and roast, then skin them, put in chicken and let come to a boil and serve with the chicken.

AMASTICH

Cook one pound of rice in a quart of stock for half an hour, stirring frequently. Then add a chicken stuffed and trussed as for roasting; cover closely and cook thoroughly. After removing the chicken, pass the liquor through a strainer, add the juice of a lemon and the beaten yolk of an egg, and pour over the bird.

CHICKEN WITH SPAGHETTI EN CASSEROLE

Prepare and truss a young chicken, as if for roasting. Put it in a casserole; and pour over it two tablespoons of olive oil, a cup of white wine, a cup of bouillon, salt and cayenne to taste, one spoon of dried mushrooms soaked in one cup of water and chopped fine, and one-half can of mushrooms. Cover tightly and simmer in the oven for about an hour, turning the chicken occasionally; add a dozen olives and a tablespoon of chicken-fat, smoothed with one tablespoon of flour, and bring to a boil. Remove the chicken and add about a pint of boiled spaghetti to the sauce. Place the chicken on a platter, surround with the spaghetti, and serve.

STUFFED CHICKEN (TURKISH STYLE)

Steam chicken and when it is almost tender stuff it with the following: Take one-fourth pound of almonds, chopped; season with parsley, pepper and salt to taste, add one tablespoon of bread crumbs and bind this with one well-beaten egg. Put chicken in roasting-pan and roast until done.

SMOTHERED CHICKEN

Two tender chickens cut in half, split down the back; place the pieces in a colander to drain well, after having been well salted; season with pepper; grease well the bottom of a baking-pan; add one stalk finely chopped celery, onion; lay the chicken on breast, side up; sprinkle lightly with flour, fat; two cups of hot water. Have the oven very hot when putting chickens in. As soon as browned evenly, cover with a pan, fitting closely. Reduce the heat of the oven; allow to cook slowly an hour or so longer, until tender. Place on a hot platter; set in oven until sauce is made, as follows: put the pan on top of stove in which chickens were smothered; add level tablespoon of flour, thinned in cold water; add minced parsley; let this all cook two or three minutes, then add large cup of strong stock, to the chickens. Broil one can mushrooms, and pour these over chicken when ready to serve.

CHICKEN CURRY

Cut chickens in pieces for serving; dredge in flour and sauté in hot fat. Cut one onion in thin pieces, add one tablespoon of curry powder, three-fourths of a tablespoon of salt and one tablespoon of wine vinegar. Add to chicken, cover with boiling water; simmer until chicken is tender. Thicken sauce and serve with steamed rice.

CHICKEN PAPRIKA WITH RICE

Cut a three and one-half pound fat chicken in pieces to serve, salt it and let stand several hours. Heat one-fourth cup of fat in an iron kettle, add one medium-sized onion, minced; fry golden brown and set aside. Fry the chicken in the fat and when nicely browned, add paprika to taste and boiling water to cover, and let simmer one hour.

Soak one cup of rice in cold water, drain, add the fried onion and one teaspoon of salt and gradually three cups of chicken broth, more if necessary. When nearly done add the chicken and finish cooking in a slow oven, one-half hour.

CHILI CON CARNE

Cut two broilers in pieces for serving. Season with salt, pepper, and dredge in flour; brown in hot fat. Parboil six large red peppers until soft, rub through a wire sieve. Chop two small onions fine, three cloves of garlic and one-fourth cup of capers. Combine, add to chicken, cover with water and cook until chicken is tender. Thicken the sauce with fat and flour melted together.

PILAF (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Follow recipe below but substitute cooked lamb for the chicken, and add chicken livers fried and cut in small pieces.

PILAF (TURKISH STYLE)

Soak one cup of rice in cold water for one hour. Pour off the water, and put the rice with two cups of soup stock and one-quarter of a white onion on to boil. Stew until the rice absorbs all the stock. Stew one-half can of tomatoes thoroughly and season with olive oil or chicken-fat, salt and pepper. Mix it with the rice.

Sauté in chicken-fat to a light color, a jointed chicken slightly parboiled, or slices of cold cooked chicken or turkey. Make a depression in the rice and tomato, put in the chicken and two tablespoons of olive oil or chicken-fat, and stew all together for twenty minutes. Serve on a platter in a smooth mound, the red rice surrounding the fowl.

SPANISH PIE

Take one pint of cold chicken, duck or any poultry. Cut it into flakes and place it in a pudding dish which has been lined with a thin crust. On the layer of meat place a layer of sweet red peppers (seeds removed), cut in slices; next, a layer of thinly sliced sausage, and so on until the dish is full. Over this pour a glass of claret into which have been rubbed two tablespoons of flour. Cover with a thin crust of pastry, and bake.

CHICKEN À LA ITALIENNE

Cut the remains of cold chicken (or turkey) into pieces about an inch long and marinate them in a bowl containing one tablespoon of olive oil; one teaspoon of tarragon vinegar or lemon juice, a few drops of onion juice, salt and pepper. At the end of half an hour sprinkle with finely chopped parsley, dip them in fritter batter, and fry in boiling fat. Drain on a brown paper, and serve with or without tomato or brown sauce.

In some parts of Italy this dish is made of several kinds of cold meats, poultry, brains, etc. (the greater the variety the better), served on the same platter, and in Spain all kinds of cold vegetables are fried in batter and served together.

ROAST GOOSE

All goose meat tastes better if it is well rubbed with salt, ginger and a little garlic a day previous to using.

Stuff goose with bread dressing, or chestnut dressing, a dressing of apples is also very good. (See "Stuffings for Meat and Poultry".) Sew up the goose, then line a sheet-iron roasting-pan with a few slices of onion and celery and place the goose upon these, cover closely, roast three hours or more, according to weight. If the goose browns too quickly, cover with greased paper or lower the heat of the oven. Baste every fifteen minutes.

GESCHUNDENE GANS

Take a very fat goose for this purpose. After cleaning and singeing, cut off neck, wings and feet. Lay the goose on a table, back up, take a sharp knife, make a cut from the neck down to the tai. Begin again at the top near the neck, take off the skin, holding it in your left hand, your knife in your right hand, after all the skin is removed, place it in cold water; separate the breast from back and cut off joints. Have ready in a plate a mixture of salt, ginger and a little garlic or onion, cut up fine. Rub the joints and small pieces with this, and make a small incision in each leg and four in the breast. Put in each incision a small piece of garlic or onion, and rub also with a prepared mixture of salt and ginger. Put away in stone jar overnight or until you wish to use.

GAENSEKLEIN

Rub wings, neck, gizzard, heart and back of goose with salt, ginger, pepper and garlic and set on the fire in a stew-pan with cold water. Cover tightly and stew slowly but steadily for four hours. When done skim off all the fat. Now put a spider over the fire, put into it about two or three tablespoons of the fat that you have just skimmed off and then add the fat to the meat again. Cut up fine a very small piece of garlic and add a heaping teaspoon of flour (brown). Add the hot gravy and pour all over the goose. Cover up tightly and set on back of stove till you wish to serve. You may cook the whole goose in this way after it is cut up.

STUFFED GOOSE NECK (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Remove skin from neck of goose, duck or chicken in one piece. Wash and clean well and stuff with same mixture as for Kischtke. Sew at both ends and roast in hot oven until well browned.

STUFFED GOOSE NECK

Remove the fat skin from the neck of a fat goose, being careful not to put any holes in it. Clean carefully and sew up the smaller end and stuff through larger end with the following:

Grind fine some pieces of raw goose meat (taken from the breast or legs), grind also some soft or "linda fat" a thin piece of garlic, a small piece of onion, when fine add one egg and a little soaked bread, season with salt, pepper, and ginger. When neck is stuffed, sew up larger end, lay it in a pudding-pan, pour a little cold water over it, set in stove and baste from time to time. Let brown until crisp. Eat hot.

GOOSE CRACKLINGS (GRIEBEN)

Cut the thick fat of a fat goose in pieces as big as the palm of your hand, roll together and run a toothpick through each one to fasten. Put a large preserve kettle on top of hot stove, lay in the cracklings, sprinkle a tiny bit of salt over them and pour in a cup or two of cold water; cover closely and let cook not too fast, until water is cooked out. Then add the soft or "linda" fat, keep top off and let all brown nicely. About one to two hours is required to cook them. If you do not wish the scraps of "Greben" brittle, take them out of the fat before they are browned. Place strainer over your fat crock, to catch the clear fat and let greben drain. If greben are too greasy place in baking-pan in oven a few minutes to try out a little more. Serve at lunch with rye bread.

ROAST GOOSE BREASTS

The best way to roast a goose breast is to remove the skin from the neck and sew it over the breast and fasten it with a few stitches under the breast, making an incision with a pointed knife in the breast and joints of the goose, so as to be able to insert a little garlic (or onion) in each incision, also a little salt and ginger. Keep closely covered all the time, so as not to get too brown. They cut up nicely cold for sandwiches.

GOOSE MEAT, PRESERVED IN FAT

If too fat to roast, render the fat of goose, remove and cut the skin into small pieces. The scraps, when brown, shriveled and crisp, are then "Greben," and are served hot or cold. When fat is nearly done or clear, add the breast and legs of goose, previously salted, and boil in the fat until tender and browned. Place meat in crock and pour the clear, hot fat over it to cover. Cool. Cover crock with plate and stone and keep in a cool, dry place. Will keep for months. When ready to serve, take out meat, heat, and drain off fat.

SMOKED GOOSE BREAST

Dried or smoked goose breast must be prepared in the following manner: Take the breast of a fat goose; leave the skin on; rub well with salt, pepper and saltpetre; pack in a stone jar and let it remain pickled thus four or five days. Dry well, cover with gauze and send away to be smoked.

SMOKED GOOSE

Remove skin. Place legs, neck and skin of neck of geschundene goose (fat goose) to one side. Scrape the meat carefully from the bones, neck, back, etc., of the goose, remove all tendons and tissues and chop very fine. Fill this in the skin of the neck and sew up with coarse thread on both ends. Rub the filled neck, the legs and the breast with plenty of garlic (sprinkle with three-eighths pound of salt and one tablespoon of sugar and one teaspoon of saltpetre), and enough water to form a brine. Place the neck, legs and breast in a stone jar, cover with a cloth and put weights on top. Put aside for seven days, turn once in a while. Take out of the brine, cover with gauze and send to the butcher to smoke. When done, serve cold, sliced thin.

STEWED GOOSE, PIQUANTE

Cut up, after being skinned, and stew, seasoning with salt, pepper, a few cloves and a very little lemon peel. When done heat a little goose fat in a frying-pan, brown half a tablespoon of flour, add a little vinegar and the juice of half a lemon.

MINCED GOOSE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)

Take the entire breast of a goose, chop up fine in a chopping bowl; grate in part of an onion, and season with salt, pepper and a tiny piece of garlic. Add some grated stale bread and work in a few eggs. Press this chopped meat back on to the breast bone and roast, basting very often with goose fat.

DUCK

Singe off all the small feathers; cut off neck and wings, which may be used for soup; wash thoroughly and rub well with salt, ginger and a little pepper, inside and out. Now prepare this dressing: Take the liver, gizzard and heart and chop to a powder in chopping bowl. Grate in a little nutmeg, add a piece of celery root and half an onion. Put all this into your chopping bowl. Soak some stale bread, squeeze out all the water and fry in a spider of hot fat. Toss this soaked bread into the bowl; add one egg, salt, pepper and a speck of ginger and mix all thoroughly. Fill the duck with this and sew it up. Lay in the roasting-pan with slices of onions, celery and specks of fat. Put some on top of fowl; roast two hours, covered up tight and baste often. Stick a fork into the skin from time to time so that the fat will try out.

ROAST DUCK

Draw the duck; stuff, truss and roast the same as chicken. Serve with giblet sauce and currant jelly. If small, the duck should be cooked in an hour.

DUCK À LA MODE IN JELLY

One duckling of about five pounds, one calf's foot, eight to ten small onions, as many young carrots, one bunch of parsley. Cook the foot slowly in one quart of water, one teaspoon of salt and a small bay leaf. Put aside when the liquor has been reduced to one-half. In the meanwhile fry the duck and when well browned wipe off the grease, put in another pan, add the calf's foot with its broth, one glass of dry white wine, a tablespoon of brandy, the carrots, parsley and the onions—the latter slightly browned in drippings—pepper and salt to taste and cook slowly under a covered lid for one hour. Cool off for about an hour, take off the grease, bone and skin the duckling and cut the meat into small pieces; arrange nicely with the vegetables in individual earthenware dishes, cover with the stock and put on the ice to harden.

SQUABS, OR NEST PIGEONS

Pick, singe, draw, clean and season them well inside and out, with salt mixed with a little ginger and pepper, and then stuff them with well-seasoned bread dressing. Pack them closely in a deep stew-pan and cover with flakes of goose fat, minced parsley and a little chopped onion. Cover with a lid that fits close and stew gently, adding water when necessary. Do not let them get too brown. They should be a light yellow.

BROILED SQUABS

Squabs are a great delicacy, especially in the convalescent's menu, being peculiarly savory and nourishing. Clean the squabs; lay them in salt water for about ten minutes and then rub dry with a clean towel. Split them down the back and broil over a clear coal fire. Season with salt and pepper; lay them on a heated platter, grease them liberally with goose fat and cover with a deep platter. Toast a piece of bread for each pigeon, removing the crust. Dip the toast in boiling water for an instant. In serving lay a squab upon a piece of toasted bread.

PIGEON PIE

Prepare as many pigeons as you wish to bake in your pie. Salt and pepper, then melt some fat in a stew-pan, and cut up an onion in it. When hot, place in the pigeons and stew until tender. In the meantime line a deep pie plate with a rich paste. Cut up the pigeons, lay them in, with hard-boiled eggs chopped up and minced parsley. Season with salt and pepper. Put flakes of chicken fat rolled in flour here and there, pour over the gravy the pigeons were stewed in, cover with a crust. Bake slowly until done.

SQUAB EN CASSEROLE

Take fowl and brown in a skillet the desired color, then add to this enough water (or soup stock preferred), put it in casserole and add vegetables; add first those that require longest cooking. Use mushrooms, carrots, small potatoes and peas. If you like flavor of sherry wine, add small wine glass; if not, it is just as good. Season well and cook in hot oven not too long, as you want fowl and vegetables to be whole. You may add soup stock if it is too dry after being in oven.

ROAST TURKEY

Singe and clean the turkey the same as chicken. Fill with plain bread stuffing or chestnut stuffing. Tie down the legs and rub entire surface with salt and let stand overnight. Next morning place in large drippings or roasting-pan on rack and spread breast, legs and wings with one-third cup of fat creamed and mixed with one-fourth cup of flour. Dredge bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven and when the flour on the turkey begins to brown, reduce the heat and add two cups of boiling water or the stock in which the giblets are cooking, and baste with one-fourth cup of fat and three-fourths cup of boiling water. When this is all used, baste with the fat in the pan. Baste every fifteen minutes until tender; do not prick with a fork, press with the fingers; if the breast meat and leg are soft to the touch the turkey is done. If the oven is too hot, cover the pan; turn the turkey often, that it may brown nicely. Remove strings and skewers and serve on hot platter. Serve with giblet sauce and cranberry sauce. If the turkey is very large it will require three hours or more, a small one will require only an hour and a half.

STUFFED TURKEY NECK (TURKISH STYLE)

Take neck of turkey, stuff with following: One-quarter pound of almonds or walnuts chopped fine and seasoned with chopped parsley, pepper and salt, put two hard-boiled eggs in the centre of this dressing; stuff neck, sew up the ends and when roasted slice across so as to have a portion of the hard-boiled egg on each slice; place on platter and surround with sprigs of parsley.

*STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY*

TO STUFF POULTRY

Use enough stuffing to fill the bird but do not pack it tightly or the stuffing will be soggy. Close the small openings with a skewer; sew the larger one with linen thread and a long needle. Remove skewers and strings before serving.

CRUMB DRESSING

Take one tablespoon of chicken fat, mix in two cups of bread crumbs, pinch of salt and pepper, a few drops of onion juice, one tablespoon of chopped parsley, and lastly one well-beaten egg. Mix all on stove in skillet, remove from fire and stuff fowl.

BREAD DRESSING FOR FOWL

In a fryer on the stove heat two tablespoons of drippings or fat, drop in one-half onion cut fine, brown lightly and add one-quarter loaf of stale baker's bread (which has previously been soaked in cold water and then thoroughly squeezed out). Cook until it leaves the sides of the fryer, stirring occasionally. If too dry add a little soup stock. Remove from the fire, put in a bowl, season with salt, pepper, ginger, and finely chopped parsley, add a small lump of fat, break in one whole egg, mix well and fill the fowl with it.

MEAT DRESSING FOR POULTRY

If you cannot buy sausage meat at your butcher's have him chop some for you, adding a little fat. Also mix in some veal with the beef while chopping. Season with salt, pepper, nutmeg or thyme. Grate in a piece of celery root and a piece of garlic about the size of a bean, add a small onion, a minced tomato, a quarter of a loaf of stale bread; also grated, and mix up the whole with one egg. If you prefer, you may soak the bread, press out every drop of water and dry in a heated spider with fat.

POTATO STUFFING

Add two cups of hot, mashed Irish or sweet potatoes to bread stuffing. Mix well and stuff in goose, stuffed veal or lamb breast, or in beef casings, cleaned and dressed.

CHESTNUT STUFFING

Shell and blanch two cups of chestnuts. Cook in boiling salted water until tender. Drain and force through a colander or a potato ricer. Add one-fourth cup of melted chicken fat, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, three-fourths of a teaspoon of salt, one cup of grated bread crumbs, and enough soup stock to moisten.

RAISIN STUFFING

Take three cups of stale bread crumbs; add one-half a cup of melted chicken fat, one cup of seeded raisins cut in small pieces, one teaspoon of salt and one-fourth teaspoon of white pepper. Mix thoroughly.

*VEGETABLES*

All vegetables should be thoroughly cleansed just before being put on to cook.

Green vegetables; such as cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, should be soaked heads down in salted cold water, to which a few spoons of vinegar may be added.

To secure the best results all vegetables except beans, that is the dried beans, should be put in boiling water and the water must be made to boil again as soon as possible after the vegetables have been added and must be kept boiling until the cooking is finished.

In cooking vegetables, conserve their juices.

The average housewife pours down the sink drainpipe the juices from all the vegetables which she cooks; she little realizes that she thus drains away the health of her family. Cook vegetables with just sufficient water to prevent them from burning, and serve their juices with them; else save the vegetable "waters" and, by the addition of milk and butter convert them into soups for the family use. Such soups, derived from one or several vegetables, alone or mixed together, make palatable and healthful additions to the family bill-of-fare.

ASPARAGUS

Cut off the woody part, scrape the lower part of the stalks. Wash well and tie in bunches. Put into a deep stew-pan, with the cut end resting on the bottom of the stew-pan. Pour in boiling water to come up to the tender heads, but not to cover them. Add one teaspoon of salt for each quart of water. Place where the water will boil. Cook until tender, having the cover partially off the stew-pan. This will be from fifteen to thirty minutes, depending upon the freshness and tenderness of the vegetable. Have some slices of well-toasted bread on a platter. Butter them slightly. Arrange the cooked asparagus on the toast, season with butter and a little salt and serve at once. Save the water in which the asparagus was boiled to use in making vegetable soup.

CANNED ASPARAGUS

Open one end of the can, as indicated on wrapper, so tips will be at opening. Pour off the liquid and allow cold water to run over gently and to rinse. Drain and pour boiling water over them in the can and set in a hot oven to heat thoroughly. When ready to serve, drain and arrange carefully on hot platter and serve same as fresh asparagus, hot on toast or cold with salad dressing, or with "Sauce Hollandaise", poured over.

ARTICHOKES (FRENCH OR GLOBE)

French artichokes have a large scaly head, like the cone of a pine tree.
The flower buds are used before they open.

The edible portion consists of the thickened portion at the base of the scales and the receptacle to which the leaf-like scales are attached.

When the artichoke is very young and tender the edible parts may be eaten raw as a salad. When it becomes hard, as it does very quickly, it must be cooked. When boiled it may be eaten as a salad or with a sauce. The scales are pulled with the fingers from the cooked head, the base of each leaf dipped in a sauce and then eaten.

The bottoms (receptacles), which many consider the most delicate part of the artichoke, may be cut up and served as a salad, or they may be stewed and served with a sauce. To prepare the artichoke remove all the hard outer leaves. Cut off the stem close to the leaves. Cut off the top of the bud. Drop the artichokes into boiling water and cook until tender, which will take from thirty to fifty minutes, then take up and remove the choke. Serve a dish of French salad dressing with the artichokes, which may be eaten either hot or cold. Melted butter also makes a delicious sauce for the artichokes if they are eaten hot.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE

This vegetable is in season in the fall and spring, and may be cooked like kohl-rabi and served in a white cream or sauce. The artichoke may also be cooked in milk.

When this is done, cut the washed and peeled artichoke into cubes, put in a stew-pan, and cover with milk (a generous pint to a quart of cubes). Add one small onion and cook twenty minutes. Beat together one tablespoon of butter and one level tablespoon of flour, and stir this into the boiling milk. Then season with one teaspoon of salt and one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, and continue the cooking one-half hour longer. The cooking should be done in a double boiler. The artichoke also makes a very good soup.

FRENCH ARTICHOKES WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Pick off from the solid green globes the outer tough petals. Scoop out with a sharp-pointed knife the fuzzy centres, leaving the soft base, which is the luscious morsel. Cut each artichoke in halves, wash, drain and fry brown on each side in olive oil Make tomato sauce and cook thirty minutes in that mixture. Then serve.

BEET GREENS

Beets are usually thickly sowed, and as the young plants begin to grow they must be thinned out. These plants make delicious greens, and even the tops of the ordinary market beets are good if properly prepared. Examine the leaves carefully to be sure that there are no insects on them; wash thoroughly in several waters, and put over the fire in a large kettle of boiling water. Add one teaspoon of salt for every two quarts of greens; boil rapidly about thirty minutes or until tender; drain off the water; chop well and season with butter and salt.

BOILED BEETS

Carefully wash any earth off the beets, but every care is needed to avoid breaking the skin, roots or crown; if this is done much of their color will be lost, and they will be a dull pink. Lay them in plenty of boiling water, with a little vinegar; boil them steadily, keeping them well covered with water for about one and one-half to two hours for small beets and two to three and one-half hours for large ones. If they are to be served hot, cut off the roots and crown and rub off the skin directly, but if to be served cold, leave them until they have become cold and then cut into thin slices and sprinkle with salt and pepper and pour some vinegar over them. If to be eaten hot, cut them into thin slices, arrange them on a hot vegetable dish and pour over white sauce or melted butter, or hand these separately.

BAKED BEETS

Boil large beetroot about two hours, being careful not to pierce it. When cold mash very smooth, add a little drippings, pepper, salt and stock. Place in a greased pan and bake one hour.

SOUR BUTTERED BEETS

Wash as many beets as required and cook in bailing water until tender. Drain and turn into cold water for peeling. Remove the skins, slice and sprinkle with as much salt as desired. Melt one-half cup of butter in a large frying-pan and add two tablespoons of strained lemon juice. Stir the butter and lemon juice until blended, keeping the fire low. Now turn the beets into this sauce, cover the pan and shake and toss until the sauce has been well distributed. Serve hot at once.

CELERIAC

This vegetable is also known as "knot celery" and "turnip-rooted celery." The roots, which are about the size of a white turnip, and not the stalks are eaten. They are more often used as a vegetable than as a salad.

Pare the celeriac, cut in thin, narrow slices, and put into cold water. Drain from this water and drop into boiling water and boil thirty minutes. Drain and rinse with cold water. The celeriac is now ready to be prepared and served the same as celery.

PURÉE OF CELERIAC

Boil as directed above and press through a sieve. To one quart take two tablespoons of butter blended with two tablespoons flour and cooked until smooth and frothy, add the strained celeriac and cook five minutes, stirring frequently. Add one teaspoon of salt and a half cup of cream, cook five minutes longer and serve hot on toast or fried bread.

CAULIFLOWER

Trim off the outside leaves and cut the stalk even with the flower. Let it stand upside down in cold salted water for twenty minutes. Put it into a generous quantity of rapidly boiling salted water and cook it uncovered about twenty minutes or until tender, but not so soft as to fall to pieces. Remove any scum from the water before lifting out the cauliflower. If not perfectly white, rub a little white sauce over it. Serve with it a white, a Bechamel, or a Hollandaise sauce; or it may be served as a garnish to chicken, sweetbreads, etc., the little bunches being broken off and mixed with the sauce.

SPANISH CAULIFLOWER

Finely chop one medium-size onion and a small bunch of parsley. Melt one tablespoon butter in a pan and fry the onion until it is brown. Season with celery salt. Blend in one tablespoon flour, add one cup boiling water and let simmer for half an hour. Carefully clean the cauliflower and boil for one-half hour. Drain the onion sauce, add three tablespoons tomato catsup, drain the cauliflower, turn into a baking-pan, pour over the sauce, place in a moderate oven for five minutes and serve hot.

CAULIFLOWER WITH BROWN CRUMBS

Drain and place the hot cauliflower in serving dish, and pour over it two tablespoons fine bread crumbs browned in one tablespoon of hot butter or fat. Serve hot. Asparagus may be served in this style.

CAULIFLOWER OR ASPARAGUS (HUNGARIAN)

Cook in salt water until tender. Spread with bread crumbs and butter. Pour some sour cream over the vegetable and bake until the crumbs are a golden brown.

SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER

Boil and drain off the water, grease a baking-dish, line with a layer of cauliflower, add a layer of toasted bread crumbs, another of cauliflower and so on alternately, letting the top layer be of bread crumbs. Over all pour one cup of boiling milk, dot the top with butter and bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes.

CAULIFLOWER (ROUMANIAN)

Brown a minced onion, add cauliflower cut in pieces with a small quantity of water; stew, add salt, white pepper, a little sour salt and red tomatoes; when half done add one-fourth cup of rice. Cook until rice is done. The onion may be browned either in butter, fat or olive oil, as desired.

CREAMED CELERY

Remove the leaves from the stalks of celery; scrape off all rusted or dark spots; cut into small pieces and drop in cold water. Having boiling water ready; put the celery into it, adding one-half teaspoon of salt for every quart of water. Boil until tender, leaving the cover partly off; drain and rinse in cold water. Make a cream sauce; drop the celery into it; heat thoroughly and serve.

LETTUCE

If lettuce has grown until rather too old for salad, it may be cooked, and makes a fairly palatable dish.

BOILED LETTUCE

Wash four or five heads of lettuce, carefully removing thick, bitter stalks and retaining all sound leaves. Cook in plenty of boiling salted water for ten or fifteen minutes, then blanch in cold water for a minute or two. Drain, chop lightly, and heat in stew-pan with some butter, and salt and pepper to taste. If preferred, the chopped lettuce may be heated with a pint of white sauce seasoned with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg. After simmering for a few minutes in the sauce, draw to a cooler part of the range and stir in the well-beaten yolks of two eggs.

GREEN LIMA BEANS

Cover the shelled beans with boiling water; bring to a boil quickly; then let them simmer slowly till tender. Drain and add salt, pepper and butter or hot cream or cream sauce.

CARROTS

Scrape the carrots lightly; cut them into large dice or slices and drop them into salted boiling water, allowing one teaspoon of salt to one quart of water. Boil until tender; drain and serve with butter and pepper or with cream sauce.

LEMON CARROTS

Old carrots may be used for this dish, and are really better than the new ones. Pare and cut into dice, and simmer in salted water until tender, but not pulpy. Drain, return to the fire, and for one pint of carrots add one teaspoon of minced parsley, a grating of loaf sugar, one-half teaspoon of paprika, one tablespoon of butter and the juice of half a lemon. Heat through, shaking the dish now and then, so that each piece of the vegetable will be well coated with the mixture or dressing.

SIMMERED CARROTS

Wash, scrape and slice one quart carrots roundwise. Put them in a saucepan with one tablespoon of butter or drippings, three tablespoons of sugar and one teaspoon salt. Cover closely and let simmer on a slow fire until tender.

FLEMISH CARROTS

Scrape, slice and cook one quart of carrots in one quart of boiling water to which has been added one teaspoon of salt, until tender; drain. Heat two tablespoons fat, add one small onion, brown lightly, add the carrots, season with one teaspoon of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of white pepper and shake well over the fire for ten minutes, add one and one-half cups of soup stock, cover and simmer for one-half hour, then add one teaspoon chopped parsley and serve hot.

CARROTS WITH BRISKET OF BEEF

Salt and pepper two pounds of fat brisket of beef and let stand several hours. Wash and scrape two bunches of carrots and cut in small cubes. Place in kettle with meat, cover with boiling; water and cook several hours or until the meat and carrots are tender, and the water is half boiled away. Heat two tablespoons of fat in a spider, let brown slightly, add two tablespoons of flour and gradually one cup of carrot and meat liquid. Place in kettle with meat and carrots and boil until carrots become browned.

COMPOTE OF CARROTS (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Make a syrup of one cup of sugar and one cup of water by boiling ten minutes. To this syrup add two cups of carrots diced, which have previously been browned in two tablespoons hot fat or butter. Cook all together until carrots are tender. Brown in oven and serve.

CORN ON THE COB

Free the corn from husks and silk; have a kettle of water boiling hard; drop the corn into it and cook ten minutes (or longer if the corn is not young). If a very large number of ears are put into the water they will so reduce the temperature that a longer time will be needed. In no case, however, should the corn be left too long in the water, as overcooking spoils the delicate flavor.

CORN OFF THE COB

Corn is frequently cut from the cob after it is cooked and served in milk or butter; but by this method much of the flavor and juke of the corn itself is wasted; It is better to cut the corn from the cob before cooking. With a sharp knife cut off the grains, not cutting closely enough to remove any of the woody portion of the skins. Then with a knife press out all the pulp and milk remaining in the cob; add this to the corn; season well with salt, pepper and butter; add a little more milk if the corn is dry; cook, preferably in the oven, for about ten minutes, stirring occasionally. If the oven is not hot, cook over the fire.

SUCCOTASH

Mix equal parts of corn, cut from the ear, and any kind of beans; boil them separately; then stir them lightly together, and season with butter, salt, and pepper and add a little cream if convenient.

CANNED CORN

To one can of corn take one tablespoon of butter, one-half cup milk; sprinkle one tablespoon of flour over these; stir and cook about five minutes, until thoroughly hot. Season to taste and serve hot.

DANDELIONS

Wash one peck of dandelions; remove roots. Cook one hour in two quarts of boiling salted water. Drain, chop fine; season with salt, pepper and butter. Serve with vinegar.

STUFFED CUCUMBERS

Cut four cucumbers in half lengthwise; remove the seeds with a spoon, lay the cucumbers in vinegar overnight; then wipe dry and fill with a mixture made from one cup pecans or Brazil nuts chopped, six tablespoons of mashed potatoes, one well-beaten egg, one teaspoon of salt, two tablespoons of chopped parsley, one saltspoon of white pepper, dash of nutmeg and two tablespoons of melted butter. Bake in a buttered dish until tender. Serve hot with one cup of white sauce, dash of powdered cloves, one well-beaten egg, salt and pepper to taste.

FRIED CUCUMBERS

Daintily prepared fried cucumbers are immeasurably superior to fried egg plant and are especially nice with boiled chicken.

Peel and slice the cucumbers lengthwise in about the same thickness observed with egg plant. Lay these slices in salt and water for about an hour, then dip in beaten egg and cracker dust, and French fry in boiling fat, taking care to carefully drain in a colander before serving.

COLD SLAW

Take a firm, white head of cabbage; cut it in halves; take out the heart and cut as fine as possible on slaw-cutter. Cut up one onion at the same time and a sour apple. Now sprinkle with salt and white pepper and a liberal quantity of white sugar. Mix this lightly with two forks. Heat one tablespoon of goose oil or butter, and mix it thoroughly in with the cabbage. Heat some white wine vinegar in a spider; let it come to a boil and pour over the slaw, boiling. Keep covered for a short time. Serve cold.

BOILED SAUERKRAUT

Take brisket of beef weighing about two or three pounds. Set it on to boil in two quarts of water, a little salt and the usual soup greens. When the meat is tender take it out, salt it well and put on to boil again in a porcelain-lined kettle, having previously removed all the bones. Add about a cup of the soup stock and as much sauerkraut as you desire. Boil about one hour; tie one tablespoon of caraway seed in a bag and boil in with the kraut. Thicken with two raw potatoes, grated, and add one tablespoon of brown sugar just before serving. If not sour enough add a dash of vinegar. This gives you meat, vegetables and soup. Mashed potatoes, kartoffelkloesse or any kind of flour dumpling is a nice accompaniment. Sauerkraut is just as good warmed over as fresh, which may be done two or three times in succession without injury to its flavor.

TO BOIL CABBAGE

Cut a small head of cabbage into four parts, cutting down through the stock. Soak for half an hour in a pan of cold water to which has been added one tablespoon of salt; this is to draw out any insects that may be hidden in the leaves. Take from the water and cut into slices. Have a large stew-pan half full of boiling water; put in the cabbage, pushing it under the water with a spoon. Add one tablespoon of salt and cook from twenty-five to forty-five minutes, depending upon the age of the cabbage. Turn into a colander and drain for about two minutes. Put in a chopping bowl and mince. Season with butter, pepper, and more salt if it requires it. Allow one tablespoon of butter to a generous pint of the cooked vegetable. Cabbage cooked in this manner will be of delicate flavor and may be generally eaten without distress. Have the kitchen windows open at the top while the cabbage is boiling, and there will be little if any odor of cabbage in the house.

FRIED CABBAGE

Cut one medium head of cabbage fine, soak ten minutes in salt water. Drain, heat three tablespoons of fat (from top of soup stock preferred), add cabbage, one sour apple peeled and cut up, caraway seed to taste, salt, paprika and one-half onion minced. Cover very closely and cook slowly for one hour.

CREAMED NEW CABBAGE

To one pint of boiled and minced new cabbage add one-half pint of hot milk, one tablespoon of butter, one teaspoon of flour, one-half teaspoon each of salt and pepper, one teaspoon finely minced parsley and a generous dash of sweet paprika. The butter and flour should be creamed together before stirring in. Let simmer for about ten minutes, stirring occasionally to keep from burning. Serve hot on toasted bread.

HOT SLAW

Cut the cabbage into thin shreds as for cold slaw. (Use a plane if convenient). Boil it until tender in salted fast-boiling water. Drain it thoroughly, and pour over it a hot sauce made of one tablespoon of butter, one-half teaspoon of salt, dash of pepper and of cayenne, and one-half to one cup of vinegar, according to its strength. Cover the saucepan and let it stand on the side of the range for five minutes, so that the cabbage and sauce will become well incorporated.

CARROTS BOILED WITH CABBAGE

Pare the carrots and cut them into finger lengths, in thin strips. Put a breast of lamb or mutton on to boil, having previously salted it well. When boiling, add the carrots and cover closely. Prepare the cabbage as usual and lay in with the mutton and carrots; boil two hours at least; when all has boiled tender, skim off some of the fat and put it into a spider. Add to this one tablespoon of flour, one tablespoon of brown sugar and one-half teaspoon of cinnamon. Keep adding gravy from the mutton until well mixed, and pour all over the mutton and vegetables. Serve together on a platter.

STEWED CABBAGE

Clean and drain cabbage, cut in small pieces and boil until tender. Drain and rinse in cold water; chop fine, heat one tablespoon of drippings in spider, one-fourth of an onion cut fine and one tablespoon of flour; brown all together, add one-half pint of soup stock, add cabbage and cook ten minutes longer. Salt and pepper to taste.

FILLED CABBAGE

Take a large, solid head of cabbage; take off the large top leaves, and scoop out the centre of the cabbage so as to leave the outside leaves intact for refilling. Chop your cabbage fine as for slaw; take a quarter of a loaf of stale bread, soak it in water and squeeze very dry. Heat two tablespoons of drippings in a spider, add a large-sized onion chopped fine, do not let the onion get too brown; then add the bread, one pound of chopped beef well minced and the chopped cabbage and let it get well heated; take off stove and add two eggs, pepper, salt, nutmeg, a little parsley and a little sage, season very highly. Use a little more cabbage than bread the filling. Put this all back in the cabbage, and cover this with the large leaves, put into small bread-pan and bake for two hours, put just enough water in to keep the pan from burning; don't baste. It doesn't harm if the leaves scorch.

KAL DOLMAR

Boil cabbage whole for ten minutes. Let it cool and boil the rice. Mix chopped meat, rice, and salt and pepper. Separate the cabbage leaves; put about three tablespoons of the meat and rice in the leaves, roll up and tie together with string. Then fry in fat until brown. Boil for half an hour in a little water. Make brown gravy and pour over.

SAVOY CABBAGE WITH RICE

Boil cabbage whole for five minutes; drain, separate the leaves after it has cooled. Mix one cup of boiled rice with three dozen raisins, pinch of salt, one teaspoon of cinnamon and two tablespoons of drippings. Put two tablespoons of this mixture in three or four leaves, roll them and tie together with string. Place in pan and let cook for an hour until done. This dish is just as good warmed up a second time.

There must be sufficient fat and gravy to prevent the cabbage rolls from sticking to the bottom of the pan which must be kept closely covered.

BELGIAN RED CABBAGE

Put two or three sticks of cinnamon, salt and pepper, one-half teaspoon cloves, one onion sliced thin, one bay leaf, two cups of water, three tablespoons of drippings in saucepan, then add five or six greening apples, peeled and cut in quarters. Lastly, put in one medium-sized red cabbage, cut in halves and then sliced very thin. Cook three hours and then add two tablespoons each of sugar and vinegar; cook one minute more.

RED CABBAGE

Cut fine on slaw-cutter, put cabbage in a colander, pour boiling water over it and let it stand over another pan for ten minutes; salt, mix well, and cut up a sour apple in the cabbage. Heat one tablespoon goose or soup drippings, brown in this an onion cut fine, add the cabbage and stew slowly, keep covered. Add a little hot water after it has boiled about five minutes. When tender add a few cloves, vinegar, brown sugar and cinnamon to taste, and serve. White cabbage may be cooked in this way.

RED CABBAGE WITH CHESTNUTS AND PRUNES

Clean cabbage and cut off outside leaves, cut on cabbage-cutter—blanch as above. Take one tablespoon of butter, put in kettle and let brown, add cabbage, let simmer about ten minutes, stir and let simmer ten minutes more. Add about one cup of water, one-fourth cup of vinegar, and one tablespoon of sugar, salt and pepper to taste. Add one-fourth cup of raisins and blanched chestnuts and cook until tender, adding to cabbage just before serving. Take one tablespoon of flour smooth with cold water, add to cabbage, let cook a few minutes and serve.

VEGETABLE HASH

Hash may be made with one or many vegetables and with or without the addition of meat and fish. Potato is the most useful vegetable for hash, because it combines well with meat or other vegetables. The vegetables must be chopped fine, well seasoned with salt and pepper, and parsley, onion, chives or green pepper if desired, and moistened with stock, milk or water, using a quarter of a cup to a pint of hash. Melt one-half tablespoon of butter or savory drippings in a pan; put in the hash, spreading it evenly and dropping small pieces of butter or drippings over the top. Cover the pan; let the hash cook over a moderate fire for half an hour; fold over like an omelet and serve. If properly cooked there will be a rich brown crust formed on the outside of the hash.

BAKED EGGPLANT

Parboil eggplant until tender, but not soft, in boiling salted water. Cut in half crosswise with a sharp knife. Scrape out the inside and do not break the skin.

Heat one tablespoon of butter, add a minced onion, brown, then scraped eggplant, bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste and an egg yolk. Mix well together, refill shells, place in dripping pan in oven—baste with butter or sprinkle cracker crumbs on top with bits of butter—baste often and brown nicely.

BROILED OR FRIED EGGPLANT

For preparing eggplant, either to fry or boil, use small eggplant as they are of more delicate flavor than the large ones. Do not cook too rapidly.

BROILED EGGPLANT

Slice the eggplant and drain it as for frying; spread the slices on a dish; season with salt and pepper; baste with olive oil; sprinkle with dried bread crumbs and broil.

EGGPLANT FRIED IN OIL (TURKISH STYLE)

Arrange in oiled pan in layers: one layer of sliced eggplant, one layer of chopped meat seasoned with egg, chopped parsley, salt and pepper; as many layers as desired, add a little olive oil, cover with water. Bake one-half hour.

EGGPLANT (ROUMANIAN)

Brown onion, peel eggplant raw, cut in quarters, put in when onions are brown with a little water and stew; add salt, white pepper, sour salt, red tomatoes; when half done add one-fourth cup of rice, cook until rice is tender.

FRIED EGGPLANT

Pare eggplant, cut in very thin slices. Sprinkle with salt, pile slices on a plate. Cover with a weight to draw out juice; let stand one hour. Dredge with flour and fry slowly in a little butter until crisp and brown, or dip in egg and cracker and fry in deep fat.

GREEN PEAS

Shell the peas and cover them with water; bring to a boil; then push aside until the water will just bubble gently. Keep the lid partly off. When the peas are tender add salt and butter; cook ten minutes longer and serve. If the peas are not the sweet variety, add one teaspoon of sugar.

SUGAR PEAS

Sugar peas may be cooked in the pods like string beans. Gather the pods while the seeds are still very small; string like beans and cut into pieces. Cover with boiling water and boil gently for twenty-five or thirty minutes or until tender. Pour off most of the water, saving it for soup; season the rest with salt and butter and serve.

CARROTS AND PEAS

Wash, scrape and cut one pint of carrots in small cubes, cook until tender, drain and reserve one-half cup of carrot water. Mix carrots well with one pint cooked green peas. Sprinkle with two tablespoons of flour, salt, pepper and sugar to taste, add two tablespoons of fat or butter, one-half cup of milk or soup stock and carrot water, boil a little longer and serve.

GREEN PEAS AND EGG BARLEY (PFÄRVEL)

Make the pfärvel. Heat one-quarter cup of butter or other fat, add the pfärvel and when golden brown, add one quart of boiling water, one-half cup of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt, aid one can or one-half peck of green peas strained. Set in moderate oven and bake one-half hour or until every kernel stands out separately. Serve hot.

GREEN PEAS AND RICE

Shell one-half peck of green peas and wash them well; if canned peas are used pour off liquid and rinse with cold water. Heat one-fourth cup of butter or other fat in a spider, add one cup of rice and let simmer, stirring constantly until rice is a golden brown; add one quart of boiling water, then the drained peas and one-half teaspoon of salt, and one-half cup of granulated sugar. Place in pudding dish, set in the oven and bake until rice is tender. (Serve hot.)

GREEN PEPPERS

Sweet green peppers, within the last ten years have gained a place in cookery in this country. Their flavor is depended on for soups. They are used in stews. They are used for salad, and they are used much as a separate vegetable in dozens of different ways.

STUFFED PEPPERS

Select six tender, sweet peppers. Soak in water bread crumbs sufficient to make one pint when the water is pressed out; mix with one-fourth teaspoon basil, herbs and two teaspoons of salt, add two tablespoons of butter.

Cut off the stem end of each pepper; carefully remove the interior and fill the peppers with the prepared dressing. Place in a shallow baking-pan and pour around them white sauce thinned with two cups of water. Bake about one hour, basting frequently with the sauce.

PEPPERS STUFFED WITH MEAT

Cut a slice from the blossom end of each pepper, remove seeds and parboil ten minutes. Chop one onion fine and cook in fat until straw color; add one-fourth cup of cold cooked chicken or veal, and 1/4 cup of mushrooms; cook two minutes, add 1/2 cup of water and two tablespoons of bread crumbs. Cool, sprinkle peppers with salt and a pinch of red pepper. Fill with stuffing, cover with crumbs and bake ten minutes.

STUFFED PEPPERS (ARDAY-INFLUS)

Take sweet green peppers, cut off blossom end; prepare the following: To one pound of chopped meat take one egg, grate in one onion, a little salt, citric acid (size of bean dissolved in a little water), mix all together. Place this mixture in the peppers, but do not fill too full. Set the entire top of peppers in place. Melt one tablespoon of fat in a saucepan, add sliced tomatoes, then the stuffed peppers and 1/2 cup of water; let steam 1/2 or 3/4 of an hour. Make sweet sour with a little citric acid and sugar to taste. Thicken gravy with 1/2 tablespoon of flour, browned with 1/2 tablespoon of fat.

GREEN PEPPERS STUFFED WITH VEGETABLES

Brown large white onions, add 1/2 cup of uncooked rice, a little salt, piece of citric acid (size of a bean dissolved in a little water), fill peppers, stew with tomatoes like Arday-influs. Or fill peppers with red cabbage which has been steamed with onions and fat, and add moistened rice.

PEPPERS STUFFED WITH NUTS

Another good way to stuff peppers is to parboil them and then stuff them with a forcemeat made of chopped nuts and bread crumbs moistened with salt and pepper. Bake, basting occasionally with melted butter for twenty minutes.

STEWED PEPPERS

Cut the peppers in half and remove the seeds, stems and pith. Then cut them in neat, small pieces and throw into boiling salted water. Boil for half an hour. Drain them and then add salt to taste, one tablespoon of butter and four tablespoons of cream—to four peppers. Heat thoroughly and serve.

BROILED GREEN PEPPERS

Broil on all sides; place the broiled peppers in a dish of cold water so that the skin can be easily removed. When the peppers are all peeled put in a bowl or crock, add French dressing, and cover closely. These peppers will keep all winter.

RADISHES

There are many varieties of radishes, round and long, black, white, and red. The small red radish may be obtained all year. They are served uncooked, merely for a relish. The large varieties are peeled, sliced and salted for the table.

To serve the small ones for table, remove tip end of root, remove the leaves and have only a small piece of stem on radish. They may be made to look like a tulip by cutting into six equal parts from the root end, down three-quarters of the length of the radish.

BROILED MUSHROOMS

Wash the mushrooms; remove the stems and peel the caps. Place them in a broiler and broil for five minutes, with the cap side down during the first half of broiling. Serve on circular pieces of buttered toast, sprinkling with salt and pepper and putting a small piece of butter on each cap.

CREAMED MUSHROOMS

First wash them thoroughly in cold water, peel them and remove the stems, then cut them in halves or quarters, according to their size.

Melt one tablespoon of butter in a saucepan over the fire then add the mushrooms and let them simmer slowly in the butter for five minutes; season them well with salt and black pepper, freshly ground. After seasoning, add a gill of cream and while it is heating sift one tablespoon of flour in a bowl, add one-half pint of milk. Stir these briskly till flour is all dissolved, then pour it gradually in the saucepan with the mushrooms and cream, stirring the whole constantly to keep it from lumping. Let it just bubble a moment, then add another tablespoon of butter and pour the creamed mushrooms over hot buttered toast on a hot platter and serve.

Cooked like this mushrooms have more nutritive value than beef.

SCALLOPED MUSHROOMS

Sauté mushrooms and prepare two cups of white sauce for one pound of mushrooms, add one teaspoon of onion juice. Into a well-greased baking dish place one-quarter of the mushroom, then one-quarter of the sauce, and one-quarter of the bread crumbs, continue in this way until all the sauce is used, pour one cup of cream over this and sprinkle the remaining crumbs over the top. Bake fifteen minutes in a moderate oven, or until the crumbs are browned.

SAUTÉD MUSHROOMS

Wash, peel caps and stems of one pound of mushrooms, drain dry between towels. Place in spider with two tablespoons of butter and one-quarter teaspoon of salt. Cover and cook twenty minutes, tossing them. Serve on hot slices of toast.

BOILED OKRA

Wash and cut off the ends of young pods, cover with boiling salted water and cook about twenty minutes, until tender. Drain, add cream (a scant cup to a quart of okra), a tablespoon of butter, and salt and pepper to taste. Another way of stewing is to cook it with tomatoes. To a pint of okra pods, washed and sliced, allow a dozen ripe tomatoes, peeled and sliced, and one medium-sized onion. Stew slowly for an hour, adding one tablespoon of butter, a scant teaspoon of salt and pepper to season. No water will be required, the tomato juice sufficing. In the West Indies lemon juice and cayenne are also added to stewed okra.

BOILED ONIONS

Peel the onions and cut off the roots; drop each into cold water as soon as it is peeled. When all are ready, drain and put in a saucepan well covered with boiling water, adding a teaspoon of salt for every quart of water. Boil rapidly for ten minutes with the cover partly off; drain and return to the fire with fresh water. Simmer until tender; add pepper and butter and serve, or omit the butter and pepper and pour a cream sauce over the onions.

SPANISH ONION RAREBIT

Boil two large onions until very soft, drain, chop, and return to the saucepan with a small piece of butter. Add milk, salt, pepper, a dash of tabasco sauce, one teaspoon of prepared mustard; one-half cup of grated cheese. Stir until of the consistency of custard.

SCALLOPED ONIONS

Cut boiled onions into quarters; put them in a baking dish and mix well with cream sauce; cover with bread crumbs and bits of butter and place in the oven until the crumbs are browned.

STEWED SQUASH

Peel squash, cut in quarters, put on to boil in cold water, and cook until tender. Drain, mash fine and smooth, add one-half cup of milk or cream, one tablespoon of butter, pinch of salt and pepper and put back on stove to keep hot. Beat well with a spoon to make light and smooth.

PARSNIPS

First scrape parsnips, then boil in weak salt water until tender; drain, and put in white sauce. Oyster plant may be prepared same way.

SPINACH

Spinach with large leaves is best. It is richest in mineral matter and is less liable to conceal insects that are difficult to dislodge. Buy the crisp, green spinach that has no withered leaves or stalks. That is the freshest and healthiest.

Cut off the roots and pick it over carefully, cutting off all the withered leaves and stems, put the leaves in cold salt water to soak for half an hour. That refreshens them, and makes any minute insects crawl out and come to the surface. Shake the leaves about and turn them over several times, drop them in a large pan of water; rinse well; lift them out separately and drop back into a second pan of water. Continue washing in fresh water until there is not a grain of sand to be found in the bottom of the pan.

In cooking be careful not to put too much water in the pot. That is the trouble with most spinach. It is drowned in water; a cup is plenty for one quart of spinach. Let the water come to a boil. Then lift the spinach out of the pan with the cold water dripping from it and put it into the pot, into the boiling water. Put the lid on the pot. Turn the fire a little low and let it cook slowly for fifteen minutes, stirring every now and then to keep it from sticking to the bottom of the pot.

Just before taking up the spinach put some salt in it; then drain off the water and put a big tablespoon of butter and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper in it. Take it out of the pot and place it in a long, flat dish. Slice some hard-boiled eggs and place the slices all around the spinach for a kind of border.

SPINACH WITH CREAM SAUCE

Cook as directed, drain through colander, and grind through machine, make a rich cream sauce. Stir spinach in this sauce, add pepper, salt, nutmeg to taste, and garnish with slices of hard-boiled egg.

SPINACH—FLEISCHIG

Boil a quart of spinach about fifteen minutes, drain thoroughly through a colander and chop extremely fine. Heat one tablespoon of drippings in a saucepan, rub one tablespoon of flour in it, add salt, pepper and ginger to taste. Add one cup of soup stock to the whole or some beef gravy. Put the spinach in the sauce, let boil for five minutes. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs or use only the hard-boiled whites for decoration, rub the yolks to a powder and mix through the spinach.

SAVOY CABBAGE

Cut off the faded outside leaves and hard part of the stalk, and wash the vegetable well. Cook in boiling salted water. Drain, chop very fine and proceed as with spinach in the foregoing recipe.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Remove any wilted leaves from the outside of the sprouts, and let them stand in cold salted water from fifteen to twenty minutes. Put the sprouts into salted, rapidly boiling water and cook, uncovered, fifteen or twenty minutes or until tender, but not until they lose their shape. Drain them thoroughly in a colander; then place them in a saucepan with butter, pepper and salt, and toss them until seasoned; or mix them lightly with just enough white sauce to coat them.

OYSTER PLANT—SALSIFY

Wash, scrape and put at once in cold water with a little vinegar to keep from discoloring. Cut one-half inch slices and cook in boiling, salted water until soft. Drain and serve in white sauce. Or boil in salted, boiling water until tender and cut in four pieces lengthwise, dredge with flour and sprinkle with a little salt and fry in hot butter or fat until nicely browned.

SCALLOPED SALSIFY

Boil and slice the salsify as in preceding recipe. Butter a baking dish; fill it by adding alternate layers of salsify and small bits of cheese. Season with salt, pepper and butter. Pour over it a sufficient quantity of milk or cream to moisten thoroughly. Bake one-half hour. Bread crumbs may be added if desired.

PLUMS, SWEET POTATOES AND MEAT

Wash one pound of prunes or plums and put on to boil with one pound of brisket of beef or any fat meat; when the meat is tender add five medium-sized sweet potatoes which have been pared and cut in small pieces. Place the meat on top, add one-half cup of sugar and a piece of sour salt (citric acid). Cover and bake until nicely browned. If gravy should cook away add some warm water.

TSIMESS

Take equal portions of parboiled spinach and sorrel, season to taste with ground nutmeg, pepper and salt, and add sufficient drippings to make all moist enough. Place in a covered dish in a slow oven.

This is prepared on Friday and left in the oven to keep hot until needed for Shabbas dinner. All green vegetables may be prepared in the same way.

TURNIPS

Do not spoil turnips by overcooking. The flat white summer turnip when sliced will cook in thirty minutes. The winter turnip requires from forty-five to sixty minutes.

BOILED TURNIPS

Have the turnips peeled and sliced. Drop the slices into a stew-pan with boiling water enough to cover generously. Cook until tender, then drain well. They are now ready to mash or chop. If they are to be served mashed, put them back in the stew-pan; mash with a wooden vegetable masher, as metal is apt to impart an unpleasant taste. Season with salt, butter, and a little pepper. Serve at once.

HASHED TURNIPS

Chop the drained turnips into rather large pieces. Return to the stew-pan, and for one and one-half pints of turnips add one teaspoon of salt, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, one tablespoon of butter, and four tablespoons of water. Cook over a very hot fire until the turnips have absorbed all the seasonings. Serve at once. Or the salt, pepper, butter, and one tablespoon of flour may be added to the hashed turnips; then the stew-pan may be placed over the hot fire and shaken frequently to toss up the turnips. When the turnips have been cooking five minutes in this manner add one-half pint of meat stock or of milk and cook ten minutes.

When meat or soup stock is used substitute drippings for the butter in the above recipe.

KOHL-RABI WITH BREAST OF LAMB

Strip off the young leaves and boil in salt water. Then peel the heads thickly, cut into round, thin slices, and lay in cold water for an hour. Put on to boil a breast of mutton or lamb, which has been previously well salted, and spice with a little ground ginger. When the mutton has boiled one-half hour add the sliced kohl-rabi, and boil covered. In the meantime, drain all the water from the leaves, which you have boiled separately, and chop them, but not too fine, and add them to the mutton. When done thicken with flour, season with pepper and more salt if needed. You may omit the leaves if you are not fond of them.

KOHL-RABI

Kohl-rabi is fine flavored and delicate, if cooked when very young and tender. It should be used when it has a diameter of not more than two or three inches.

Wash, peel and cut the Kohl-rabi root in dice and cook in salt water until tender. Cook the greens or tops in another pan of boiling water until tender, drain and chop very fine in a wooden bowl. Heat butter or fat, add flour, then the chopped greens, and one cup of liquor the Kohl-rabi root was cooked in or one cup of soup stock. Add the Kohl-rabi, cook altogether, and serve.

Use same quantities as for turnips.

KALE

Remove all the old or tough leaves; wash the kale thoroughly and drain. Put it into boiling water to which has been added salt in the proportion of one-half tablespoon to two quarts of water. Boil rapidly, uncovered, until the vegetable is tender; pour off the water; chop the kale very fine; return it to the kettle with one tablespoon of drippings and two of meat stock or water to every pint of the minced vegetable. Add more salt if necessary; cook for ten minutes and serve at once. The entire time for cooking varies from thirty to fifty minutes.

The leaves are sweeter and more tender after having been touched by the frost. The same is true of Savoy cabbage.

SWISS CHARD

This vegetable is a variety of beet in which the leaf stalk and midrib have been developed instead of the root. It is cultivated like spinach, and the green, tender leaves are prepared exactly like this vegetable. The midribs of the full-grown leaves may be cooked like celery.

STEWED TOMATOES

Pour boiling water over the tomatoes; remove the skins; cut into small pieces and place in a saucepan over the fire. Boil gently for twenty or thirty minutes and season, allowing for each quart of tomatoes one generous teaspoon each of salt and sugar and one tablespoon of butter. If in addition to this seasoning a slice of onion has been cooked with the tomatoes from the beginning, the flavor will be greatly improved.

CANNED TOMATOES, STEWED

Salt, pepper; add a lump of butter the size of an egg and add one tablespoon of sugar. Thicken with one teaspoon of flour wet with one tablespoon of cold water, stir into the tomatoes and boil up once.

FRIED TOMATOES

Cut large, sound tomatoes in halves and flour the insides thickly. Season with a little salt and pepper. Allow the butter to get very hot before putting in the tomatoes. When brown on one side, turn, and when done serve with hot cream or thicken some milk and pour over the tomatoes hot.

FRIED GREEN TOMATOES

Cut into thin slices large green tomatoes, sprinkle with salt and dip into cornmeal, fry slowly in a little butter till well browned; keep the frying-pan covered while they are cooking, so they will be perfectly tender. These are very delicately flavored, and much easier to fry than ripe tomatoes. They make an excellent breakfast dish.

TOMATO PURÉE

Scald the tomatoes, take off the skins carefully and stew with one teaspoon each of butter and sugar; salt and pepper to taste. This is enough seasoning for a quart of tomatoes. When the tomatoes are very soft strain through a coarse sieve and if necessary thicken with one teaspoon of flour.

SCALLOPED TOMATOES

Drain off part of the juice from one quart of tomatoes and season with pepper, salt, and onion juice. Cover the bottom of a baking dish with rolled crackers, dot over with dabs of butter, pepper, and salt, then another layer of tomatoes, then of crumbs, and so on until a layer of crumbs covers the top.

If fresh tomatoes are used bake one hour, if canned, 1/2 hour.

If the crumbs begin to brown too quickly cover the dish with a tin plate.

STUFFED TOMATOES

Select tomatoes of uniform size, cut a slice from the stem end and scoop out a portion of the pulp. Have in readiness a dressing made from grated bread crumbs, parsley, a slice of minced onion, a high seasoning of salt and paprika and sufficient melted butter to moisten. Fill this into the tomatoes and heap it up in the centers. Place a bit of butter on top of each and bake in a quick oven until the vegetables are tender and the tops are delicately browned.

TOMATOES WITH RICE

Take six large tomatoes, pour boiling water over them and skin them. Scrape all the inside out with a spoon, put in saucepan together with two onions, a tablespoon of butter, one pint of water; let this boil for a little while; strain, place back on stove, pour into this one-half pound of rice, let it cook tender; add salt, pepper, a tablespoon of butter and a little grated cheese. Fill the tomatoes with this mixture, dip them in egg and bread crumbs, then fry till nice and brown.

TOMATO CUSTARDS

Simmer for fifteen minutes in a covered saucepan four cups chopped tomatoes, four eggs, one sliced onion, one bay leaf, and sprig of parsley. Strain and if there be not two cups of liquid, add water. Beat four eggs and add to liquid. Pour into greased baking cups, and stand them in a pan of water and bake until firm—about fifteen minutes. Turn out and serve with cream sauce containing green peas.

BAKED TOMATO AND EGG PLANT

Take a deep earthenware dish, pour into it a cup of cream; cut several slices of eggplant very thin, salt well, and line the dish with them; slice two large tomatoes, place a layer of these on the eggplant, next a layer of spaghetti (cooked); sprinkle with grated cheese, pieces of butter, salt, and pepper; cover this with layer of tomatoes; salt well and sprinkle with chopped green pepper, and a top layer of eggplant, which also salt and pepper well. Cook gently an hour and a half in slow, hot oven.

CREOLE TOMATOES

Take one small onion and half a green pepper, chop them fine and cook until tender in a tablespoon of butter. Cut six tomatoes in half, sprinkle with a little sugar, season on both sides with salt, pepper and a little flour, and put them into the pan with skin-side down to cook partially, then turn them once; they must cook over a slow fire. Then sprinkle one tablespoon of chopped parsley over them, pour in one cup of thick cream and when this has become thoroughly hot, and has been combined with the other ingredients, the tomatoes are ready to serve.

They have not been disturbed since the first turning and have retained their shape. Half a tomato is placed on a slice of toast, with sufficient gravy to moisten. At the season of the year, when tomatoes are hard and firm, they may be peeled before cooking. Later they will likely fall to pieces unless the skin is left on. This is one method of cooking tomatoes in which they lose the sharp acid taste, disagreeable to so many persons.

STRING BEANS WITH TOMATOES

Cut off both ends of the beans, string them carefully and break into pieces about an inch in length and boil in salt water. When tender drain off this brine and add fresh water (boiling from the kettle). Add a piece of butter, three or four large potatoes cut into squares, also four large tomatoes, cut up, and season with salt and pepper. Melt one tablespoon of butter in a spider, stir into it one tablespoon of flour, thin with milk, and add this to the beans.

STRING BEANS WITH LAMB

Take a small breast of lamb, two large onions, one-quarter peck of beans (string and cut in long thin pieces); skin six large tomatoes, and add two cups of water. Cook until the beans are tender, then add one tablespoon of flour to thicken.

STRING OR WAX-BEANS, SWEET AND SOUR

Put the beans into sufficient boiling water to just cover them; cook for one hour and a half to two hours, depending upon the tenderness of the beans. Meanwhile, prepare for each quart of beans five sour apples; peel, core and cut in pieces. When the beans are done, add the apples, the thin peel of one lemon, the juice of one and one-half lemons, a small teaspoon of salt, and two tablespoons of cider vinegar. Let the apples cook on top of the beans until they are thoroughly done, then mix well with a good quarter cup of granulated sugar. This dish will be better by being served the next day warmed up.

SWEET SOUR BEANS

If you use canned string beans, heat some fat in a spider and put in one tablespoon of flour; brown slightly; add one tablespoon of brown sugar, a pinch of salt, some cinnamon and vinegar to taste; then add the beans and let them simmer on the back of stove, but do not let them burn. The juice of pickled peaches or pears is delicious in preparing sweet and sour beans.

STRING OR GREEN SNAP BEANS

Cut off the tops and bottoms and "string" carefully; break the beans in pieces about an inch long and lay them in cold water, with a little salt, for ten or fifteen minutes. Heat one tablespoon of drippings in a stew-pan, in which you have cut up part of an onion and some parsley; cover this and stew about ten minutes. In the meantime, drain the beans, put into the stew-pan and stew until tender; add one tablespoon of flour and season with salt and pepper (meat gravy or soup stock will improve them). You may pare about half a dozen potatoes, cut into dice shape, and add to the beans. If you prefer, you may add cream or milk instead of soup stock and use butter.

POTATOES

Potatoes are valuable articles of food and care should be taken in cooking them. The most economical method is to cook them in their "jackets" as there is not nearly as much waste of potato or of the salts that are valuable as food.

POTATOES BOILED IN THEIR JACKETS

Potatoes should be well brushed and put on to boil in a saucepan of boiling water; they should continue boiling at the same degree of heat until they are done, when a fork will easily pierce them. This will take from twenty-five to thirty minutes. Drain, draw the saucepan to a low flame, place a clean cloth folded over the top of the saucepan and press the lid down over it. This dries the potatoes and makes them a good color. Hold the potatoes in a cloth and peel them, then reheat for one minute and serve.

New potatoes, if well brushed or scraped do not require peeling.

POTATOES FOR TWENTY PEOPLE

To serve twenty people one-half peck of potatoes is required.

BOILED POTATOES

Peel six or eight potatoes, and put them on in boiling water to which has been added one teaspoon of salt. Boil as above.

The saucepan used for cooking potatoes should be used for no other purpose.

BAKED POTATOES, No. 1

Select fine, smooth potatoes and boil them about twenty minutes. Drain off the water, remove the skins and pack in a buttered dish. Lay a small piece of butter on each potato, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and sprinkle fine bread crumbs over all, with a few tablespoons of cream. Bake until a nice light brown. Serve in the same dish. Garnish with parsley.

BAKED POTATOES, No. 2

Wash large potatoes and bake in a quick oven until soft, which will take about three-quarters of an hour. This is the most wholesome way of cooking potatoes.

POTATO BALLS WITH PARSLEY

Pare very thin, medium potatoes as near a size as possible. Have ready a pot of boiling water, salted, drop in the potatoes and keep them at a quick boil until tender. Serve with a batter made by beating to a cream two tablespoons of butter, one-half tablespoon of lemon juice and one tablespoon of finely minced parsley; add salt and a dash of cayenne pepper; spread over the hot potatoes, and it will melt into a delicious dressing. This is especially nice to serve with fish.

NEW POTATOES

Brush and scrape off all the skin of six potatoes and boil for half an hour in salted boiling water, drain, salt and dry for a few minutes, and then pour melted butter over them and sprinkle with chopped parsley.

MASHED POTATOES

Old potatoes may be used. Pare as many potatoes as required. Boil in salt water, drain thoroughly when done and mash them in the pot with a potato masher, working in a large tablespoon of butter and enough milk to make them resemble dough, do not allow any lumps to form in your dish. Garnish with parsley.

SCALLOPED POTATOES, No. 1

Grease a pan with butter. Choose the potatoes that are so big or misshapen you wouldn't want to use them for boiling or baking. Cut them in thin slices. Spread them in the pan in a layer an inch thick. Sprinkle with pepper and salt to taste. Dot with butter here and there, perhaps a half teaspoon for each layer. Four or six bits of butter should be sprinkled over each layer. Repeat the layers of the raw potatoes until the pan is full. Cover them with milk. Place in the oven and cook for one hour.

SCALLOPED POTATOES, No. 2

Cut two cups of cold potatoes into cubes; mix well with two cups of cream sauce, adding more seasoning if necessary; pour into a baking dish; cover with one cup of bread crumbs and dot with small pieces of butter and bake for about half an hour.

ROAST POTATOES

Take either sweet or Irish potatoes, or both; pare, wash, and salt them, and lay them around the meat, and let them roast for about three-quarters of an hour. Turn them about once, so they will be nicely browned.

CREAMED POTATOES

Make a cream sauce, a little thinner than usual by adding a little extra milk. Cut two cups of boiled potatoes into small cubes and mix them thoroughly with the same. Cook in a double boiler until the potatoes are thoroughly hot, add a little chopped parsley if desired, and serve.

POTATOES AU GRATIN

Slice two cups of cold boiled potatoes and add them to two cups of hot cream sauce. Bring all to a boil; remove and add three tablespoons of grated cheese, salt and pepper to taste. Pour all into a baking dish, sprinkle buttered bread crumbs over the top and set in the oven to brown.

GERMAN FRIED POTATOES

Cut up some raw potatoes quite thin, salt and pepper and drop in boiling fat. Cover up at first to soften them. Turn frequently to prevent burning and then remove the cover to brown slightly.

SARATOGA CHIPS

Proceed as above; but do not cover and do not take as many potatoes at one time.

HASHED BROWN POTATOES, LYONNAISE

Finely hash up six cold boiled potatoes and keep on a plate. Heat one tablespoon of butter in a frying-pan, add a finely chopped onion, and lightly brown for three minutes, then add the potatoes. Season with one-half teaspoon of salt and two saltspoons of white pepper, evenly sprinkled over, then nicely brown them for ten minutes, occasionally tossing them meanwhile. Give them a nice omelet form, brown for eight minutes more, turn on a hot dish, sprinkle a little freshly chopped parsley over and serve. These potatoes may be prepared with fat in place of butter.

CURRIED POTATOES

Melt two tablespoons of fat in a frying-pan; add one onion chopped fine and cook until straw color. Add two cups of boiled potatoes, cut in dice, one-half cup of stock, and one tablespoon of curry powder. Cook until the stock has been absorbed; then add one-half teaspoon of salt, a dash of red pepper, and one teaspoon of lemon juice.

POTATO CAKES

Take cold mashed potatoes or cold baked or boiled potatoes that have been mashed and seasoned; roll into balls, dusting the hands well with flour first. Flatten into cakes and sauté in butter, or place on a buttered tin with a small piece of butter on the top of each and bake in a hot oven until golden brown.

POTATOES AND CORN

Butter well a deep baking dish, holding a quart or more. In the bottom place a layer of potatoes, sliced thin, then a layer of corn, using one-half the contents of a can. On this sprinkle a little grated onion and season with salt, pepper and bits of butter. Add another layer of potatoes, then the rest of the corn, seasoning as before, and cover the whole with a layer of cracker crumbs. Dot well with butter, pour on milk until it comes to the top, and bake three-quarters of an hour. Use cooked potatoes, having them cold before slicing.

FRENCH FRIED POTATOES

Pare the potatoes and throw them into cold water until needed. Dry them with a towel; cut into small pieces lengthwise of the potato; drop them into hot fat and remove when lightly browned. It is better to fry only a few at a time, letting those done stand in a colander in the oven to keep hot. When all are done, sprinkle with salt and serve at once.

For variety; and for use in garnishing, cut the potatoes into balls, using the vegetable cutter which comes for this purpose.

POTATOES WITH CARAWAY SEEDS

Boil medium-sized potatoes in their jackets until tender, peel while hot. Put two tablespoons of butter or fat in spider, when hot add potatoes, brown well all over. Drain, sprinkle with salt and one teaspoon of caraway seeds and serve hot.

POTATOES AND PEARS

Heat two tablespoons of fat, add chopped onion and two tablespoons of flour; when flour is brown, add 1-1/2 cups of water, stir and cook until smooth, add salt, brown sugar and a little cinnamon to taste. Quarter four medium-sized cooking pears, but do not peel, cook them in the brown sauce, then add six medium, raw potatoes, pared, and cook until tender.

IMITATION NEW POTATOES

Buy a potato cutter at a first-class hardware store, and with it cut the potatoes to the size of a hickory nut, and then fry or steam them. When cooked they look just like new potatoes. They are especially nice to garnish meats. You may also parboil and brown in fat, or boil and add parsley as you would with new potatoes. The remainder of the raw potatoes may be boiled and mashed or fried into ribbons.

POTATO RIBBON

Pare and lay in cold water (ice-water is best) for half an hour. Select the largest potatoes, then cut round and round in one continuous curl-like strip (there is also an instrument for this purpose, which costs but a trifle); handle with care and fry a few at a time for fear of entanglement, in deep fat.

STEWED POTATOES WITH ONIONS

Take small potatoes, pare and wash them very clean, use one onion to about ten potatoes, add goose-oil (in fact any kind of drippings from roast meat will answer) and put them in a pot or spider. When hot cut up an onion very fine and add to the boiling fat. Then add the potatoes. Salt and pepper to taste. Pour some water over all, cover up tight and let them simmer for about 3/4 of an hour.

STEWED POTATOES, SOUR

Put a tablespoon of drippings in a kettle, and when it is hot cut up an onion fine and fry in the hot fat, cover closely. Put in potatoes, which have been previously pared, washed, quartered and well salted. Cover them tight and stew slowly until soft, stirring them occasionally. Then heat in a spider a little drippings. Brown in this a spoon of flour and add some soup-stock, vinegar and chopped parsley. Pour this over the potatoes, boil up once and serve.

STEWED POTATOES

Pare and quarter, and put on to boil. When almost done drain off the water, add one cup of milk, one tablespoon of butter, a little chopped parsley and cook a while longer. Thicken with a little flour (wet with cold water or milk), stir, and take from the fire.

STUFFED POTATOES

Take as many potatoes as are needed; when done, cut off one end and take out inside; mash this and mix with it one tablespoon of butter, a sprig of parsley, pepper, salt, and enough milk to make quite soft. Put back in tine potato skins and brown in oven and serve very hot.

If so desired the open end of each may be dipped in beaten egg before being put in oven.

BOHEMIAN POTATO PUFF

Pare, wash and boil potatoes until soft enough to mash well. Drain off nearly all the water, leaving just a little; add one teaspoon of salt and return to the stove. It is better to boil the potatoes in salt water and add more salt if necessary after mashing. Sift one-half cup of flour into the potatoes after returning to the fire and keep covered closely for about five minutes. Then remove from the stove and mash them as hard as you can, so as not to have any lumps. They must be of the consistency of dough and smooth as velvet. Now put about two tablespoons of drippings or goose-fat in a spider, chop up some onions very fine and heat them until they become a light-brown, take a tablespoon and dip it in the hot fat and then cut a spoonful of the potato dough with the same spoon and put it in the spider, and so on until you have used all. Be careful to dip your spoon in the hot fat every time you cut a puff. Let them brown slightly.

POTATOES (HUNGARIAN STYLE)

Wash, pare and cut potatoes in one-third inch pieces, there should be three cups; parboil three minutes, and drain. Add one-third cup of butter, and cook on back of range until potatoes are soft and slightly browned. Melt two tablespoons of butter, add a few drops of onion juice, two tablespoons of flour, and pour on gradually one cup of hot milk, season with salt and paprika, then add one well-beaten egg yolk. Pour sauce over potatoes and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.

POTATO PUFF

Take two cups of cold mashed potatoes and stir into them one tablespoon of melted butter, beating to a white cream before adding anything else. Then put with this two eggs beaten extremely light, one cup of cream, and salt to taste. Beat all well and pour into a deep dish, and bake in a quick oven until it is nice and brown. If properly mixed, it will come out of the oven light, puffy, and delectable.

POTATO SURPRISE

Take large potatoes, parboil without peeling, cut a small piece of one end of the potato and scoop out the inside. Mince two ounces cooked mutton, season with pepper and salt, mix with the potato pulp and a little gravy. Return end of potato to its place and bake for about twenty minutes with a little fat on top of each potato.

BOILED SWEET POTATOES

Put on in boiling water, without any salt, and boil until a fork will easily pierce the largest. Drain off the water and dry.

FRIED SWEET POTATOES

Boil, peel and cut lengthwise into slices a quarter of an inch thick. Fry in sweet drippings or butter (cold boiled potatoes may also be fried in this way).

FRENCH FRIED SWEET POTATOES

Wash and cut small uncooked sweet potatoes into quarters; dry them and lower them into boiling hot fat. Brown thoroughly; remove with a skimmer; drain and dry on paper; sprinkle with salt and serve.

ROAST SWEET POTATOES

These are commonly called "baked" sweet potatoes. Select those of uniform size; wash, and roast in the oven until done, which you can easily tell by pressing the potatoes. If done they will leave an impression when touched. It usually requires three-quarters of an hour. Serve in their "jackets."

ROAST SWEET POTATOES WITH MEAT

Pare, cut lengthwise, salt and put them around roast meats or poultry of any kind. Roast about three-quarters of an hour, or until brown.

SWEET POTATOES AND APPLES

Wash and pare long sweet potatoes. Cook in boiling salted water until almost soft; drain and cut slices crosswise, two inches high. Core, pare and cut apples in one-half inch rounds. Into a spider, place the potatoes upright, with a slice of apple on top of each. Pour over one-half cup of maple syrup, one-fourth cup of water and two tablespoons of butter. Baste frequently until apples are soft. Then pour one teaspoon of rum over each section, place a candied cherry in the center of each apple and bake ten minutes. Remove to platter and if desired, pour more rum over and around. Light the liquor and bring to the table burning.

CANDIED SWEET POTATOES

Boil sweet potatoes, peel and cut into long slices; place in an earthen dish; place lumps of butter or chicken-fat if desired on each side, and sprinkle with sugar. A little water or juice of half a lemon may be added. Bake until the sugar and fat have candied and the potatoes are brown.

DRIED BEANS

Look the beans over carefully to remove all dirt and pebbles, then wash clean. Soak them overnight in plenty of cold water. In the morning pour off the water and put them in a stew-pan with cold water enough to cover them generously. Let them come to the boiling point in this water, then drain. If the beans are old and hard, for each quart put a piece of soda about the size of a large bean in the water in which they are soaked overnight, also in the first water in which they are boiled.

The scalded and drained beans should be put back in the stew-pan and covered generously with boiling water. Add one tablespoon of salt for one quart of beans. They should now cook slowly, with the cover partially off the stew-pan until they have reached the required degree of tenderness. For stewed and baked beans the cooking must stop when the skins begin to crack. For beans served with a sauce they should cook until perfectly tender, but they must not be broken or mushy. For purées and soups they should be cooked until very soft.

SWEET SOUR BEANS AND LINZEN

Soak overnight and drain the beans, boil in salted water until tender; drain and prepare by adding salt and pepper to taste, thicken with one tablespoon of drippings in which has been browned one tablespoon of flour and some soup stock. If the beans are to be made sweet sour add two tablespoons of vinegar and two tablespoons of brown sugar; boil for a few minutes and serve.

BAKED BEANS WITH BRISKET OF BEEF

Wash, pick over and soak overnight in cold water, two cups of navy beans. In the morning, drain and cover with fresh water, heat slowly and let cook just below the boiling point until the skins burst. When done, drain beans and put in a pot with one and one-half pounds of brisket of beef. Mix one-half tablespoon of mustard; one teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of molasses, two tablespoons of sugar, one-half cup of boiling water and pour over beans, and add enough more boiling water to cover them. Cover pot and bake slowly six or eight hours.

HARICOT BEANS AND BEEF

Wash two cups of haricot beans and leave them covered with two pints of water overnight. Next day brown one coarsely chopped onion in a little fat and put it with the beans and their water into a casserole or stew-jar.

Cook closely covered and rather slowly in the oven or by the side of the fire one hour, then put in a pound of beef in fairly large pieces.

An hour later add one carrot cut into dice, half as many dice of turnip, and salt and pepper to taste. Continue the slow cooking until these vegetables are tender, and a few minutes before serving thicken the stew with pea meal or flour previously baked to a fawn color. Flavor with vinegar.

Owing to its concentrated nutriment this stew should be served sparingly with an abundance of potatoes and green vegetables.

BEANS AND BARLEY

Soak one-half cup of navy beans in cold water overnight. Drain and cook in one quart boiling water with one teaspoon of salt until tender but not broken, add one-half cup of barley and let cook slowly until barley is tender, about one-half hour. Add fat soup stock as the water evaporates. Season to taste and bake in medium oven about one-half hour or until dry but not browned.

DRIED LIMA BEANS, BAKED

Wash one pound of dried Lima beans, let soak overnight. Drain, add fresh water, bring quickly to the boiling point, then let simmer until tender. Add salt and paprika. Heat two tablespoons of poultry or beef fat in a spider, add two tablespoons of flour, when brown add one cup of bean liquid, and the beans. Let simmer and bake in casserole one-half hour. Reserve the bean broth and add more if necessary.

FARSOLE

Soak the large, very hard Lima beans overnight. To a pound of beans take two large onions. When the beans are soft add the onions browned in fat, salt, pepper, a tablespoon of sugar, a quarter cup of rice, and let all simmer until the rice is done.

FARSOLE DULCE

Soak dried Lima beans in cold water overnight. Drain, put on with very little water, add one tablespoon of fat, peel of lemon or orange. When beans are half done, add a tablespoon of sugar which has been browned in a pan, stew slowly until the beans are tender.

SLAITTA (ROUMANIAN)

Soak one pound medium-sized white beans overnight. Put on to boil in cold water, when soft, mash, adding a little warm water while mashing. Add salt and mashed garlic to beans and one or two teaspoons of sugar. To a pound of beans take a pound of onions. Brown the onions in oil and add water so they do not become too brown or greasy. When beans are tender serve on platter with browned onions poured over them. May be served either hot or cold. This dish is served with Carnatzlich. (See Meats.)

BAKED LENTILS (LINZEN)

Pick and wash one-half pound of lentils and soak them in cold water overnight. In the morning put them over the fire in a large saucepan with about a quart of water. As soon as the water begins to boil, the lentils will rise to the top. Remove them with a skimmer, put them in a baking dish with one small onion and three or four ounces of smoked fat meat in the centre, and pour over them a pint of boiling water, in which one-half teaspoon of salt and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper have been mixed. Bake in a moderate oven four or five hours. The lentils must be kept moist and it may be necessary to add a little water from time to time.

MEAT SUBSTITUTES

The following recipes contain as much nourishment as any meat dish and can readily be substituted for meat at a meal.

LENTIL SAUSAGES

For each person soak one tablespoon of lentils overnight. Then drain and leave them spread on a dish for a day.

When ready to use, chop them finely and cook gently in a covered jar in an outer vessel of water for about one hour, adding from time to time just as much water as they will absorb.

When fully cooked, stir in about twice their bulk in bread crumbs (preferably whole wheat), a slight flavoring of very finely chopped onion, powdered mixed herbs and nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, and drippings to make the whole fairly moist.

When cool, shape into sausages (or cutlets or round cakes for luncheon), coat them with egg and bread crumbs or seasoned flour, and brown them in a little fat in a frying-pan or in a fairly hot oven.

Gravy or diluted meat extract should be served with them. They are no less good when fried overnight and reheated in the gravy.

MOCK CHILE CON CARNE

Pick over and wash two cups of kidney beans, soak in one quart of water. Next morning bring to a boil in fresh water, drain, cover beans with boiling water and cook until tender. Half an hour before beans are to be served, put one tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, chop and add four green, peppers, one small red pepper, one onion, one pint of tomatoes, one teaspoon of salt, cook fifteen minutes, add to beans with three tablespoons of uncooked rice, simmer until thick.

SPANISH BEANS

Soak two cups of beans overnight. Drain and boil until the skin cracks, and let one cup of water remain on the beans. Chop fine one onion and two cloves of garlic and fry a light brown in one tablespoon of olive oil; then add one-half can of tomatoes, one teaspoon chili powder dissolved in a little cold water, salt to taste and half a dozen olives chopped. A piece of smoked beef or tongue improves the flavor.

PEA PURÉE

Pick over and wash two cups of dried peas. Soak them over night or for several hours in cold water. Put them on to boil in three pints of fresh, cold water and let them simmer until dissolved. Keep well scraped from the sides of the kettle.

When soft, nib through a strainer, add a little boiling water or soup stock, add one and one-half teaspoons of salt, one-half teaspoon of sugar and a speck of white pepper, and beat the mixture well.

Put hard brisket fat chopped in small pieces, about one-eighth of a pound will be sufficient, into a spider and cook until a light yellow, add a large onion, cut in dice and continue cooking with the fat until brown. Serve the purée like mashed potatoes. Pour the onion and fat over it before serving. Serve hot.

KIDNEY BEANS WITH BROWN SAUCE

Pick over and wash one pint (two cups) of kidney beans let soak overnight in cold water. Drain and cook in fresh salted water till tender. Drain; shake in saucepan with one teaspoon butter three minutes. Add one cup of brown sauce and simmer five minutes.

NAHIT (RUSSIAN PEAS)

Place one pound Russian peas in granite kettle, add one tablespoon of salt and hot water to more than cover and let soak twelve hours or more. Drain, return to the kettle, cover with boiling water, let cook fifteen minutes, add one-quarter teaspoon of soda and one pound of brisket of beef or back or neck of fat chicken and let cook slowly until peas are tender. Melt two tablespoons of fat, add two tablespoons of flour and two tablespoons of brown sugar, let brown, add one cup of the liquid from the peas, cook until thick and smooth. Pour over the peas, cook thoroughly, then place in casserole and bake in a moderate oven one-half hour.

BOILED CHESTNUTS

Boil the chestnuts a few minutes; drain and remove the shells and skins. Boil again until tender, adding sufficient salt to make them palatable. Drain again; shake over the fire until dry; cover with cream sauce and serve at once. If allowed to stand the chestnuts become heavy and unappetizing.

CHESTNUT PURÉE

Put one pound of chestnuts, which have been shelled and skinned, on to boil in two cups of milk and cook until tender, then mash smooth. If necessary add more milk while boiling. Strain and season with salt and pepper and one teaspoon of fresh butter. Serve hot.

ROASTED CHESTNUTS

With a sharp knife cut across on the flat side of each chestnut; put them in a wire pan and shake constantly over a hot fire until the shells split. Serve at once.

CHESTNUTS WITH CELERY (TURKISH)

Clean and cut table celery and some celery root. Take roasted chestnuts, season with two tablespoons of olive oil; put on to boil with the celery and one tablespoon of lemon juice; boil all until celery is tender, season with salt and pepper and serve hot.

CHESTNUTS AND PRUNES

Peel one pint of chestnuts and skin, then boil until tender. Boil one pint of prunes till tender. Mix chestnuts and prunes together, leaving whatever of sauce there is oil the prunes. Season with sugar, cinnamon, and lemon juice, and cook all together.

CHESTNUTS AND RAISINS

Remove the outer shells from one quart of chestnuts. Then pour boiling water over them and remove the skins; put in cold water for half an hour, then drain and put on in a boiler with cold water and boil until tender. Do not add any salt as it toughens them.

In another boiler put one cup of raisins which have been stemmed and cleaned, cover with cold water, add two bay leaves and some stick cinnamon; boil until tender, then pour them into the boiler containing the chestnuts. Add a pinch of salt and one teaspoon of butter and continue until chestnuts are done, then add two tablespoons of white wine, two tablespoons of sugar, one-half teaspoon of vinegar and thicken with one tablespoon of flour dissolved in water. More sugar or vinegar may be added to suit taste. Boil a few minutes, then serve.

BOSTON ROAST

Mash one pound of cooked kidney beans and put them through a food chopper, add one-half pound of grated cheese, salt and red pepper to taste and sufficient bread crumbs to make the mixture stiff enough to form into a ball. Bake in a moderate oven, basting occasionally with butter and water. Serve with tomato sauce.

NUT LOAF

Mix two cups of soft bread crumbs and one cup of chopped walnut meats with six tablespoons of butter or any butter substitute, one-half cup of hot water, one and one-half teaspoons of salt, one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, one tablespoon of chopped onion, a sprig of parsley chopped, and bind with one egg; shape into a loaf. Place in a greased baking-dish and bake in a moderate oven one hour. As the liquor boils out of the loaf it may be used for basting. A brown sauce may be made in the dish in which the loaf is cooked.

NUT ROAST

Soak one-half cup of lentils overnight; in the morning drain, cover with fresh water and bring to a boil. Drain again, put in fresh water and cook until tender. Drain once more, throw away the water, and press the lentils through a colander. To them add one-half cup shelled roasted peanuts, either ground or chopped, one-half cup of toasted bread crumby one-half teaspoon of salt and one-half saltspoon of pepper, and milk sufficient to make the mixture the consistency of mush. Put into a greased baking-dish; bake in a moderate oven for an hour; turn out on a heated platter; garnish with parsley or watercress and serve.

VEGETABLE MEAT PIE

Soak one-half cup of Lima beans overnight; in the morning let them boil rapidly for one-half hour. Drain, slip the beans from their skins and split them in halves. Blanch one-quarter cup of almonds and chop them with one-quarter cup of peanuts. Boil four potatoes, and when done cut two of them into small cubes. Mash the remaining; two and use them for a dough, adding four tablespoons of hot milk, a little salt and one-quarter cup of flour. Put a layer of beans in the bottom of the baking-dish, a sprinkling of nuts, a little hard-boiled egg, then the potato blocks and one-half tablespoon each of chopped parsley and chopped onion, one-half teaspoon of salt and one-half saltspoon of pepper and so on until the material is all used. Roll out the potato dough the size of the baking-dish; put it over the dish, brush with milk and bake half an hour in a moderately quick oven.

*TIME TABLE FOR COOKING*

The ordinary recipe generally states the time required for cooking its ingredients, but an approximate table is occasionally of use as giving a general idea of the time required for certain things. In any case, it is approximate only, for things should be cooked until done, and various conditions modify the time stated. The atmosphere, altitude, kind of oven or mode of heating employed, and the age of certain things, such as vegetables, all have to be considered, so that hard and fast rules cannot be laid down.

ROASTING

Allow 15 minutes to warm the meat through, and after that, figure the time.

Beef (rare), 12 to 15 minutes per pound; (well done), 15 to 18 minutes.

Lamb 18 minutes per pound
Mutton 20 minutes per pound
Veal 30 minutes per pound
Chicken, 4lb about 2 hours, or 20 minutes per pound
Turkey, 10lb about 3-1/2 hours, or 20 minutes per pound
Goose, 8lb about 2 hours, or 15 minutes per pound
Duck 40 to 60 minutes per pound

BROILING

Steaks, 1 inch thick (rare), 6 to 8 minutes; (medium), 8 to 10 minutes.

Steaks, 1-1/2 inch thick (rare), 8 to 12 minutes; (medium), 12 to 15 minutes.

Lamb, or Mutton Chops (well done) 8 to 10 minutes
Spring Chicken 20 minutes
Squab 10 to 15 minutes

BOILING

Beef Slowly, 40 to 60 minutes per pound
Mutton Slowly, 20 minutes per pound
Corned Beef Slowly, 30 minutes per pound
Chicken Slowly, 20 minutes per pound
Fowl Slowly, 30 minutes per pound
Tripe three to five hours

VEGETABLES

Young peas, canned tomatoes, green corn, asparagus, spinach, Brussels sprouts—15 to 20 minutes.

Rice, potatoes, macaroni, summer squash, celery, cauliflower, young cabbage, peas—20 to 30 minutes.

Young turnips, young beets, young carrots, young parsnips, tomatoes, baked potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, cabbage, cauliflower—30 to 45 minutes.

String beans, shell beans, oyster plant, winter squash—45 to 60 minutes.

Winter vegetables—one to two hours.

*SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS*

Salads are divided into two groups, dinner salads and the more substantial ones served at supper and luncheon in the place of meats. They are exceedingly wholesome.

Nearly all the meats, vegetables, and fruits may be served as salads. The essential thing is to have the salad fresh and cold; and if green, to have the leaves crisp and dry.

Lettuce, Romaine, endive and chicory or escarole make the best dinner salads, although one may use mixed cooked vegetables or well-prepared uncooked cabbage.

Left-over green vegetables, string beans, peas, carrots, turnips, cauliflower, cooked spinach, leeks and beets may all take their place in the dinner salad. Use them mixed, alone, or as a garnish for lettuce.

Lettuce and all green, raw salad vegetables should be washed and soaked in cold water as soon as they come from the market. After they have stood fifteen to twenty minutes in cold or ice water, free them from moisture by swinging them in a wire basket, or dry, without bruising, each leaf carefully with a napkin. Put them in a cheese-cloth bag and on the ice, ready for service. In this way they will remain dry and cold, and will keep nicely for a week.

The dressing is added only at the moment of serving, as the salad wilts if allowed to stand after the dressing is added.

Meat of any kind used for salads should be cut into dice, but not smaller than one-half inch, or it will seem like hash. It should be marinated before being mixed with the other parts of the salad. Meat mixtures are usually piled in cone-shape on a dish, the mayonnaise then spread over it, and garnished with lettuce, capers, hard-boiled eggs, gherkins, etc.

*To Marinate.*—Take one part of oil and three of vinegar, with pepper and salt for taste; stir them into the meat, and let it stand a couple of hours; drain off any of the marinade which has not been absorbed before combining the meat with the other parts of the salad. Use only enough marinade to season the meat or fish.

If too much vinegar is added to mayonnaise it robs it of its consistency and flavor. All salads must be mixed at the last minute, at serving time. Mayonnaise dressing may be made hours before and the meat, lettuce and celery prepared, but each must be kept in a separate dish until mixing time.

*SALAD DRESSINGS*

MAYONNAISE DRESSING

Beat the yolk of one egg in a cold dish with a silver or wooden fork. If the weather is very warm, place the bowl in a larger vessel filled with chopped ice. When the egg is beaten add one-half teaspoon of salt, dash of red pepper, one-half teaspoon of English mustard and olive oil, drop by drop, being careful to beat well without reversing the motion for fear of curdling. When the dressing thickens, begin adding the vinegar or lemon juice, drop by drop. Then add more olive oil, then more acid, continuing until one cup of olive oil and two teaspoons of vinegar or lemon juice are all used. Be sure to have all the ingredients and dishes as cold as possible.

If the mixture should curdle, begin immediately with a fresh egg in a fresh dish and when it is well beaten add carefully the curdled mixture, drop by drop.

To serve twenty people one pint of mayonnaise is required.

MAYONNAISE WITH WHIPPED CREAM

When you are in want of a large quantity of dressing, mayonnaise or French, add one pint of whipped cream to your prepared dressing, stirring thoroughly, just before ready to serve.

COLORED MAYONNAISE

To color mayonnaise, chop parsley leaves very fine; pound them in a small quantity of lemon juice; strain and add the juice to the dressing.

WHITE MAYONNAISE

To make white mayonnaise, follow the ordinary directions, using lemon juice instead of vinegar, omitting the mustard and adding, when finished, a half cup of whipped cream or half an egg white beaten very stiff.

RUSSIAN DRESSING

Make one-half pint of mayonnaise dressing and add to it the following: Two hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, two to four tablespoons of tomato catsup, one tablespoon of finely chopped parsley, one teaspoon of finely chopped or grated white onion or shallot, after these ingredients are mixed, fold them into one cup of mayonnaise and serve. Enough for ten people.

BOILED DRESSING WITH OLIVE OIL (PARVE)

Beat three whole eggs until very light, add two tablespoons of olive oil, stirring constantly, add a good pinch of salt, pepper, mustard and cayenne pepper. Heat one-half cup of vinegar with one teaspoon of sugar in it, stir while hot into the eggs and put it back on the stove in a double boiler or over hot water in another saucepan and stir until thick. Serve cold.

MUSTARD DRESSING

Take yolk of one hard-boiled egg and rub smooth in a bowl. Add two teaspoons of French mustard, salt, pepper, and little sugar. Add a little oil, and then a little vinegar. Garnish top with the white, cut in pieces.

SOUR CREAM DRESSING

Mix one cup of sour cream and three eggs, well beaten. Dissolve two tablespoons of sugar and one tablespoon of mustard in one-half cup of vinegar; salt, pepper and paprika to taste, and then stir this slowly into the cream and eggs. Put in double boiler, cook until thick, then add butter the size of an egg and cook about five minutes longer. Take from fire and bottle; this dressing will keep for months.

BOILED DRESSING

Mix one teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of mustard, one tablespoon of sugar, one tablespoon of flour and a few grains of cayenne. Beat three eggs until lemon-colored and add the dry ingredients with one-half cup of vinegar and two tablespoons of melted butter. Cook over boiling water until thick; strain, add one-half cup of cream or milk. Beat until smooth, and cool.

FRENCH DRESSING

Mix one-half teaspoon of salt, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of sugar, a dash of paprika, two tablespoons of vinegar and four tablespoons of olive oil. Stir until well blended and use at once.

DRESSING FOR LETTUCE

Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a paste, adding one teaspoon of salad oil or melted butter, being careful to add only a few drops at a time. Add one-half teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon of prepared mustard, very little pepper, two tablespoons of white sugar. Stir very hard, then pour in gradually one-half teacup of vinegar.

*SALADS*

GREEN SALADS

Imported or domestic endive, chicory, escarole and Romaine or lettuce must be washed, made crisp in cold water, and dried in a bag on the ice. Serve them with French dressing.

Imported endive may, however, be served with mayonnaise, if desired.

LETTUCE

The French style of making lettuce salad is as follows: After dressing the salad, mix it in one tablespoon of oil, then take only two tablespoons of white wine vinegar, mixed with a very little pepper and salt, and just turn the lettuce over and over in this mixture.

CHIFFONADE SALAD

Lettuce, dandelion, chicory, a little chopped beet, chopped celery, a bit of tomato are mixed and covered with French dressing. The dressing is usually flavored both with onion and garlic.

ASPARAGUS SALAD

Boil the asparagus in salted water, being very careful not to break the caps; drain, and pour over it when cold a mayonnaise dressing, with some chopped parsley. Serve each person with three or four stems on a plate, with a little mayonnaise dressing. Do not use a fork; take the stems in the fingers and dip in the dressing.

BEET SALAD

Boil beets when tender, skin quickly white hot and slice them into a bowl. Sprinkle salt, pepper, a tablespoon of brown sugar, some caraway seeds, one medium-sized onion in slices and pour over all one-half cup of vinegar which has been boiled; with a fork mix the hot vinegar through the other ingredients.

BEET AND CAULIFLOWER SALAD

Take some thin slices of cooked beets, some cold cooked potatoes, some cold cooked cauliflower, and a little chopped parsley. Pour over the following dressing and add salt and pepper to taste:

Put one level teaspoon of mustard, one teaspoon anchovy sauce, one tablespoon of milk or cream, and one dessertspoon of vinegar. Mix the mustard with the anchovy, then add the milk, and lastly the vinegar.

Tomatoes are equally good served in the same way.

STRING BEAN SALAD

String and remove the ends from one quart of beans. Cut into short lengths. Cover with boiling water, add one level tablespoon of wilt and cook until tender, but not soft. Drain and save one cup of the liquor. Cream one tablespoon of flour with two tablespoons of butter. Pour the liquid over the flour and butter, stirring constantly to avoid "lumping." Cook this sauce for five minutes, remove from stove and stir in two tablespoons of strained lemon juice. Pour this over the beans and serve.

BOHEMIAN SALAD

Cover the bottom of the salad bowl with crisp Romaine or lettuce; arrange over the top alternate slices of hard-boiled eggs and boiled beets. Sprinkle with finely chopped onion, cover with French dressing, toss and serve.

BOILED CELERY ROOT SALAD

Pare and wash the celery roots (they should be the size of large potatoes), put on to boil in a little salted water, and when tender remove from the water and set away until cool. Cut in slices about an eighth of an inch thick; sprinkle each slice with fine salt, sugar and white pepper; pour enough white wine vinegar over the salad to cover. A few large raisins boiled will add to the appearance of this salad. Serve cold in a salad bowl, lined with fresh lettuce leaves.

CELERY ROOT BASKETS

Buy large celery roots, parboil them and cut in shape of baskets and scallop the edge; boil beets until soft and cut them in small balls (like potato-balls). Set celery root baskets in French dressing for several hours to flavor and the beet-balls in boiling sugar and vinegar. Fill the baskets with pickled beet-balls; roll lettuce and cut it into shreds and put it around the celery root basket. The green lettuce, white basket and red balls form a pretty color scheme, and are delicious as a salad.

CHESTNUT SALAD

Equal parts of boiled chestnuts and shredded celery are combined. Bananas, apples, celery and chestnuts. Dress with mayonnaise and serve on lettuce leaves.

COLD SLAW OR CABBAGE SALAD

Select a small, compact cabbage; strip off the outside leaves and cut the head in quarters. With a sharp knife slice very thin; soak in cold water until crisp; drain and dry between clean towels. Mix with hot dressing and serve when cold.

DRESSING FOR COLD SLAW

Beat the yolks of two eggs until light, add one tablespoon of sugar, one teaspoon of pepper, one-half teaspoon of salt and dry mustard, pour one cup of vinegar over, stir well and pour over the slaw.

This dressing may be cooked over boiling water if so desired. Care must be taken in adding the vinegar gradually, and add sliced onions to the salad.

CUCUMBER SALAD

Pare thickly, from end to end, and lay in ice-water one hour; wipe them, slice thin, and slice an onion equally thin. Strew salt over them, shake up a few times, cover and let remain in this brine for another hour. Then squeeze or press out every drop of water which has been extracted from the cucumbers. Put into a salad bowl, sprinkle with white pepper and scatter bits of parsley over them; add enough vinegar to cover. You may slice up an equal quantity of white or red radishes and mix with this salad.

CAULIFLOWER SALAD

Wash the cauliflower carefully, tie in a cloth and cook in boiling salt water until thoroughly tender. When done, remove the cloth, pour two tablespoons of lemon juice over the cauliflower and set it on the ice to cool. When ready to serve, separate the flowerets, lay them on lettuce leaves, cover with French dressing and sprinkle one tablespoon of chopped parsley over the top.

SALAD OF EGGPLANT (TURKISH STYLE)

Use small eggplants. Place on end of toasting fork under broiler gas flame until the peel is black; remove the skin. The eggplant will then be tender; chop with wooden spoon, add lemon juice, parsley chopped fine, and olive oil.

EGGPLANT SALAD (ROUMANIAN)

Broil eggplant; when cool, skin, lay on platter, cut with wooden spoon, add a red onion cut fine, or garlic cut very fine salt and a little vinegar.

TOMATO SALAD (FRENCH DRESSING)

Take six firm red tomatoes, wash and wipe them neatly, slice them in thin slices with a very sharp knife. Line a salad bowl with lettuce leaves, lay the sliced tomatoes in, sprinkle with salt and pepper, serve with French dressing.

MAYONNAISE OF TOMATOES (WHOLE)

Select tomatoes that are of uniform size, round, smooth and spotless, scald and take off outer skin, set away on ice until ready to serve. Serve on individual dishes, putting each on a lettuce leaf and pour a tablespoon of mayonnaise dressing over each tomato.

STUFFED TOMATOES

Select round, very firm and even sized tomatoes, cut off the top (reserve to use as a cover), scrape out the inside, being very careful to not break the tomato. Fill each tomato with some finely prepared "cold slaw," cover with the top of the tomato, lay them on lettuce leaves and pour a mayonnaise dressing over each. You may lay them en masse on a decorated platter, heaping them in the shape of a mound, or serve individually.

STUFFED TOMATOES, CHEESE SALAD

Wash and skin six small tomatoes. Cut a piece from the stem end of each and when cold remove a portion of the pulp from the centre. Then sprinkle with salt and invert on the ice to chill. Mash to a paste one small cream cheese add two tablespoons of chopped pimento, one tablespoon of French mustard. Blend well, moisten with a French dressing and fill into the tomato shells. Arrange on a bed of crisp lettuce leaves and pour over each tomato a tablespoon of thick boiled dressing.

LIMA BEAN SALAD

Take two cups of cold, cooked Lima beans, two stalks of chopped celery, one dozen chopped olives, one teaspoon of onion juice, one teaspoon of salt, and a dash of red pepper. Mix thoroughly and serve on lettuce leaves with French dressing and garnish with green and red peppers cut in squares.

PEPPER AND CHEESE SALAD

Fill green peppers with a mixture of cream cheese and chopped olives. Set on the ice and then slice the peppers and serve a slice (shaped like a four-leaf clover) on a leaf of lettuce. Small brown bread sandwiches go well with this.

GREEN PEPPERS FOR SALAD

Put whole, green sweet pepper in boiling water and cook until tender. Place on platter and drain. Make a dressing of vinegar, salt, sugar and oil. Serve.

PEPPER SALAD

Cut the peppers lengthwise in half, and fill with a mixture of flaked, cold cooked fish and minced celery, mixed with mayonnaise.

POTATO SALAD, No. 1

Boil ten potatoes (small, round ones preferred) in their skins. When done, peel them while, still hot and slice in thin, round slices. Spread over the potatoes one onion, sliced fine, and sprinkle generously with salt and pepper, add one tablespoon of mustard seed, one-half tablespoon of celery seed, and one-half tablespoon of sugar.

Beat one egg until light, pour two tablespoons of goose or chicken fat, melted, over the eggs, stir well, add one-half cup of vinegar, pour over the seasoned potatoes: then add one-quarter cup of hot water and if necessary, add a little more vinegar, salt or pepper. One or two chopped hard-boiled eggs added improves the salad. Line a salad bowl with lettuce leaves, pour in the salad and decorate the top with grated hard-boiled eggs.

Melted butter may be used if for a milk meal or heated olive oil for a parve salad in place of the melted fat.

POTATO SALAD, No. 2

Boil one quart of small potatoes, Bermuda potatoes are best. Do not peel them, just wash and scrub the potatoes thoroughly in cold water. Put them in a kettle with enough cold water, slightly salted, just to cover them; stand them over a brisk fire with the kettle covered until the water begins to boil; then turn down the heat, lift the cover of the kettle slightly and let the potatoes cook slowly till done. Drain off the water and stand the potatoes where they will get cold. But do not put them in a refrigerator. When quite cold, peel the potatoes and slice them very thin in a salad bowl. To every two layers of potato slices sprinkle over a very light layer of white onions sliced very thin. Texas onions are particularly fine for this purpose.

When the salad bowl is well filled pour over the salad a French dressing made of equal parts of oil and vinegar; let the vinegar be part tarragon; use a palatable amount of salt and pepper. When ready to serve, cover the surface of the salad with a stiff mayonnaise in which a suggestion of cream has been mixed. Ornament with quarters of hard-boiled eggs, boiled beets cut in fancy slices and a fringe of parsley around the edge of the bowl.

POTATO SALAD, No. 3

Put into a bowl two tablespoons of olive oil, one tablespoon of sugar, one teaspoon of salt, some pepper and one tablespoon of vinegar and mix all together. Cut into this in slices six hot potatoes. Then cut into small pieces two small onions, a little garlic, some parsley, six stuffed olives, three hearts of celery (or the end of it), six radishes, three slices of red beets and two hard-boiled eggs. Add this to the gravy in the bowl, mix well, and season to taste. Put all into a glass dish and pour over this a prepared mayonnaise dressing. Decorate with parsley, olives (whole), some lettuce and put in the centre some celery leaves.

SQUASH SALAD (TURKISH STYLE)

Grate off the skin of long squash (the kind that looks like cucumbers), cut the squash in slices, one-quarter of an inch thick, and fry in olive oil; prepare a sauce with a little vinegar, one-half teaspoon of prepared mustard, two tablespoons of olive oil, beat these ingredients very well; add two shallots or leeks, cut in small pieces, pour sauce over the squash and serve.

WALDORF SALAD

Mix an equal quantity of sliced celery and apples, and a quarter of a pound of pecans or English walnuts, chopped fine. Put over a tablespoon of lemon juice and sufficient mayonnaise dressing to thoroughly cover. To be absolutely correct, this salad should be served without lettuce; it can, however, be dished on lettuce leaves.

WATER-LILY SALAD

Boil twenty minutes, one egg for each lily; remove shell and while still warm cut with silver knife in strips from small end nearly to base; very carefully lay back the petals on a heart of bleached lettuce; remove yolks and rub them with spoon of butter, vinegar, a little mustard, salt and paprika; form cone-shaped balls, and put on petals, sprinkling bits of parsley over balls. Two or three stuffed olives carry out the effect of buds; serve on cut-glass dishes to give water effect.

MARSHMALLOW SALAD

Cut up one-quarter pound of marshmallows into small squares, also contents of one-half can of pineapple. Let the marshmallows be mixed with the pineapples quite a while before salad is put together; add to this one-quarter pound of shelled pecans. Make a drip mayonnaise of one yolk of egg into which one-half cup of oil is stirred drop by drop; cut this with lemon juice, but do not use any sugar; to two tablespoons of mayonnaise, add four tablespoons of whipped cream. Serve on fresh, green lettuce-leaves.

COTTAGE CHEESE SALAD

Mix thoroughly one pound of cheese, one and one-half tablespoons of cream, one tablespoon of chopped parsley and salt to taste. First fill a rectangular tin mold with cold water to chill and wet the surface; line the bottom with waxed paper, then pack in three layers, putting two or three parallel strips of pimento between layers. Cover with waxed paper and set in a cool place until ready to serve; then run a knife around the sides and invert the mold. Cut in slices and serve on lettuce leaves with French dressing and wafers. Minced olives may be used instead of the parsley, and chopped nuts also may be added.

CREAM CHEESE SALAD

Moisten a cream cheese with cream and beat to a froth. Arrange in a mound shape on a dish and turn preserved gooseberries over it. Serve with biscuits.

CREAM CHEESE SALAD WITH PINEAPPLES

Serve one slice of Hawaiian pineapple on lettuce leaves. On the pineapple slice place a spoon of cream cheese and some chopped walnuts and top off with a dash of mayonnaise dressing.

FRUIT SALAD

Slice one pineapple, three oranges, and three bananas. Pour over it a French mayonnaise, put on lettuce leaves and serve at once. For those who do not care for the mayonnaise, make a syrup of one cup of sugar and one-half cup of water, boil until thick, add juice of lemon, let slightly cool, then pour over fruit. Let stand on ice one to two hours. Another nice dressing is one cup of claret, one-half cup of sugar, and piece of lemon. Always use lemon juice in preference to vinegar in fruit salads. All fruits that go well together may be mixed. This is served just before desert.

FRUIT AND NUT SALAD

Slice two bananas, two oranges and mix them with one-half cup of English walnuts and the juice of one-half lemon with French dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves.

GRAPE-FRUIT SALAD

Cut the grape-fruit in halves and remove the pulp, being careful to get none of the tough white skin. Mix with bananas and oranges and stir in white mayonnaise dressing. Remove all skin from the inside, of the grape-fruit and fill with the mixture, heaping it high and ornamenting with maraschino cherries. Lay each half in a bed of lettuce leaves and serve.

BANANA DAINTY

Cut the bananas in half crosswise and arrange them on a plate, radiating from the center. Sprinkle with grated nuts or nutmeg and heap white mayonnaise in the center. Garnish with maraschino cherries.

HUNGARIAN FRUIT SALAD

Mix together equal parts of banana, orange, pineapple, grapefruit and one-half cup of chopped nuts. Marinate with French dressing. Fill apple or orange skins with mixture. Arrange on a bed of watercress or lettuce leaves. Sprinkle with paprika.

NUT SALAD

Make a plain grape-fruit salad. When you have it ready to serve, cover the top thickly with finely chopped almonds or pecans mixed. Pour over French dressing.

RUSSIAN FRUIT SALAD

Peel and pit some peaches, cut in slices and add as much sliced pineapple, some apricots, strawberries and raspberries, put these in a dish. Prepare a syrup of juice of two lemons, two oranges, one cup of water and one pound sugar, a half teaspoon of powdered cinnamon, grated rind of lemon, add one cup red wine and a half glass of Madeira, arrak or rum. Boil this syrup for five minutes, then pour over the fruit, tossing the fruit from time to time until cool. Place on ice and serve cold.

FISH SALAD

Take one pound cold boiled fish left over from the day previous, or boil fresh fish and let cool, then skin, bone and flake. If fresh fish is used, mix two tablespoons of vinegar, a pinch of salt and pepper with the fish. Make a mayonnaise dressing (French mayonnaise preferred), and mix half with the fish, leaving other half to spread over top of salad, after it is put in bowl. Serve either with or without lettuce leaves.

FISH SALAD FOR TWENTY PEOPLE

Boil four pounds of halibut, cool and shred fish. Marinate the fish as directed. When ready to serve add six hard-boiled eggs chopped, and one pint bottle of pickles or chow-chow. The pickle may be omitted and celery cut fine be added. When these are well mixed serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing, of which one pint will be required.

MAYONNAISE OF FLOUNDER

Put some fillets of flounder into boiling water with a little salt and lemon juice, and cook until tender, then drain thoroughly.

When cold, put them in the center of some chopped lettuce, cover with mayonnaise sauce and garnish with slices of tomatoes and hard-boiled eggs.

HERRING SALAD, No. 1

Soak four herrings in cold water overnight, and then rinse several times in fresh cold water. Skin, bone, and cut in one-half inch pieces. Peel two apples, and cut in dice. Mix with herring, then add one-half cup of coarsely chopped almonds and one onion chopped fine. Remove the milsner or soft egg from the inside of herring, and mash perfectly smooth. Add one-half cup of vinegar, one teaspoon of sugar, pinch of pepper. Mix well, and then pour over herring, stirring with a fork to prevent mashing. Set in ice-box until ready to serve. Put sliced lemons on top. Herring can be left whole, dressing made and poured over whole herrings.

HERRING SALAD, No. 2

Soak three nice herrings in cold water three hours. Then remove the head and tail and bones. With a scissors cut in pieces as small as dice, add one-half cup of English walnuts cut fine, one tablespoon of boiled beets cut fine, two tablespoons of capers, one large apple cut in small pieces and one dill pickle cut up. Then take the soft egg (milchner) and mix with two cups of white vinegar until soft, add one teaspoon of sugar, three cloves and allspice and pour the sauce over the ingredients. The sauce should not be too thick. Mix all well together, and serve a spoonful on a lettuce leaf for each person.

This salad will keep for weeks.

HUNGARIAN VEGETABLE SALAD

Mix together one cup each of cold cooked peas, beans, carrots, and potatoes. Cover with French dressing and let stand for twenty minutes. Add one cup of smoked salmon or haddock, cut in small pieces, the chopped whites of four hard-boiled eggs and two stalks of celery. Mix thoroughly, garnish top with yolk of egg pressed through a wire sieve; and with cucumbers and beets, cut in fancy shapes.

SALMON SALAD

Either cold boiled salmon or the canned variety may be used. In the latter event wash the fish, in cold water, drain and expose to the outside air for at least one hour, as this removes any suggestion of the can. Flake the fish into small particles and to each cupful of the fish add the same quantity of shredded lettuce, one coarsely chopped hard-boiled egg, three slices of minced cucumber and six chopped olives. Mix the ingredients well, moisten with either a mayonnaise or boiled dressing and serve in individual portions in nest of heart lettuce leaves. Mask each portion with a tablespoon of dressing and garnish with capers and grated egg yolk.

MAYONNAISE ESPECIALLY FOR SALMON

Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a powder, then add eight tablespoons of cream very gradually to them, also white pepper, a pinch of salt and a mere suspicion of cayenne pepper. Lastly add two tablespoons of white vinegar. It is very important that this last ingredient be put in drop by drop, otherwise the mixture will curdle.

MACKEREL SALAD

Procure a nice fat mackerel, boil, and when cold, proceed same as for
"Salmon Salad," only do not cut the pieces quite as small.

MONTEREY SALAD

Select fine lemons, wipe carefully, scoop out the pulp, remove the tough inner skin and seeds, and to the rest add one box of boneless sardines, finely chopped, one teaspoon of French mustard, two hard-boiled eggs chopped, some tabasco sauce, and mayonnaise. Fill each cup with the mixture. Cut a small slice from the bottom of the lemon, so that it will stand firmly. Garnish with chopped egg and chopped parsley, and serve on lettuce leaves.

RUSSIAN SALAD

Cut up all kinds of pickled cucumbers, small and large, sweet and sour, also (senf) mustard pickles, into very small lengths, also pickled beans and capers. Add six herring, which you have soaked in water for twenty-four hours; skin and take out every bone, cut up as you did the pickles. Add half a pound of smoked salmon, also cut into lengths, six large apples chopped very fine, and one onion grated; mix all thoroughly and pour a rich mayonnaise dressing over all. Next day line a salad bowl with lettuce leaves, fill in the salad and garnish with hard-boiled eggs, nuts, and capers.

NIAGARA SALAD

Pick or grind one thick slice of cold, cooked salmon. Make a dressing of mayonnaise, to which add one tablespoon of French mustard, one green onion chopped fine, one tablespoon of small Mexican peppers, one tablespoon of pimentos. Mix this dressing into the picked salmon.

CHICKEN SALAD

Place the chicken in boiling water, add one onion, a bay leaf and six cloves. Bring to a boil and let it boil rapidly for five minutes. Reduce the heat to below the boiling point, and let it cook until tender. Let chicken cool in the broth.

By cooking it in this manner the dark meat will be almost as white as the meat of the breast. When the chicken is cold, cut into half inch cubes, removing all the fat and skin. To each pint allow one tablespoon of lemon juice, sprinkle the latter over the prepared chicken and place on ice. When ready to serve, mix the chicken with two-thirds as much white celery, cut into corresponding pieces: meanwhile prepare the following mayonnaise: Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs as fine as possible, add one teaspoon of salt, then add, a drop at a time, one teaspoon of the finest olive oil. Stir constantly, add one teaspoon of prepared mustard and while pepper, and two teaspoons of white sugar; whip the white of one egg to a froth and add to the dressing; add about one-half cup of vinegar last, a spoonful at a time. Put the salad into the dressing carefully, using two silver forks; line the salad bowl with lettuce leaves, and garnish the top with the whites of hard-boiled eggs chopped up, or cut into half-moons. Garnish this salad with the chopped yolks and whites of hard-boiled eggs, being careful to have the whites and yolks separate. A few olives and capers will add to the decoration.

CHICKEN SALAD FOR TWENTY PEOPLE

Boil two large chickens in enough water to cover them, add salt while boiling; when very tender remove from the fire and allow the chickens to cool in the liquor in which they were boiled, when cold skim off every particle of fat, and reserve it to use instead of oil. If possible boil the chickens the day previous to using. Now cut the chickens up into small bits (do not chop), cut white, crisp celery in half inch pieces, and sprinkle with fine salt, allowing half as much celery as you have chicken, mixing the chicken and celery, using two silver forks to do this. Rub the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs as fine as possible, add one-half teaspoon of salt, white pepper, four tablespoons of chicken-fat that has been skimmed off the broth, adding one at a time, stirring constantly, one tablespoon of best prepared mustard, two teaspoons each mustard seed and celery seed, and two tablespoons of white sugar; add gradually, stirring constantly, one cup of white wine vinegar. Pour this dressing over the chicken and celery and toss lightly with the silver forks. Line a large salad bowl with lettuce leaves, pour in the salad and garnish the top with the chopped whites of six hard-boiled eggs; pour a pint of mayonnaise over the salad just before serving. A neat way is to serve the salad in individual salad dishes, lining each dish with a lettuce leaf, garnish the salad with an olive stuck up in the center of each portion.

The bones of the chicken may be used for soup, letting them simmer in water to cover for three hours.

BRAIN SALAD

Scald brains with boiling hot water to cleanse thoroughly. Boil until tender, in fresh cold salt water, being careful to remove from water while it is yet firm. Slice lengthwise and lay in dish. Pour over one-half cup of vinegar, which has been sweetened with a pinch of sugar to remove sharp taste, pinch of salt and pepper. Garnish with parsley and serve cold. Can also be served with mayonnaise.

SWEETBREAD SALAD

Take cucumbers and cut lengthwise to serve the salad in; scrape out the inside and salt well, then squeeze and use this to mix with the filling. Take a pair of sweetbreads, or calf's brains, wash well, and boil; when done, throw in cold water at once and skim them; chop fine, add bunch of celery (if you can get it), one can of French peas, scraped part of cucumber; mix all together and season. Make a mayonnaise, mix with it, and fill the cucumber shells; keep all cold, and serve on lettuce leaf.

VEAL SALAD

Cut cold veal in half-inch slices, season with two tablespoons of vinegar, pinch of salt and pepper. Make a dressing using the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, mashed smooth, add gradually two tablespoons of melted cold chicken or turkey grease, stir until smooth and thick, then add one teaspoon of prepared mustard, large pinch of salt and pepper, one teaspoon of sugar, one teaspoon each of mustard and celery seed, and five tablespoons of white vinegar. Mix the dressing well with the veal, and serve with or without lettuce leaves.

NEAPOLITAN SALAD

Take some white meat of a turkey, cut up fine, cut up a few pickles the same way, a few beets, one or two carrots, a few potatoes (the carrots and potatoes must be parboiled), also a few stalks of asparagus; chop up a bunch of crisp, white celery; a whole celery root (parboiled), sprinkle all with fine salt and pour a mayonnaise dressing over it. Line the salad bowl with lettuce leaves or white cabbage leaves. Add a few hard-boiled eggs and capers; garnish with sprigs of fresh parsley.

POLISH SALAD, OR SALAD PIQUANT

Lay half a dozen or more large salt pickles in water for about six hours, then drain off all the water. Chop up two sour apples, one large onion or two small ones, chop the pickles and mix all thoroughly in a bowl and sprinkle over them a scant half teaspoon of pepper (white) and a tablespoon of sugar (either white or brown), adding a pinch of salt if necessary. Pour enough white wine vinegar over all to just cover. Do not make more at a time than you can use up in a week, as it will not keep longer.

*FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE*

Always select the best fruit, as it is the cheapest, and requires less sugar; and where every piece of fruit or every berry is perfect, there is no waste. Raspberries are apt to harbor worms and therefore the freshly picked berries are safest.

BLUEBERRIES

Wash and pick over carefully, drain off all the water, sprinkle powdered sugar over them and serve with cream or milk.

RASPBERRIES

Pick over carefully, set on ice, and serve in a dish unsugared.
Strawberries may be served as above.

RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS

These berries, mixed, make a very palatable dish. Set on ice until ready to serve. Then pile in a mound, strewing plenty of pulverized sugar among them. As you do this, garnish the base with white or black currants (blackberries look pretty also) in bunches. Eat with cream or wine.

STRAWBERRIES

Pick nice ripe berries, pile them in a fruit dish. Strew plenty of pulverized sugar over them and garnish with round slices or quarters of oranges, also well sugared.

BANANAS

May be sliced according to fancy, either round or lengthwise. Set on ice until required. Then add sugar, wine or orange juice. In serving, dish out with a tablespoon of whipped cream.

CHILLED BANANAS

Cut ice-cold bananas down lengthwise, and lay these halves on a plate with a quarter of a lemon and a generous teaspoon of powdered sugar. Eat with a fork or spoon after sprinkling with lemon juice and dipping in sugar.

GRAPE FRUIT

Cut in half, with a sharp knife, remove seeds, and sprinkle with sugar, or loosen pulp; cut out pithy white centre; wipe knife after each cutting, so that the bitter taste may be avoided. Pour in white wine or sherry and sprinkle with powdered sugar, and let stand several hours in ice-chest to ripen. Serve cold in the shell. Decorate with maraschino cherry.

ORANGES

Cut an orange in half crosswise. Place on an attractive dish, scoop out the juice and pulp with a spoon and sweeten if necessary.

PINEAPPLE

Peel the pineapple, dig out all the eyes, then cut from the core downward, or chop in a chopping-bowl, and set on ice until ready to serve. Then sugar the fruit well, and form into a mound in a dish. Garnish the base well with leaves or small fruit of any kind. You may squeeze the juice of one orange over all.

PEACHES

Peel fine, ripe freestone peaches. Cover plentifully with pulverized sugar, and serve with whipped cream. The cream should be ice cold. Peaches should not be sliced until just before dining, or they will be very apt to change color.

WATERMELONS

Use only those melons that are perfectly ripe. Do not select those that are very large in circumference; a rough melon with a bumpy surface is the best. Either cut in half or plug and fill with the following: Put on to boil some pale sherry or claret and boil down to quite a thick syrup with sugar. Pour this into either a plugged melon or over the half-cut melon, and lay on ice for a couple of hours before serving. If you use claret you may spice it while boiling with whole spices.

SNOWFLAKES

Grate a large cocoanut into a fruit dish, and mix it thoroughly and lightly with pulverised sugar. Serve with whipped or plain sweet cream.

TUTTI-FRUTTI

Slice oranges, bananas, pineapples and arrange in a glass-bowl; sprinkle with pulverized sugar, and serve either with wine or cream. You may use both.

RIPE TOMATOES

Select nice, large, well-shaped tomatoes, pare, slice and put on ice.
When ready to serve sprinkle each layer thickly with pulverized sugar.

PINEAPPLE SOUFFLÉ

Take a nice ripe pineapple, grate it and sweeten to taste. Beat the whites of two eggs stiff and mix with the pineapple. Before serving, whip half a pint of cream and put on the pineapple.

FROSTED APPLES

Pare and core six large apples. Cover with one pint of water and three tablespoons of sugar; simmer until tender. Remove from the syrup and drain. Wash the parings and let simmer with a little water for one-half hour. Beat the white of one egg to a stiff froth and add one tablespoon of sugar. Coat the top of the apples lightly with the meringue and place in a cool oven to dry. Strain the juice from the parings, add two tablespoons of sugar, return to the fire and let boil for five minutes; add a few drops of lemon juice and a little nutmeg, cool and pour around the apples.

APPLE FLOAT

Peel six big apples and slice them. Put them in a saucepan with just enough water to cover them and cook until tender. Then put them through a colander and add the grated rind and juice of half a lemon, sweeten to taste and stir in a trace of nutmeg. Fold in the stiffly beaten whites of four eggs and put the dish on ice. Serve with whipped or plain cream.

APPLE DELIGHT

Put a layer of apple sauce in a buttered pudding dish, dot with butter, add a layer of chopped peaches and apricots, sprinkle with blanched almonds ground rather coarsely, repeat until the pan is full; pour the peach juice over the mixture and bake for one hour.

APPLE COMPOTE

Take six apples ("Greenings," "Baldwins" or "Bellflowers"), pare, quarter, core and lay them in cold water as soon as pared. Then take the parings and seeds, put in a dish with a cup of water and a cup of white wine, and boil for about fifteen minutes. Strain through a fine sieve, then put on to boil again, and add half a cup of white sugar and the peel of half a lemon. Put in the apples and let them stew for fifteen minutes longer. When the apples are tender, take up each piece carefully with a silver spoon and lay on a platter to cool. Let the syrup boil down to about half the quantity you had after removing the apples, and add to it the juice of half a lemon. Lay your apples in a fruit dish, pyramid shape, pour the syrup over them, serve.

BAKED APPLES

Take large, juicy apples, wash and core them well, fill each place that you have cored with brown sugar, cinnamon and raisins, and put a clove in each apple. Lay them in a deep dish, pour a teacup of water in the dish, and put a little sugar on top of each apple. When well done the apples will be broken. Then remove them carefully to the dish they are to be served in and pour the syrup over them. To be eaten cold. If you wish them extra nice, glaze them with the beaten white of an egg, half a cup of pulverized sugar and serve with whipped cream.

STEAMED SWEET APPLES

For this dish use sweet apples, and steam in a closely covered iron pot for three-quarters of an hour.

Quarter and core five apples without paring. Put into the pot and melt beef drippings; when hot, lay a layer of apples in, skin down, sprinkle with brown sugar, and when nearly done, turn and brown; place on a platter and sprinkle with sugar.

FRIED APPLES

Quarter and core five apples without paring. Put into a frying-pan one cup of sugar, one tablespoon of butter and three tablespoons of water. Let this melt and lay in the apples with the skin up. Cover and fry slowly until brown.

APPLE SAUCE VICTORIA

Pare, quarter and core the apples. Set on to boil in cold water, and boil them over a very brisk fire; when they are soft mash with a potato masher and pass the mashed apples through a sieve. Sweeten to taste and flavor with a teaspoon of vanilla. This way of seasoning apples is highly recommended, especially if they are tasteless.

PEACH COMPOTE

Pare the fruit, leave it whole and put on to boil with sweetened water. Add a few cloves (remove the heads), also a stick of cinnamon bark. Boil the peaches until tender, then take up with a perforated skimmer and lay them in your fruit dish. Boil the syrup until thick, then pour over the peaches. Eat cold with sweet cream. Common cheap peaches make a very nice dessert, cooked in the above manner, clings especially, which cannot be used to cut up.

COMPOTE OF RASPBERRIES

Make a syrup of half a pound of sugar and half a cup of water, put into it one quart of berries which have been carefully picked and washed. Boil up once. Serve cold.

COMPOTE OF PINEAPPLE

Cut off the rind of a pineapple, core and trim out all the eyes. Cut into desired slices. Set on to boil with half a pound of sugar, and the juice of one or two tart oranges. When the pineapple is tender and clear, put into a compote dish and boil the syrup until clear. Pour over all and cool. The addition of a wineglass of brandy improves this compote very much.

COMPOTE OF PEARS

It is not necessary to take a fine quality of pears for this purpose. Pare the fruit, leaving on the stems, and stew in sugar and a very little water. Flavor with stick cinnamon and a few cloves (take out the head of each clove) and when soft place each pear carefully on a platter until cold. Then arrange them nicely in a glass bowl or flat glass dish, the stems all on the outer rim. Pour over them the sauce, which should be boiled thick like syrup. Eat cold.

HUCKLEBERRY COMPOTE

Pick over a quart of huckleberries or blueberries, wash them and set to boil. Do not add any water to them. Sweeten with half a cup of sugar, and spice with half a teaspoon of cinnamon. Just before removing from the fire, add a teaspoon of cornstarch which has been wet with a little cold water. Do this thoroughly in a cup and stir with a teaspoon so as not to have any lumps in it. Pour into a glass bowl. Eat cold.

RHUBARB SAUCE

Strip the skin off the stalks with care, cut them into small pieces, put
into a saucepan with very little water, and stew slowly until soft.
Sweeten while hot, but do not boil the sugar with the fruit. Eat cold.
Very wholesome.

BAKED RHUBARB

Peel and cut into two-inch lengths three bunches of rhubarb. Dredge with flour and put in baking dish with one cup of sugar sprinkled over. Bake in moderate oven three-quarters of an hour. Very nice served hot as a vegetable, or cold as a sauce.

FIG SAUCE

Stew figs slowly for two hours, until soft; sweeten with loaf sugar, about two tablespoons to a pound of fruit; add a glass of port or other wine and a little lemon juice. Serve when cold.

DRIED FRUITS

To cook dried fruits thoroughly they should after careful washing be soaked overnight. Next morning put them over the fire in the water in which they have been soaked; bring to a boil; then simmer slowly until the fruit is thoroughly cooked but not broken. Sweeten to taste. Very much less sugar will be needed than for fresh fruit.

STEWED PRUNES

Cleanse thoroughly, soak in water ten or twelve hours, adding a little granulated sugar when putting to soak, for although the fruit is sweet enough, yet experience has shown that the added sugar changes by chemical process into fruit sugar and brings out better the flavor of the fruit. After soaking, the fruit will assume its full size, and is ready to be simmered on the back of the stove. Do not boil prunes, that is what spoils them. Simmer, simmer only. Keep lid on. Shake gently, do not stir, and never let boil. When tender they are ready for table. Serve cold, and a little cream will make them more delicious. A little claret or sauterne poured over the prunes just as cooking is finished adds a flavor relished by many. Added just before simmering, a little sliced lemon or orange gives a rich color and flavor to the syrup.

BAKED PRUNES

Cook prunes in an earthenware bean pot in the oven. Wash and soak the prunes and put them in the pot with a very little water; let them cook slowly for a long time. They will be found delicious, thick and rich, without any of the objectionable sweetness. Lemon, juice and peel, may be added if desired.

PRUNES WITHOUT SUGAR

Wash prunes thoroughly, pour boiling water over same and let them stand for ten minutes. Then drain and pour boiling water over them again; put in sealed jar; see that prunes are all covered with water. Ready for use after forty-eight hours. Will keep for a week at a time and the longer they stand the thicker the syrup gets.

STEAMED PRUNES

Steam until the fruit is swollen to its original size and is tender.
Sprinkle with powdered sugar and squeeze lemon juice over them.

PRUNE SOUFFLÉ

Remove the pits from a large cup of stewed prunes and chop fine. Add the whites of three eggs and a half cup of sugar beaten to a stiff froth. Mix well, turn into a buttered dish and bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve with whipped cream. If it is desired to cook this in individual cups, butter the cups, fill only two-thirds full, to allow for puffing up of the eggs, and set the cup a in a pan of water to bake. Some like a dash of cinnamon in this.

SWEET ENTRÉE OF RIPE PEACHES

Take large, solid peaches, pour boiling water over them so that the skin may be removed smoothly. Have ready thick syrup made of sugar and water. When boiling hot add peaches and boil about five minutes; remove and place in ice chest. When ready to serve have a sweet cracker on dish, place peach on same and pour over this a raspberry jelly slightly thinned and cover all with salted almonds or walnuts. Other fruits may be treated in like manner.

*MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS)*

NOODLES

Beat three whole eggs very light and sift in sufficient flour to make a stiff paste. Work until smooth, break off a piece and roll out on board very thin. Break oft another piece and roll and continue until all is used. Let rolled-out dough dry, then cut all except one piece in long strips one inch wide. Fold the one piece in layers and cut very fine noodles. Boil large noodles in pot of salted boiling water, drain in colander when tender and stir in two tablespoons of butter. Heat a tablespoon of butter in the frying-pan and brown fine noodles in this butter. Sprinkle these over the broad noodles, pour a cup of milk over the whole and brown in stove. Serve in same dish in which it was baked.

BROAD NOODLES

Make noodles as above and when drained sprinkle with fine noodles which have been browned in two tablespoons of sweet dripping; serve as a vegetable. If so desired, a cup of soup stock may be added and noodles browned in stove. Serve hot.

NOODLES WITH BUTTER

Plunge one pound of noodles into two quarts of boiling water and cook for fifteen minutes. Drain well, replace in the same pan, season with one-half teaspoon of salt, two teaspoons of white pepper, adding one ounce good butter. Gently mix without breaking the noodles until the butter is thoroughly dissolved, and serve.

NOODLES WITH CHEESE

If you make the noodles at home, use two eggs for the dough; if you buy macaroni use one-quarter of a pound, cut up and boil in salt water; boil about fifteen minutes; drain off the water and let cold water run through them; grate a cup of cheese; melt a piece of fresh butter, about the size of an egg, in a saucepan, stir in a heaping tablespoon of flour, add gradually to this a pint of rich milk, stirring constantly; take from the fire as it thickens. Butter a pudding dish, lay in a layer of noodles, then cheese, then sauce, then begin with noodles again until all is used up. Sprinkle cheese on top, a few cracker crumbs and flakes of butter here and there. Bake until brown.

NOODLES AND APPLES

Peel and cut six apples. Take broad noodles made out of three eggs, boil them fifteen minutes, drain, then mix with two tablespoons of fresh butter. Add some cinnamon and sugar to noodles. Put a layer of noodles, then apples and so on until pan is filled, being careful to have noodles on top. Put bits of fresh butter on top. Bake until apples are tender. If so desired, a milchig pie crust may be made and used as an under crust and when apples are tender and crust done, turn out on a large platter with crust side on top.

SCALLOPED NOODLES AND PRUNES

Make broad noodles with three eggs. Boil until tender, drain, pouring cold water through colander. Stew prunes, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. In a well-greased baking-dish place one-quarter of the noodles, bits of butter or other fat, add one-half of the prunes, then another layer of the noodles, butter or fat, the remaining prunes, the rest of the noodles. Pour over the prune juice and spread crumbs over top and bake in a moderate oven until crumbs are brown.

NOODLES AND MUSHROOMS

Make broad noodles, boil and serve with melted butter spread over the noodles and this sauce:

Brown a tablespoon of butter in the skillet, add one-half tablespoon of flour, then liquor of mushrooms, pinch of salt and pepper. When smooth, add mushrooms. Let boil and serve in a separate dish. When serving, a spoon of mushrooms is to be put over each portion of noodles.

GEROESTETE FERVELCHEN PFÄRVEL (EGG BARLEY)

Make just as you would a noodle dough, only stiffer, by adding and working in as much flour as possible and then grate on a coarse grater. Spread on a large platter to dry; boil one cup of egg barley in salt water or milk, which must boil before you put in the egg barley until thick. Serve with melted butter poured over them. (A simpler and much quicker way is to sift a cup or more of flour on a board; break in two eggs, and work the dough by rubbing it through your hands until it is as fine as barley grains.)

PFÄRVEL—FLEISCHIG

Make as much egg barley as required. Heat two tablespoons of fat, add one-quarter cup of onions, fry until golden brown, add the dried egg barley and brown nicely. Place in a pudding-dish, add three cups of hot soup stock or water to more than cover. Bake in a moderate oven about one hour or until the water has nearly all evaporated and the egg barley stands out like beads and is soft. The onion may be omitted. Serve hot in place of a vegetable.

KAESE KRAEPFLI (CHEESE KREPLICH)

Make a dough of one egg with a tablespoon of water; add a pinch of salt; work this just as you would noodle dough, quite stiff. Sift the flour in a bowl, break in the egg, add the salt and water, mix slowly by stirring with the handle of a knife, stirring in the same direction all the time. When this dough is so stiff that you cannot work it with the knife, flour your noodle board and work it with the hollow of your hands, always toward you, until the dough is perfectly smooth; roll out as thin as paper and cut into squares three inches in diameter. Fill with pot cheese or schmierkaese which has been prepared in the following manner: Stir up a piece of butter the size of an egg, adding one egg, sugar, cinnamon, grated peel of a lemon and pinch of salt, pounded almonds, which improve it; fill the kraepfli with a teaspoon, wet the edges with beaten egg, fold into triangles, pressing the edges firmly together; boil in boiling milk; when done they will swim to the top. Eat with melted butter or cream.

BOILED MACARONI

Break the macaroni into small pieces; boil for half an hour; drain and blanch in cold water. Reheat in tomato or cream sauce and serve. Grated cheese may be sprinkled over the dish if desired.

SPAGHETTI

Spaghetti is a small and more delicate form of macaroni. It is boiled until tender in salted water and is combined with cheese and with sauces the same as macaroni, and is usually left long. It makes a good garnish.

BAKED MACARONI WITH CHEESE

Cook one cup of broken macaroni in two quarts of boiling salted water for twenty or thirty minutes, drain and pour cold water through the colander. Put the macaroni in a pudding-dish in layers, covering each layer with cream sauce and grated cheese, one cup will be sufficient, and on the top layers sprinkle one cup of buttered bread crumbs. Bake in oven until the crumbs are brown.

SAVORY MACARONI

After baking; some flour to a pale fawn color pass it through a sieve or strainer to remove its gritty particles. Break half a pound of macaroni into short pieces, boil them in salted water until fairly tender, then drain.

In a little butter in a saucepan brown a level tablespoon of very finely chopped onion, then add three or four sliced tomatoes, a half teaspoon of powdered mixed herbs, a little nutmeg, salt and pepper. When the tomatoes are reduced to a pulp add one pint of milk and allow it to come to the boiling point before mixing with it two tablespoons of the browned flour moistened with water.

Stir and boil till smooth, press the whole through a strainer and return to the saucepan. When boiling, add the macaroni and a few minutes later stir in two tablespoons of grated or finely chopped cheese.

It may be served at once, but is vastly improved by keeping the pan for half an hour by the side of the fire in an outer vessel of water. Or the macaroni may be turned into a casserole and finished off in the oven.

For a meat meal the onions may be browned in sweet drippings or olive oil and soup stock substituted for the milk.

DUMPLINGS FOR STEW

Mix two teaspoons of baking powder with two cups of flour, one egg, one cup of cold water and a little salt.

Stir all lightly together and drop the batter from the spoon into the stew while the water continues to boil. Cover closely and do not uncover for twenty minutes, boiling constantly, but not too hard. Serve immediately in the stew.

SPAETZLEN OR SPATZEN

Sift two cups of flour into a bowl, make a depression in the centre and break into it two eggs, add a saltspoon of salt and enough water or milk to form a smooth, stiff dough. Set on some water to boil, salt the water and when the water boils drop the spaetzle into it, one at a time. Do this with the spoon with which you cut the dough, or roll it on a board into a round roll and cut them with a knife. When the spaetzle are done, they will rise to the surface, take them out with a perforated skimmer and lay them on a platter. Now heat two tablespoons of butter and add bread crumbs, let them brown for a minute and pour all over the spaetzle. If you prefer you may put the spaetzle right into the spider in which you have heated the butter. Another way to prepare them is after having taken them out of the water, heat some butter in a spider and put in the spaetzle, and then scramble a few eggs over all, stirring eggs and spaetzle together. Serve hot.

SOUR SPATZEN

Brown three tablespoons of flour with one tablespoon of sweet drippings, add a small onion finely chopped, then cover the spider and let the onion steam for a little while; do this over a low heat so there will be no danger of the union getting too brown; add vinegar and soup stock and two tablespoons of sugar. Let this boil until the sauce is of the right consistency. Serve with spaetzlen made according to the foregoing recipe, using water in place of the milk to form the dough. Pour the sauce over the spaetzlen before serving. By adding more sugar the sauce may be made sweet sour.

LEBERKNADEL (CALF LIVER DUMPLINGS)

Chop and pass through a colander one-half pound of calf's liver; rub to a cream four ounces of marrow, add the liver and stir hard. Then add a little thyme, one clove of garlic grated, pepper, salt and a little grated lemon peel, the yolks of two eggs and one whole egg. Then add enough grated bread crumbs or rolled crackers to this mixture to permit its being formed into little marbles. Drop in boiling salt water and let cook fifteen minutes; drain, roll in fine crumbs and fry in hot fat.

MILK OR POTATO NOODLES

Boil seven or eight potatoes, peel and let them stand several hours to dry; then grate them and add two eggs, salt and enough flour to make a dough thick enough to roll. Roll into long, round noodles as thick as two pencils and cut to length of baking-pan. Butter pan and lay noodles next to each other; cover with milk and lumps of butter and bake fifteen minutes, till yellow; serve immediately with bread crumbs browned in butter.

KARTOFFEL KLOESSE (POTATO DUMPLINGS)

Boil about eight potatoes in their jackets and when peeled lay them on a platter overnight. When ready to use them next day, grate, add two eggs, salt, a little nutmeg if desired, one wine-glass of farina, a tablespoon of chicken fat, one scant cup of flour gradually, and if not dry enough add more flour, but be sure not to make the mixture too stiff as this makes the balls heavy. Place balls in salted boiling water, cook until light and thoroughly done, serve just, as they are or fried in chicken fat until brown.

The dumplings may be made of the same mixture and in the centre of each dumpling place stripes of bread one inch long and one-fourth inch thick which have been fried in chicken fat and onions. Flour your hands well and make into dumplings. Put into boiling-salted water, boil about twenty-five minutes. Serve at once with chopped onions browned, or browned bread crumbs and chicken fat.

WIENER KARTOFFEL KLOESSE

Boil eight potatoes. When they are very soft drain off every drop of water, lay them on a clean baking-board and mash them while hot with a rolling-pin, adding about one cup of flour. When thoroughly mashed, break in two eggs, salt to taste, and flavor with grated nutmeg. Now flour the board thickly and foil out this potato dough about as thick as your little finger and spread with the following: Heat some fresh goose fat in a spider, cut up part of an onion very fine, add it to the hot fat together with one-half cup of grated bread crumbs. When brown, spread over the dough and roll just as you would a jelly-roll. Cut into desired lengths (about three or four inches), put them in boiling water, slightly salted, and boil uncovered for about fifteen minutes. Pour some hot goose grease over the dumplings.

BAIRISCHE DAMPFNUDELN, No. 1

Soak one cake of compressed yeast in a cup of lukewarm milk with a teaspoon of sugar, a teaspoon of salt, and sift a pint of flour in a bowl, in which you may also stir a small cup of milk and one egg. Pour in the yeast and work all thoroughly, adding more flour, but guarding against getting the dough too stiff. Cover up the bowl of dough and let it raise until it is as high again, which will take at least four hours. Flour a baking-board and mold small biscuits out of your dough, let them raise at least half an hour. Then butter a large, round, deep pan and set in your dumplings, brushing each with melted butter as you do so. When all are in, pour in enough milk to reach just half way up to the dumplings. Bake until a light brown. Eat hot, with vanilla sauce.

BAIRISCHE DAMPFNUDELN, No. 2

Make the dough just as you would in the above recipe, adding a tablespoon of butter, and after they have risen steam instead of baking them. If you have no steamer improvise one in this way: Put on a kettle of boiling water, set a colander on top of the kettle and lay in your dumplings, but do not crowd them; cover with a close-fitting lid and put a weight on top of it to keep in the steam, when done they will be as large again as when first put in. Take up one at first to try whether it is done by tearing open with two forks. If you have more than enough for your family, bake a pan of biscuits out of the remaining dough. Serve dumplings hot with prune sauce.

APPLE SLUMP

Pare, core and quarter apples, add a little water and sugar to taste, stew until tender and cover with the following mixture: Sift one pint of flour and one teaspoon of baking powder, add a pinch of salt and two cups of milk, mix and turn out onto a lightly floured board. Roll to one-half inch thickness and place over the stewed apples, cover and cook for ten minutes without lifting the lid. Serve hot with cream and sugar or soft custard.

BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS

Beat well, without separating, two eggs, add a pinch of salt, two cups of milk and one cup of flour. To a second cup of flour, add two teaspoons of baking powder; add this to the batter and as much more flour as is necessary to make a soft dough. Roll out quickly one-half inch thick. Cut into squares, lay two or three quarters of pared apples on each, sprinkle with sugar and pinch the dough around the apples. Have a number of pudding cloths ready, wrung out of cold water, and sprinkle well with flour. Put a dumpling in each, leave a little room for swelling and tie tightly. Drop into a kettle of rapidly boiling water and keep the water at a steady boil for an hour. Serve hot with hard sauce.

Have a saucer in the bottom of kettle to prevent burning.

FARINA DUMPLINGS

Beat yolks of four eggs with three tablespoons of goose, turkey or chicken fat, but if these are not convenient, clear beef drippings will do. Put in enough farina to make a good Batter. Beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth with pinch of salt, and stir in batter. Put on in large boiler sufficient water to boil dumplings and add one tablespoon of salt. When boiling drop in by tablespoons. Boil one hour. This quantity makes twenty dumplings.

HUCKLEBERRY DUMPLINGS

Take a loaf of stale bread; cut off the crust and soak in cold water, then squeeze dry. Beat three eggs light, yolks and whites together add one quart berries and mix all together with a little brown sugar and a pinch of salt. Boil steadily one hour, serve with hard sauce.

PLUM KNOEDEL (HUNGARIAN)

Boil several potatoes, mash, mix with one egg yolk, a little salt and enough flour to make a dough soft enough to hold the impress of the finger. Roll out and cut into four-cornered pieces; in each square place a German plum which has had the pits removed and a mixture of sugar and cinnamon; put in place of the pit. Roll each square into a round dumpling; put these into a pan with boiling; salted water and let them cook covered for six or eight minutes. When done, serve with some bread crumbs browned in butter or schmalz and spread over the knoedel.

PEAR DUMPLING (BIRNE KLOESSE)

Take half a loaf of white bread or as much stale white bread, soak the white part and grate the crust, add one cup of suet chopped very fine, one cup of flour, one egg, salt and spices to taste, and one-half teaspoon of baking-powder. Make this into a dumpling, put it on a tiny plate in a large kettle. Lay prunes and pears around, about a pound of each, one cup of brown sugar, two pieces of stick cinnamon, dash of claret and cold water to almost cover; then cover kettle tightly and boil four hours. Serve hot.

Prunes and dried apples may be used as well.

PEACH DUMPLINGS

Make a dough of a quart of flour and a pint of milk, or water, a tablespoon of shortening, a pinch of salt, one egg and a spoon of sugar; add a piece of compressed yeast, which has previously been dissolved in water. Let the dough raise for three hours. In the meantime make a compote of peaches by stewing them with sugar and spices, such as cinnamon and cloves. Stew enough to answer for both sauce and filling. When raised, flour the baking-board and roll out the dough half an inch thick. Cut cakes out of it with a tumbler, brush the edges with white of egg, put a teaspoon of peach compote in the centre of a cake and cover it with another layer of cake and press the edges firmly together. Steam over boiling water and serve with peach sauce. A delicious dessert may also be made by letting the dough rise another half hour after being rolled out, and before cutting.

Compote of huckleberries may be used with these dumplings instead of peaches, if so desired.

CHERRY ROLEY-POLEY

Make a rich baking-powder biscuit dough, and roll it out until it is about two-thirds of an inch thick. Pit and stew enough cherries to make a thick layer of fruit and add sugar to taste. Spread them over the dough thickly and roll it up, taking care to keep the cherries from falling out. Wrap a cloth around it, and sew it up loosely with coarse thread, which is easily pulled out. Allow plenty of room for the dough to rise. Lay the roley-poley on a plate, set it in a steamer and steam for an hour and a half. Serve in slices, with cream or sauce.

SHABBAS KUGEL

Soak five wheat rolls in water, then press the bread quite dry, add one cup of drippings or one-half pound of suet chopped very fine, a pinch of salt, two eggs well beaten, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one grated lemon rind, one-half cup of sugar, one tablespoon of water. Stir all together thoroughly, grease the kugel pot well with warm melted fat, pour in the mixture and send it Friday afternoon to the bakery where it will remain till Saturday noon; it will then be baked brown. If one has a coal range that will retain the heat for the length of time required, it will be baked nicely. The kugel must be warm, however, when served.

KUGEL (SCHARFE)

If one desires an unsweetened kugel omit the sugar and cinnamon in the recipe above and season with salt and pepper. When required for any other meal but Shabbas, a kugel can be baked brown in two hours.

KUGEL

Soak five ounces of white bread—it may be stale bread—in cold water; then squeeze out every bit of water, put it in a bowl, add three-fourths cup of soft goose fat in small pieces, five whole eggs; one cup of flour, one-half cup of sugar, one-fourth cup of cracker meal, three apples and two pears cut in small pieces, two dozen raisins with the seeds removed, salt to taste, a tiny pinch of pepper, one-quarter teaspoon each of cinnamon and allspice. Mix all well together, and pour into an iron pan that has the bottom well covered with goose-fat; stick a few pieces of cut apple or pear in the top of the pudding. Pour a cup of cold water over all; place in the oven to bake. Bake slowly for five or six hours. If the water cooks out before it is ready to brown, add more. Bake brown, top and bottom.

NOODLE KUGEL

Cook three cups of broad noodles in salted boiling water ten minutes. Drain and add three-fourths cup of chicken or goose fat and four eggs, well beaten. Place in a well-greased iron pot and bake until the top of the kugel is well browned. Serve hot with raspberry jelly or stewed fruit of any kind.

PEAR KUGEL

Cream one cup of rendered fat with one cup of sugar, add one-half loaf of bread, previously soaked and pressed dry, a little salt, one-fourth cup of flour. Grease pudding-dish and put in alternate layers of the mixture and pears that have been boiled with water, sugar and claret. Bake slowly three hours.

KRAUT KUGEL

Chop up cabbage and let stew in fat slowly until quite brown. Do this the day previous to using. Next day mix in with the stewed cabbage one-fourth of a loaf of bread soaked in water and squeezed dry, one-half cup of flour, one-half cup of brown sugar, one-eighth pound of raisins, some finely chopped citron, one-fourth pound of almonds (mixed with a few bitter almonds), one-half teaspoon of salt, some cinnamon and allspice, about a teaspoon, juice and peel of one lemon and four eggs. Mix all thoroughly, pour into well-greased iron pan (kugel pot) and bake slowly.

APPLE KUGEL

Soak half a loaf of bread in water and squeeze dry, shave a cup of suet very fine and cut up some tart apples in thin slices. Add sugar, raisins, cinnamon, about one-quarter cup of pounded almonds and the yolks of three eggs. Mix all thoroughly. Add whites beaten to a stiff froth last. Bake one hour.

RICE KUGEL

Boil one cup of rice in water until done, then let it cool. In the meanwhile rub one-fourth cup of chicken-fat to a cream, add a scant cup of powdered sugar, a little cinnamon, the grated peel of one lemon, the yolks of three eggs, adding one at a time; one-half cup of raisins seeded, one-half pound of stewed prunes pitted, then add the cold rice. One-half cup of pounded almonds mixed with a few bitter ones improves this pudding. Serve with a pudding sauce, either wine or brandy. This pudding may be eaten hot or cold and may be either baked or boiled. If baked, one hour is required; if boiled, two hours; the water must be kept boiling steadily. Left-over rice may be used, butter instead of the fat, and the rice may be boiled in milk.

APPLE SCHALET, No. 1

Take one pound of fresh beef heart fat, shave it as fine as possible with a knife. Sift one quart of flour into a deep bowl, add two tumblers of ice-cold water, one tablespoon of brown sugar, a saltspoon of salt, then add the shaved heart fat and work well into the sifted flour. Put it on a pie-board and work as you would bread dough, with the palm of your hand, until it looks smooth enough to roll. Do not work over five minutes. Now take half of this dough, flour your pie-board slightly and roll out as you would pie dough, about once as thick. Grease a deep pudding-dish (an iron one is best), one that is smaller at the bottom than the top, grease it well, line the pudding-dish, bottom and sides, clear to the top, fill this one-third full with chopped tart apples, raisins, part of a grated lemon peel, citron cut quite fine, pounded almonds and melted drippings here and there. Sprinkle thickly with sugar, half brown and half white, and a little ground cinnamon. Moisten each layer with one-half wine-glass of wine. Now put another layer of dough, rolling out half of the remaining dough and reserving the other half for the top covering, fill again with apples, raisins, etc., until full, then put on top layer. Press the dough firmly together all round the edge, using a beaten egg to make sure of its sticking. Roll the side dough over the top with a knife and pour a cup of water over the pudding before setting it in the oven. Time for baking, two hours. If the top browns too quickly, cover.

This advantage of this pudding is, it may be baked the day previous to using, in fact, it is better the oftener it is warmed over—always adding a cup of water before setting it in the oven. Before serving the pudding turn it out carefully on a large platter, pour a wine-glass of brandy which has been slightly sweetened over the pudding and light it, carry to the table in flames. A novice had better try this pudding plain, omitting the wine, brandy, almonds and citron, moistening with water instead of wine before baking. Almost as nice and very good for ordinary use. Some apples require more water than others, the cook having to use her own judgment regarding the amount required.

APPLE SCHALET, No. 2

Line an iron pudding-dish with schalet dough, greasing it well before you do so. Chop up some apples quite fine, put on the crust, also some raisins (seeded), sugar and cinnamon, then put another layer of pie and another layer of chopped apples, and so on until filled, say about three layers, the last being crust. Bake slowly and long until a nice dark brown.

SCHALET DOUGH (MERBER DECK)

Cream four tablespoons of drippings, add a pinch of salt, two tablespoons of granulated sugar, beat in well one egg, add one cup of sifted flour and enough cold water to moisten dough so that it can be rolled out—about three tablespoons will be sufficient; it depends on the dryness of the flour how much is required.

NOODLE SCHALET

Make the quantity of noodles desired, then boil. When done, drain through colander, pouring cold water over the noodles.

When all the water has drained off, beat up three eggs in a large bowl, mix the noodles with the beaten eggs. Grease an iron pudding dish with plenty of goose grease or drippings, put in a layer of noodles, then sprinkle one-fourth cup of sugar, some pounded almonds, the grated peel of one lemon and a few raisins; sprinkle some melted fat over this, then add another layer of noodles, some more sugar and proceed as with the other layer until all the noodles are used. Bake two hours. Broad or fine noodles are equally good for this schalet. If desired, one tart apple chopped very fine may be added with the almonds.

CARROT SCHALET

Boil one pound of carrots, let them get perfectly cold before grating them. In the meanwhile cream a heaping tablespoon of drippings or chicken fat and four tablespoons of sugar, add gradually the yolks of four eggs, the grated peel of one lemon, one teaspoon of cinnamon, a little grated nutmeg, three tablespoons of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, pinch of salt, and the beaten whites last. Heat a few tablespoons of fat in a pudding dish, pour in the mixture and bake in a moderate oven one hour, then sprinkle sugar and cinnamon and return to oven for a few moments to brown. Serve hot.

SEVEN LAYER SCHALET

Take two cups of flour, one egg, three tablespoons of fat, one cup of water, a little sugar, pinch of salt, and knead lightly. Put dough aside in a cold place while you prepare a mixture of one cup of sugar, one and one-half teaspoons of cinnamon and three tablespoons of bread crumbs. Cut dough in seven pieces and roll out each piece separately. Place one layer on a greased baking-tin and spread the layer with melted fat and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon; place upon this the second layer, sprinkle on this two ounces of sweet and bitter almonds which have been grated and mixed with sugar; over this place the third layer and spread with oil, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar and one-half pound of cleaned, seedless raisins. Place the fourth layer on and spread with jelly and one-half pound of citron cut up very small. Cover over with another layer, spread fat and sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar and grated lemon peel and juice of lemon. Place the sixth layer and spread and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. Put on the last layer and spread with fat and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. Cut in four-cornered pieces and bake thoroughly and until a nice brown.

This schalet may be made and left whole; a frosting put on top and when well baked will keep for a month or more.

BOILED POTATO PUDDING

Stir the yolks of four eggs with one-half cup of sugar, add one-half cup of blanched and pounded almonds; grate in the peel, also the juice of one lemon, one-half pound of grated potatoes that have been boiled the day before. Lastly add the stiffly beaten whites, some salt and more potatoes, if necessary. Grease your pudding-pan well, pour in the mixture and bake. Set in a pan of water in oven; water in pan must not reach higher than one-half way up the pudding-form. Bake one-half hour. Turn out on platter and serve with a wine, chocolate, or lemon sauce. One can bake in an iron pudding-form without the water.

POTATO SCHALET

Peel and grate five or six large potatoes and one onion. Soak some bread and two or three crackers. Press out the water and add to the potatoes and onion, salt to taste. Add two tablespoons of boiling fat and one beaten egg. Have plenty of hot fat in pan, put in the pudding, pour over it one cup of cold water. Bake in hot oven one hour.

Two slices of white bread, one inch thick, will be sufficient bread for this schalet.

SWEET POTATO PUDDING

Take one quart of grated, raw sweet potatoes, one tablespoon leach of meat fat and chicken fat, one half pound of brown sugar, one-half pint of molasses, one and one-half pints of cold water, one saltspoon of salt and a little black pepper, grated orange peel, ginger, nutmeg and cinnamon to taste. Pour into greased baking-pan and bake until it jellies. Bake in moderate oven. May be eaten as a dessert, warm or cold.

APPLE STRUDEL, No. 1

Sift two cups of flour, add pinch of salt and one teaspoon of powdered sugar. Stir in slowly one cup of lukewarm water, and work until dough does not stick to the hands. Flour board, and roll, as thin as possible. Do not tear. Place a tablecloth on table, put the rolled out dough on it, and pull gently with the hands, to get the dough as thin as tissue paper.

Have ready six apples chopped fine, and mixed with cinnamon, sugar, one-half cup of seedless raisins, one-half cup of currants. Spread this over the dough with plenty of chicken-fat or oil all over the apples. Take the tablecloth in both hands, and roll the strudel, over and over, holding the cloth high, and the strudel will almost roll itself. Grease a baking-pan, hold to the edge of the cloth, and roll the strudel in. Bake brown, basting often with fat or oil.

APPLE STRUDEL, No. 2

Into a large mixing bowl place one and one-half cups of flour and one-quarter teaspoon of salt. Beat one egg lightly and add it to one-third cup of warm water and combine the two mixtures. Mix the dough quickly with a knife; then knead it, place on board, stretching it up and down to make it elastic, until it leaves the board clean. Now toss it on a well-floured board, cover with a hot bowl and keep in a warm place. While preparing the filling lay the dough in the centre of a well-floured tablecloth on the table; roll out a little, brush well with some melted butter, and with hands under dough, palms down, pull and stretch the dough gently, until it is as large as the table and thin as paper, and do not tear the dough. Spread one quart of sour apples, peeled and cut fine, one-quarter pound of almonds blanched and chopped, one-half cup of raisins and currants, one cup of sugar and one teaspoon of cinnamon, evenly over three-quarters of the dough, and drop over them a few tablespoons of melted butter. Trim edges. Roll the dough over apples on one side, then hold cloth high with both hands and the strudel will roll itself over and over into one big roll, trim edges again. Then twist the roll to fit the greased pan. Bake in a hot oven until brown and crisp and brush with melted butter. If juicy small fruits or berries are used, sprinkle bread crumbs over the stretched dough to absorb the juices. Serve slightly warm.

RAHM STRUDEL

Prepare the dough as for Apple Strudel as directed in the foregoing recipe, drip one quart of thick sour milk on it lightly, with a large spoon, put one cup of grated bread crumbs over the milk, add two cups of granulated sugar, one cup of chopped almonds, one cup of raisins, and one teaspoon of cinnamon, roll and place in well-buttered pan, put small pieces of butter over the top, basting frequently. Serve warm with vanilla sauce. One-half this quantity may be used for a small strudel.

CHERRY STRUDEL

Make a dough of two cups of flour, a pinch of salt and a little lukewarm water; do not make it too stiff, but smooth. Slap the dough back and forth. Do this repeatedly for about fifteen minutes. Now put the dough in a warm, covered bowl and set it in a warm, place for half an hour. In the meantime stem and pit two quarts of sour cherries. Grate into them some stale bread (about a plateful); also the peel of half a lemon, and mix. Add one cup of sugar, some ground cinnamon and about four ounces of pounded sweet almonds, mix all thoroughly. Roll out the dough as thin as possible, lay aside the rolling-pin and pull, or rather stretch the dough as thin as tissue paper. In doing this you will have to walk all around the table, for when well stretched it will cover more than the size of an ordinary table. Pull off all of the thick edge, for it must be very thin to be good (save the pieces for another strudel). Pour a little melted goose-oil or butter over this, and sprinkle the bread, sugar, almonds, cherries, etc., over it; roll the strudel together into a long roll. Have ready a long baking-pan well greased with either butter or goose-fat; fold the strudel into the shape of a pretzel. Butter or grease top also and bake a light brown; baste often while baking. Eat warm.

MANDEL (ALMOND) STRUDEL

Prepare the dough as for Apple Strudel No. 2. Blanch one-half pound of almonds and grind, when dried beat the yolks of four eggs light with one-quarter pound of granulated sugar, add the grated peel of one lemon and mix in the almonds. Spread over the dough with plenty of oil, butter or fat and roll. Bake; baste very often.

CABBAGE STRUDEL

Heat one-half cup of goose-fat, add one medium-sized cabbage and let it simmer until done, stirring constantly to keep from burning. While cooling prepare strudel dough, fill with cabbage and one cup of raisins and currants mixed, two cups of granulated sugar, one-half cup of chopped almonds and one teaspoon cinnamon, roll and put little pieces of grease on top; bake in hot oven and baste frequently. The pans in which the strudel is baked must be greased generously. Serve this strudel hot. This strudel may be made for a milk meal by substituting butter for fat.

QUARK STRUDEL (DUTCH CHEESE)

Make a strudel or roley-poley dough and let it rest until you have prepared the cheese. Take half a pound of cheese, rub it through a coarse sieve or colander, add salt, the yolks of two eggs and one whole egg, sweeten to taste. Add the grated peel of one lemon, two ounces of sweet almonds, and about four bitter ones, blanched and pounded, four ounces of sultana raisins and a little citron chopped fine. Now roll out as thin as possible, spread in the cheese, roll and bake, basting with sweet cream.

STRUDEL AUS KALBSLUNGE

Wash the lung and heart thoroughly in salt water, and put on to boil in cold water, adding salt, one onion, a few bay leaves and cook until very tender. Make the dough precisely the same as any other strudel. Take the boiled lung and heart, chop them as fine as possible and stew in a saucepan with some fat, adding chopped parsley, a little salt, pepper and mace, or nutmeg, the grated peel of half a lemon and a little wine. Add the beaten yolks of two eggs to thicken, and remove from the fire to cool. Roll out the dough as thin as possible, fill in the mixture and lay the strudel in a well-greased pan; put flakes of fat on top and baste often. Eat hot.

RICE STRUDEL

Prepare the dough same as for Apple Strudel. Leave it in a warm place covered, until you have prepared the rice. Wash a quarter of a pound of rice in hot water—about three times—then boil it in milk until very soft and thick. Let it cool, and then add two ounces of butter, the yolks of four eggs, four ounces of sugar and one teaspoon of vanilla, some salt and the beaten whites of two eggs, mix thoroughly. When your dough has been rolled out and pulled as thin as possible, spread the rice over it and roll. Add pounded almonds and raisins if desired. Put in a greased pan and bake until brown, basting with sweet cream or butter.

*CEREALS*

The cereals are the most valuable of the vegetable foods, including as they do the grains from which is made nearly all the bread of the world.

For family use, cereals should be bought in small quantities and kept in glass jars, tightly covered.

Variety is to be found in using the different cereals and preparing them in new ways. Many cereals are improved by adding a little milk during the latter part of the cooking. Boiling water and salt should always be added to cereals, one teaspoon salt to one cup of cereal. Long cooking improves the flavor and makes the cereal more digestible.

Cereals should be cooked the first five minutes over the fire and then over hot-water in a double boiler; if one cannot be procured, cook cereal in a saucepan set in a larger one holding the hot water.

LAWS ABOUT CEREALS

To discover if cereals such as barley, wheat, oats, farina or cornmeal are kosher, place them on a hot plate, if no worms or other insects appear they are fit to be eaten, if not, they must be thrown away.

If flour is mildewed it must be destroyed.

OATMEAL PORRIDGE

As oatmeal is ground in different grades of coarseness, the time for cooking varies and it is best to follow the directions given on the packages. The meal should be cooked until soft, but should not be mushy. The ordinary rule is to put a cup of meal into two cups of salted boiling water (a teaspoon of salt), and let it cook in a double boiler the required time. Keep covered until done; then remove the cover and let the moisture escape.

COLD OATMEAL

Oatmeal is very good cold, and in summer is better served in that way. It can be turned into fancy molds or into small cups to cool, and will then hold the form and make an ornamental dish.

OATMEAL WITH CHEESE

Cook one cup of oatmeal overnight and just before serving add one tablespoon of butter and one cup grated cheese. Stir until the cheese is melted and serve at once.

BAKED APPLE WITH OATMEAL

Pare and core the apples and fill the core space with left-over oatmeal mush. Put the apples in a baking dish; sprinkle with sugar; pour a little water into the bottom of the pan and bake in a moderate oven until the apples are tender. Serve warm with cream for breakfast or luncheon.

WHEAT CEREALS

Wheat cereals, like oatmeal, are best cooked by following the directions on the package. Most of them are greatly improved by the addition of a little milk or by a few chopped dates or whole sultana raisins.

CORNMEAL MUSH

Mix together one cup of cornmeal and one teaspoon of salt, and add one cup of cold water gradually, stirring until smooth. Pour this mixture into two cups of boiling; water in a double boiler and cook from three to five hours. Serve hot with cream and sugar.

SAUTÉD CORNMEAL MUSH

Put left-over mush into a dish and smooth it over the top. When cold cut into slices one-half inch thick. Dip each slice into flour. Melt one-half teaspoon of drippings in a frying-pan and be careful to let it get smoking hot. Brown the floured slices on each side. Drain if necessary and serve on a hot plate with syrup.

FARINA

To one-half cup of farina take one teaspoon of salt; pour gradually into three cups of boiling water and cook the mixture in a double boiler for about one hour.

HOMINY

Get the unbroken hominy and after careful washing soak it twenty-four hours in the water. Cook one cup of hominy slowly in the same water in a covered vessel for eight hours or until all the water has been absorbed by the hominy; add two tablespoons of butter, one teaspoon of salt and two tablespoons of cream and serve as a vegetable or as a cereal with sugar and cream.

MARMELITTA

Take two cups of coarse cornmeal and four cups of cold water put on to boil; add one-half teaspoon of salt. Stir the cornmeal continually and when done place on platter, spread with butter, sharf cheese or any cheese such as pot or cream cheese. To be eaten warm.

POLENTA

Place one cup of yellow cornmeal and three cups of cold water in a double boiler, add one teaspoon of salt, one-half teaspoon of pepper and cook for forty minutes. While still hot add one and one-half cups of grated cheese to the mixture and heat until it melts. Turn the mixture into a greased bowl and allow it to set. The meal may be sliced an inch thick or cut with a biscuit cutter and then fried in hot vegetable oil. Serve with white or tomato sauce as desired.

BARLEY, TAPIOCA, SAGO, ETC

Add one teaspoon of salt to one quart of boiling water and pour gradually on one-half cup of barley or other hard grain and boil until tender, from one to two or more hours, according to the grain, and have each kernel stand out distinct when done. Add more boiling water as it evaporates. Use as a vegetable or in soups. Pearl barley, tapioca and sago cook quicker than other large grains.

BOILED RICE

Put one-half cup of rice in a strainer; place the strainer over a bowl nearly full of cold water; rub the rice; lift the strainer from the bowl and change the water. Repeat this until the water in the bowl is clear. Have two quarts of water boiling briskly, add the rice and one tablespoon of salt gradually so as not to stop the boiling; boil twenty minutes or until soft, do not stir; drain through a colander and place the colander over boiling water for ten minutes to steam. Every grain will be distinct. Serve as a vegetable or as a cereal with cream and sugar.

RICE IN MILK

Clean the rice as for boiling in water; and cook one-half cup of rice with one and one-half cups of hot milk and one-half teaspoon of salt, adding a few seeded or sultana raisins if desired. Serve hot like boiled rice or press into small cups, cool and serve with cream and sugar.

RICE WITH GRATED CHOCOLATE

Cook one-half cup of rice, place in hot serving dish, sprinkle generously with grated sweet chocolate; set in oven one minute and serve.

STEAMED RICE

Wash two cups of rice carefully put in double boiler; add eight cups of cold water and a pinch of salt and steam for two hours; do not stir. Serve with any kind of stewed fruit or preserve.

APPLES WITH RICE

Boil one cup of rice in water or milk; rub the kettle all over with a piece of butter before putting in the rice, season with salt and add a lump of butter. When cooked, add about six apples, pared, quartered and cored, sugar and cinnamon. This makes a nice side dish, or dessert, served with cream.

BOILED RICE WITH PINEAPPLE

Boil as much rice as desired and when done slice up the pineapple and add, with as much sugar as is required to sweeten to taste.

BAKED RICE

Arrange two cups of boiled rice in a baking dish in layers, covering each with grated cheese, a little milk, butter, salt and red pepper. Spread one cup of grated bread crumbs over all and bake in a moderate oven until the crumbs are browned.

SWEET RICE

Clean and wash one cup of rice. Put on to boil with cold water, add a pinch of salt. When done drain off the water, if any; add two cups of milk, stir in and let boil for five minutes. Dish up, then sprinkle sugar and cinnamon generously over the top. The yolk of an egg can be added just before serving if desired.

EGGS BAKED IN RICE

Line a buttered dish with steamed rice. Break the eggs in the centre, dot with butter, sprinkle with salt, pepper and bake in a moderate oven.

RICE AND NUT LOAF

Boil one-half cup of rice (brown preferred); drain and dry it. Mix with an equal quantity of bread crumbs. Add level teaspoon of salt and one-half saltspoon of black pepper. Stir in one cup of chopped nuts—pecans or peanuts. Add one tablespoon of chopped parsley and one egg. Mix thoroughly and pack in bread-pan to mold it. Turn it from pan into baking-pan and bake slowly three-quarters of an hour. Serve with cream sauce or purée of peas.

PILAF

Put two cups of water on to boil, add juice of two tomatoes and a pinch of salt. When boiling, add one cup of rice and let cook until the water has evaporated. Then add melted butter, mix well, and keep in warm place, covered, until ready to serve.

SPANISH RICE

Put one cup of washed rice in frying-pan with four or five tablespoons of poultry fat; add three onions chopped and two cloves of garlic minced fine. Fry ten minutes; add one red pepper or one canned pimento chopped, or one teaspoon of paprika, and three ripe tomatoes or two cups of strained tomatoes and one teaspoon of salt. Cook slowly about one hour, and as the water evaporates, add more boiling water to keep from burning.

LEFT-OVER CEREALS

Oatmeal, hominy, cracked wheat, and other cereals which are left over can be added next day to the fresh stock, for they are improved by long boiling and do not injure the new supply, or such as is left can be molded in large or in small forms, and served cold with cream, or milk and sugar. In warm weather cereals are nicer cold than hot. Cold hominy and mush, cut into squares and fried, so that a crisp crust is formed on both sides,—also hominy or farina, rolled into balls and fried,—are good used in place of a vegetable or as a breakfast dish.

Any of the cereals make good pancakes, or a small amount added to the ordinary pancake batter improves it.

*EGGS*

Eggs and the foods into which they enter are favorite articles of diet in most households. They are an agreeable substitute for meat and even when high in price make a cheaper dish than meat.

A fresh egg should feel heavy, sink in water, and when held to a bright light show a clear round yolk.

TO PRESERVE EGGS

In the early spring or fall when eggs are plentiful and at their best, pack them away for future use. Use strictly fresh eggs with perfect shells (no cracks). Buy water glass at drugstore. Use ten parts water to one of water glass. Boil water, when cool add water glass and beat well. Use an earthen jar or crock, pack in rows and pour over the liquid mixture to cover well. Place old plate over eggs in crock to keep them under water. Put cover on jar and keep in cool place. More eggs may be added at any time if well covered with the liquid mixture.

For fifteen dozen eggs use one quart water glass.

TO KEEP EGG YOLKS

The yolks may be kept several days and be as if just separated from the whites if they are placed in a cup previously rinsed with cold water and a pinch of salt added to them. The cup must be closely covered with a wet cloth, and this must be changed and well rinsed in cold water every day.

When whites are left over make a small angel cake or any of the cookies which require the whites of egg only.

When yolks are left over use for making mayonnaise.

POACHED OR DROPPED EGGS

Fill a pan with boiling, salted water. Break each egg into a wet saucer and slip it into the water; set the pan back where water will not boil. Dip the water over the eggs with a spoon. When the white is firm and a film has formed over the yolk, they are cooked. Take them up with a skimmer, drain and serve hot, on toast. Season with salt.

BOILED EGGS

Soft-boiled eggs may be prepared in two ways. The eggs may be dropped carefully into boiling water and boiled three minutes, or they may be placed in a covered vessel of boiling water and allowed to stand in a warm place (but not on the stove) for ten minutes. Eggs prepared in this way are sometimes called "Coddled Eggs." They are much more delicate and digestible than the usual "Boiled Eggs."

Hard-boiled eggs should be cooked in boiling water for fifteen or twenty minutes and then dropped in cold water to prevent the yolk from turning dark.

SCRAMBLED EGGS

Break into a bowl as many eggs as required, add salt and pepper. Have some very hot butter in the frying-pan on the stove; pour in the eggs, stir constantly until set, not stiff, and serve on a hot platter at once.

FRIED EGGS

Melt in a frying-pan a piece of butter, or fat for a meat meal. When hot, drop in the eggs, one at a time, being careful not to break the yolk. When the white of the egg is set they are done, though some persons like them turned over and cooked on the other side. Remove from the pan with a cake turner.

BAKED EGGS

Butter individual baking dishes and break an egg in each, being careful to keep the yolk whole. Put on each egg a bit of butter, a little pepper and salt. Bake in moderate oven from four to six minutes.

BAKED EGGS WITH CHEESE

Butter a baking dish of a size necessary for number of eggs desired, break eggs into dish, add salt, paprika, pepper to taste, one tablespoon of cream, and two tablespoons of grated cheese.

Place dish in a pan of hot water in moderate oven for five minutes until eggs are set.

TOMATO WITH EGG

Cut top from tomatoes, remove seeds, put a raw egg in each tomato, dust with salt, pepper, and finely chopped parsley. Place in moderate oven until egg is set. Serve with cream sauce.

BAKED EGG WITH TOMATOES

Remove the skin from six fresh tomatoes or take one-half can of tomatoes, chop them and put them on stove and cook for twenty minutes; season with one tablespoon of chopped parsley, half an onion chopped, salt and pepper; thicken at the end of that time with one teaspoon of melted butter mixed with one tablespoon of flour. Put aside to cool. Then mix in the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and lastly cut and fold in the four whites. Butter a pudding dish and set this mixture in the oven in a pan of lukewarm water and bake in a moderate oven until a golden brown.

PLAIN OMELET

To make an omelet for breakfast or luncheon for two persons, take three eggs, three tablespoons of sweet milk and a saltspoon of salt. Whip the yolks of the eggs, the milk and salt to a light foam with an egg whip. Slowly add the yolk mixture to the whites of the eggs, which should be beaten to a stiff froth in a big bowl. After the yolks and milk are well whipped through the whites, beat the whole together for a few minutes with the egg-beater.

In an omelet pan or a large frying-pan put a tablespoon of good butter. When the butter is bubbling hot, pour in the omelet mixture. Stir it lightly for the first minute with a broad-bladed knife, then stop stirring it; and, as the mixture begins to stiffen around the edge, fold the omelet toward the centre with the knife. As soon as it is properly folded, turn it over on a hot platter. Decorate with sprigs of parsley and serve.

SWEET OMELET

Six eggs, two tablespoons of flour, one cup of cold milk. Wet the flour with a little of the milk, then add the rest of the milk and the yolks of the eggs. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and pour into the flour, milk and yolks. Put a piece of butter into a spider and let it get hot, but not so hot that the butter will burn. Then pour the mixture in and put in a moderate oven to bake in the spider. It takes about ten minutes to bake. Then slip a knife under it and loosen it and slip off on a large plate. Sift powdered sugar on top and serve with a slice of lemon.

SWEET OMELET FOR ONE

One egg, beat white separately, two tablespoons of cold sweet milk, a pinch of salt. Brown on both sides or roll, spread with compote or sprinkle powdered sugar thickly over it. Serve at once.

SPANISH OMELET

In a chopping bowl place two nice large ripe tomatoes, first peeling them; one large or two medium-sized white Texas onions, two sprigs of parsley, and one large green-bell pepper, first removing most of its seeds.

Chop these ingredients well together quite fine, turn them into a saucepan and let them cook over rather a brisk heat until quite soft. Put no water in this mixture. Add a tablespoon of olive oil or of butter before it begins to cook and season well with salt and red pepper.

Make the omelet the same as the plain one, but use water instead of milk in mixing it, and only use two tablespoons of water for the six eggs required.

After the eggs are sufficiently beaten, mixed, and in the pan over the fire, and when the edges begin to stiffen, cover the surface of the omelet to within an inch of the edge with the cooked vegetables. Fold the omelet quickly and turn it on a hot platter. Pour around it all the vegetables left in the pan and serve.

RUM OMELET

Take six eggs, beat whites and yolks well, add a pinch of salt and a teaspoon of brandy. Fry in a spider quickly and spread with a compote of huckleberries or any other fruit. Roll up the omelet, pour a very small wineglass of rum over it, light it and serve at once.

SWEET ALMOND OMELET

Prepare one-half cup of sweet almonds, blanched, chopped fine and pounded smooth. Beat four eggs slightly, add four tablespoons of cream and turn it into a hot omelet pan on which you have melted one tablespoon, of butter. Cook carefully, drawing the cooked portion into the centre and tilting the pan to allow the liquid part to run over the bare pan. When nearly all set, sprinkle the almonds over the surface and turn the edges over until well rolled. Then slip it out on a hot dish and dredge with powdered sugar, and scatter several salted almonds over the top. Serve immediately.

CORN OMELET

Take one-half cup of canned corn and chop it very fine (or the same amount cut from the cob). Add to that the yolk of one egg, well beaten with pepper and salt to taste, and two tablespoons of cream. Beat the white of the egg very stiff and stir in just before cooking. Have the pan very hot and profusely buttered. Pour the mixture on, and when nicely browned, turn one half over the other, as in cooking other omelets.

HERB OMELET

Take six eggs and beat well in a bowl. Add two tablespoons of cold water and a quarter of a teaspoon of salt, a pinch of pepper, a teaspoon of chopped parsley, a quarter of a teaspoon of grated onion and a teaspoon of fine butter, shaved in little pieces. Mix well with a wooden spoon. Dissolve in the spider the butter and add at once the beaten eggs, etc., inclining the spider to the handle for an instant and then shaking the omelet into the centre and turn up the right edge, then the left and fry briskly five minutes and serve.

POACHED EGGS WITH FRIED TOMATOES

Fry tomatoes (cut one-half inch thick) in butter, pepper and salt. Have prepared slices of bread cut round, and fried in butter. Put on a hot platter with a slice of tomato on each. Poach as many eggs as are required, in boiling salt water. Lift out very carefully, placing one egg on each tomato. Add to the gravy in which tomatoes were fried, two tablespoons of cream, one teaspoon of any pungent sauce, one teaspoon of mushroom catsup, juice of half a lemon, and a teaspoon of flour to thicken. Cook up once and pour over eggs. Serve very hot.

EGGS POACHED IN TOMATO SAUCE

Make a sauce of one tablespoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour, one and one-half cups of canned tomatoes rubbed through a strainer, a pinch of soda, salt, pepper and sugar to taste. When sufficiently cooked drop in the required number of eggs, cook until the white is firm, basting the eggs often with the sauce. When done, lift the eggs carefully to squares of toast and pour the sauce around them.

EGGS PIQUANT

Set to boil the following mixture: Pour into the kettle water to the depth of about one inch, adding a little salt and half a cup of vinegar. When this boils, break in as many fresh eggs, one at a time, as you desire to have. Do this carefully so as not to break the yolks. As soon as the whites of the eggs are boiled, take up carefully with a perforated skimmer and lay in cold water. Then remove to a large platter and pour over the following sauce: Strain the sauce the eggs were boiled in and set away until you have rubbed or grated two hard-boiled eggs, yolks only. Add a tablespoon of butter rubbed very hard and add also some sugar and part of the strained sauce. Boil up once and pour over the eggs. Garnish with parsley.

OMELET SOUFFLÉ

Yolks of six eggs and six tablespoons of powdered sugar, added gradually, and both beaten together until thick and smooth; juice of one lemon and a little grated rind; whites beaten as stiff as possible, stirred together. Put into a warm well-buttered dish; bake in quick oven ten minutes.

WHITE SAUCE OMELET

Make a white sauce of one tablespoon of butter blended with two tablespoons of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, pinch of pepper and one teaspoon of sugar, adding one-half cup each of milk and cream. Beat the yolks of five eggs and stir them into the sauce, then add the stiffly beaten whites of the eggs, folding them in carefully. Melt two tablespoons of butter in the omelet pan, when it is hot put in the mixture and let it stand in a moderate heat for two minutes, place in a hot oven and cook until set. Remove from the oven, turn on a hot platter and serve.

EGGS WITH CREAM DRESSING

Blend two tablespoons of butter with three tablespoons of flour. Place on range and stir until the butter is melted. Add one and one-half cups of milk, stirring all the time until the mixture is thick; season with one teaspoon of salt and a few grains of pepper. Separate the whites of six hard-boiled eggs from the yolks. Chop the whites fine and add to the dressing. Arrange slices of toast on a hot platter, pour the dressing over them; force the yolks through a ricer onto the toast and dressing; serve hot.

SCALLOPED EGGS

Use above recipe and mix one cup of bread crumbs with one tablespoon of butter, sprinkle this over dish and bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven.

EGGS À LA MEXICANA

Boil six dried Spanish peppers twenty minutes. Drain, remove the seeds, and chop fine. Fry in butter half an onion and one clove of garlic. Add one cup of uncooked rice, cover with one cup of water and cook till tender. Add a lump of butter, salt, and, when done, cover with six eggs; then scramble all together. Serve on a hot dish.

EGGS SPANISH

Boil eggs hard; after cooling, remove shells and halve lengthwise. Cook for thirty minutes fresh or canned tomatoes with minced green onions, garlic, parsley, a laurel leaf, salt, pepper, and cayenne pepper to taste. Strain. Melt a slice of butter, add a little flour, and then add sauce gradually. Cook ten minutes; place eggs carefully in sauce and serve.

FRESH MUSHROOMS WITH EGGS

Peel nine good-sized mushrooms without using the stems and chop very fine; fry two tablespoons of butter and two finely chopped onions without browning. Add the mushrooms and steam them by covering the pan after seasoning with salt, pepper and paprika. Before serving, beat six whole eggs and scramble with the mushrooms. Serve on hot buttered toast.

EGG RAREBIT

Make a cream sauce. Grate one-half pound American and Swiss cheese mixed, or American alone; add to the sauce. Chop three hard-boiled eggs, add to the sauce, season with salt and pepper, and serve on buttered toast.

KROSPHADA

Place two sliced onions with two ounces each of sugar and spices, pepper and salt to taste, in a pint of pure malt vinegar and boil gently until the onions are nearly done. Let it cool a little and then stir in six beaten eggs and sufficient crumbled ginger-bread to make the whole quite thick. Place again over the fire for a few minutes, stirring frequently and mashing the mixture into a uniform paste, but be very careful that it does not boil.

CURRIED EGGS

Melt four tablespoons of butter in a frying-pan, add one onion chopped fine and cook until straw colored. Then add one tablespoon of curry powder. Make a smooth paste of one-fourth of a cup of water and two tablespoons of flour; add one tablespoon of lemon juice and one-half teaspoon of salt. Add to the first mixture; boil five minutes. Arrange six hard-boiled eggs in a border of rice and pour the dressing over all.

FRICASSEED EGGS

Take six hard-boiled eggs, remove shells. Roll them in flour, then in egg to which has been added one-half teaspoon of oil, one-half teaspoon of vinegar, a few drops of onion juice, one teaspoon chopped parsley, a little nutmeg and salt. When quite covered, roll in vermicelli that has been broken into fine bits and fry in deep beef drippings. Serve with the following sauce: One tablespoon of fat; one tablespoon of flour, browned together; add one-half cup of white wine and a cup of bouillon. Season with salt and cayenne and boil five minutes. Add one teaspoon each of chopped chives and parsley, some chopped olives and mushrooms; bring to a boil again and pour over the eggs.

EGGS EN MARINADE

Mix equal quantities of water and good meat gravy, two tablespoons each, with a teaspoon of vinegar and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Put in a stew-pan and stir in gradually two well-beaten, yolks of eggs. When it thickens and before it boils, have ready a half dozen nicely poached eggs and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with parsley.

SCALLOPED EGGS (FLEISCHIG)

Make a force-meat of chopped tongue, bread crumbs, pepper, salt, a little parsley, one tablespoon of melted fat, and soup stock enough to make a soft paste. Half fill patty-pans with the mixture. Break an egg carefully on the top of each, sprinkle with a little salt, pepper and cracker dust. Put in the oven and bake about ten minutes. Serve hot.

SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH BRAINS

Scald brains with hot water, clean and skin, and boil a few minutes in fresh water. Melt a little fat in skillet, put in brains, finely chopped, and stir well until dry and done. Add one teaspoon of chopped parsley, pinch of salt, and three eggs well-beaten. Stir with a fork until eggs are evenly cooked, put on hot platter, and serve immediately.

SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH SAUSAGE

Take one pound of cold, boiled sausage, skin and slice in half-inch pieces. Place in a frying-pan with two tablespoons of hot fat; brown on both sides a few minutes and just before serving add three eggs, beaten slightly; mix; and cook until the eggs are set and serve immediately.

Chopped tongue root may be used instead of sausage.

SMOKED BRISKET OF BEEF AND EGGS

Take slices of smoked breast of beef, brown in frying-pan; place on hot platter. Slip as many eggs as are needed in frying-pan and cook gently by dripping the hot fat over them until done. Place carefully on the beef slices and serve at once.

*CHEESE*

Cheese should not be tightly covered. When it becomes dry and hard, grate and keep covered until ready to use. It may be added to starchy foods.

Care should be exercised in planning meals in which cheese is employed as a substitute for meat. As cheese dishes are inclined to be somewhat "heavy," they should be offset by crisp, watery vegetables, water cress, celery, lettuce, fruit salads and light desserts, preferably fresh or cooked fruit. Another point, too, is to be considered. Whether raw or cooked, cheese seems to call for the harder kinds of bread—crusty rolls or biscuits, zwieback, toast, pulled bread or hard crackers.

A soft, crumbly cheese is best for cooking.

Cheese is sufficiently cooked when melted, if cooked longer it becomes tough and leathery.

Baking-soda in cheese dishes which are cooked makes the casein more digestible.

COTTAGE CHEESE (POT CHEESE)

Heat sour milk slowly until the whey rises to the top; pour it off, put the curd in a bag and let it dry for six hours without squeezing it. Pour it into a bowl and break it fine with a wooden spoon. Season with salt. Mold into balls and keep in a cool place. It is best when fresh.

KOCH KAESE (BOILED CHEESE)

Press one quart of fine cottage cheese through a coarse sieve or colander and set it away in a cool place for a week, stirring it once or twice during that time; when it has become quite strong, stir it smooth with a wooden or silver spoon; add a saltspoon of salt and one-fourth as much of caraway seed, yolks of two eggs and an even tablespoon of flour which has been previously dissolved in about one-half cup of cold milk; stir the flour and milk until it is a smooth paste, adding a lump of butter, about the size of an egg; add all to the cheese. Put the cheese on to boil until quite thick; stirring occasionally; boil altogether about one-half hour, stirring constantly the last ten minutes; the cheese must look smooth as velvet. Pour it into a dish which has been previously rinsed in cold water. Set it away in a cool place; to keep it any length of time, cover it with a clean cloth which has been dipped in and wrung out of beer. This cheese is excellent for rye bread sandwiches.

A DELICIOUS CREAM CHEESE

Sweet milk is allowed to stand until it is like a jelly, but does not separate. Then it is poured into a cheese-cloth bag and hung up to drain until all the water is out of it and only the rich creamy substance remains. Sometimes it takes from twelve to twenty-four hours. At the end of this time the cheese is turned from the bag into a bowl; then to every pint of the cheesy substance a tablespoon of butter is added and enough salt to season it palatably. Then it is whipped up with a fork until it is a smooth paste and enough put on a plate to make a little brick, like a Philadelphia cheese. With two knives, one in each hand, lightly press the cheese together in the shape of a brick, smooth it over the top and put it away to cool. One quart of rich sour milk will make a good sized cheese.

CHEESE BALLS, No. 1

Take one cake of cream cheese, one-quarter of a pound of chopped figs, one-quarter of a pound of chopped walnuts, roll into balls and serve on lettuce leaves.

CHEESE BALLS, No. 2

Mix one cake Neufchatel cheese, a piece of butter the size of the cheese, one tablespoon of cream, one-quarter teaspoon of salt and six dashes of Tabasco Sauce and form one large ball or several small ones and roll in chopped pecan nuts.

CHEESE SOUFFLÉ

Dissolve one and one-half tablespoons of butter, add one tablespoon of flour, stir until it loosens from the pan; add one and one-half cups of rich milk, pepper and salt. Take from the fire, add gradually four egg yolks and three-quarters of a cup of grated cheese, then the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Bake in a hot oven in china ramekins about fifteen minutes and serve immediately.

CHEESE TIMBALS FOR TWELVE PEOPLE

Take one pint of milk, four tablespoons of flour, and use enough of the milk to dissolve the flour, the balance put in double boiler; when it boils, add the dissolved flour, then add one-quarter pound imported Swiss cheese grated. Let these two boil for fifteen minutes; when cool, add the yolks of four eggs; drop one in at a time and beat, then strain through a fine sieve about ten minutes before you put in the pans; beat the whites of two eggs and put in the above and mix; grease timbal forms, fill three-quarters full only; bake in pan of boiling water twenty minutes. Let them stand about two minutes, turn out on little plates, and serve with tomato sauce, a sprig of parsley put on top of each one.

WELSH RAREBIT

Melt one tablespoon of butter, add two cups finely cut American cheese, when it melts add one-half cup of milk or stale beer, keep stirring until it is smooth. Add one-half teaspoon of English mustard, two beaten eggs. Cook one minute longer and salt to taste. Serve on toast.

GOLDEN BUCK

One pound of cheese, one-eighth pound of butter, one-half glass of ale, one teaspoon of mustard, one egg (well beaten), and salt and paprika. Put butter in pan, and when melted add cheese cut up or grated; stir, and as cheese melts, add ale. When it begins to bubble, add egg well beaten. Stir continually to keep from getting stringy. In two or three minutes it will be ready to serve. Pour over hot buttered toast. This quantity is sufficient for four persons.

CHEESE BREAD

Take six thick slices of stale bread, well buttered; cut them in two; dip into milk; then place in a baking dish, with alternating layers of thinly sliced cheese, having cheese for top. Add half a cup of milk, into which a half teaspoon of dry mustard has been put. Bake in quick oven fifteen minutes. Serve at once.

GREEN CORN, TOMATOES AND CHEESE

Into one tablespoon of melted butter stir two cups of grated cheese until it, too, is melted. Add three-quarters of a cup of canned or grated fresh corn, one ripe green pepper, stir them, add one egg yolk mixed with one-half cup of tomato purée, one teaspoon of salt, one-half teaspoon of paprika. Toast five slices of bread and pour this mixture over it. Serve hot.

RICE AND CHEESE

Melt two ounces of butter in a stew-pan; fry in the buttery finely minced onion. When this is of a nice golden color stir into it a quarter of a pound of well-boiled rice. Work it well with a fork and then pour all into a buttered pie dish. Dredge over with a good coating of grated cheese, sprinkle the surface with melted butter and bake until nicely browned.

MACARONI AND CHEESE

Break three ounces of macaroni—noodles or spaghetti answer equally well—into small pieces, boil in rapidly boiling salted water; when tender drain off the water and add half a pint of milk; cook slowly till the macaroni has absorbed most of the milk. To half a pint of thick white sauce add two ounces of grated cheese and mix with the macaroni; last of all add two well-beaten eggs. Butter a pudding mold, sprinkle it with browned bread crumbs and pour in the macaroni mixture; steam gently for about half an hour, turn out and fill the centre with stewed tomatoes and mushrooms.

CHEESE OMELET

Cook in double boiler one cup of milk, add one tablespoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour blended together and cook till thick; one cup of cheese cut up added, and stir till dissolved. Remove from fire and stir in yolks of four eggs beaten, one-half teaspoon of salt (pepper). Fold in whites of four eggs beaten stiff and a pinch of baking powder. Bake in a buttered dish one-half hour.

CHEESE AND SWEET GREEN PEPPERS

Cheese and peppers make a very nice combination. Melt two ounces of cheese, add a tablespoon of chopped peppers and the same amount of butter, a little paprika, salt, and if liked, mustard. When the ingredients have been well blended pour the mixture on hot buttered toast and serve.

CHEESE FONDUE

Soak one-half cup of bread crumbs in one scant cup of milk; dissolve a speck of bicarbonate of soda in a drop of hot water and add to the milk, one egg, yolk and white beaten separately, one-half cup of dry cheese grated, one tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper to taste, beat well, pour into a well buttered baking dish, strew dry crumbs moistened with butter over the top, and bake in a hot oven until light brown. Serve at once in the dish in which it is baked.

TOMATOES, EGGS AND CHEESE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)

Place two tablespoons of butter in a pan (after having the water boil to heat the pan). Let butter melt, add one small onion chopped fine and cook until soft, a pint of tomatoes strained and let come to a boil; add one-half pound mild cheese cut fine; and stir until smooth. Break in three eggs and stir hard until eggs are done. Serve on buttered toast.

CRACKERS AND CHEESE

Split in two some Bent's water biscuits; moisten them with hot water and pour over each piece a little melted butter and French mustard; then spread with a thick layer of grated cheese; sprinkle with paprika or cayenne. Place them in a hot oven until the cheese is soft and creamy.

RAMEKINS OF EGG AND CHEESE

Beat three new-laid eggs and blend thoroughly with two ounces of grated cheese and one ounce of partly melted butter. Place the mixture in little pans or saucers and bake in the oven.

*BREAD*

Home-made bread is very much more palatable and more nutritious than baker's bread and it is worth while to spend time and effort in its preparation.

To make good bread, it is necessary to have good flour, fresh yeast and the liquid used in moistening must be neither too hot nor too cold or the bread will not rise properly.

FLOUR

The housekeeper should know about the different kinds of flour. We get the bread flour from the spring wheat; the pastry flour from the winter wheat.

Bread flour contains more gluten than pastry flour and is used for bread on that account. Pastry flour having less gluten and slightly more starch is more suitable for pastry and cake mixtures and is used wherever softness and lightness are desired.

Graham flour is the whole kernel of wheat ground.

Entire wheat flour is the flour resulting from the grinding of all but the outer layer of the wheat.

Rye flour is next best to wheat flour for bread making, but is generally combined with wheal flour, since by itself it makes a sticky bread.

Cornmeal is also combined with wheat flour.

Variety bread is composed of bread flour, rye flour and cornmeal combined in one loaf.

If flour is musty; it is not kosher and must be destroyed. Keep flour either in tins or barrels in a dry atmosphere.

YEAST

In cities where fresh compressed yeast can be obtained, it is not worth while to prepare one's own.

Compressed yeast is always in proper condition to use until it becomes soft, often the yeast cakes are slightly discolored, but this does not affect the yeast, being caused by the oxidation of the starch in the cake.

Keep yeast in cool place.

HOME MADE YEAST

Grate six large raw potatoes, have ready a gallon of water in which you have boiled one and one-half cups of hops. Strain through a fine hair sieve, boiling hot, over the potatoes, stirring well, or the mixture will thicken like starch. Add a scant cup of sugar and one-half cup of salt. When cold, add a yeast cake or a cup of fresh yeast. Let it stand until a thick foam rises on the top. Bottle in a few days. If kept in a cool place, this yeast will last a long time. Use one cup of yeast for one large baking. In making yeast, from time to time, use a cup of the same with which to start the new yeast.

One cup of liquid yeast is equal to one cake of compressed yeast.

When yeast is not obtainable to start the fermentation in making yeast, mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a warm place until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only half the strength of yeast so double the amount must be used.

TO MAKE BREAD

Try the yeast always by setting to raise in a cup of lukewarm water or milk, if you use compressed yeast add salt and sugar.

If it rises in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, the yeast is fit to use. In making bread always use sifted flour. Set a sponge with lukewarm milk or water, keeping it covered in a warm place until very light, then mold this sponge by adding flour, until very light into one large ball, then knead well and steadily for twenty minutes. Set to rise again in a warm place free from drafts, and when it has risen to double its former bulk, take a knife, cut through the dough in several places, then place this dough on a baking board which has been sprinkled with flour. Work with the palm of the hand, always kneading towards the centre of the ball (the dough must rebound like a rubber ball). When this leaves the board and the hands perfectly clean the dough may be formed into loaves or rolls.

Place in pan, greased slightly with a good oil, let rise until the imprint of the finger does not remain, and bake.

The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a teaspoon of flour in five minutes.

If baked in a coal range, the fire must be just the proper heat so as not to have to add fuel or shake the stove.

If baked in a gas range, light oven to full heat five minutes before putting the bread in the oven, and bake in a moderately hot oven forty-five minutes, unless the loaves are very large when one hour will be the proper time.

When taken from the oven, the bread may be wrapped in a clean towel wrung out of warm water (this prevents the crust from becoming hard); place bread in slanting position or allow it to cool on a wire rack.

WHITE BREAD

Set the dough at night and bake early in the morning; take one-half cake of compressed yeast, set in a cup of lukewarm milk or water adding a teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar. Let this rise, if it does not, the yeast is not fresh or good. Measure eight cups of sifted flour into a deep bread bowl, add one teaspoon of salt; make a depression in the centre, pour in the risen yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk or water. In winter be sure that the bowl, flour, milk, in fact everything has been thoroughly warmed before mixing. Mix the dough slowly with a wooden spoon and then knead as directed.

This amount will make two loaves, either twisted or in small bread pans.
Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.

If the bread is set in the morning use a cake of compressed yeast and bake the loaves in the afternoon.

INDIVIDUAL LOAVES

Make dough according to the above recipe. Work small pieces of dough into strands a finger long, and take three strands for each loaf. Make small as possible, brush with beaten egg; or sweetened water and sprinkle with poppy seed (mohn). Allow them to rise before setting them in the oven. These are called "Vienna loaves" and are used at weddings, parties and for the Succoth festival in the Succah.

If one-half cake of yeast has been used, the half cake of yeast which is left over, can be kept in good condition several days by rewrapping it in the tinfoil and keeping it in a cool, dry place.

BUTTERBARCHES

Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk, add a teaspoon of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar and let it rise. Then make a soft dough of eight cups of sifted flour and as much milk as is required to work it, about two cups; add the yeast, one-half cup of sugar, four tablespoons of butter dissolved in the warm milk, the grated peel of a lemon, two or three dozen raisins seeded, and two eggs well beaten. Work this dough perfectly smooth with the palm of your hand, adding more flour if necessary. It is hardly possible to tell the exact amount of flour to use; experience will teach you when you have added enough. Different brands of flour vary, some being drier than others. Work the dough as directed, set it aside covered until it is double the bulk of the original piece of dough. Then work again and divide the dough into two parts, and divide each of the pieces of dough into three parts. Work the six pieces of dough thoroughly and then roll each piece into a long strand; three of which are to be longer than the other three. Braid the three long strands into one braid (should be thicker in the centre than at the end), and braid the shorter strands into one braid and lay it on, top of the long braid, pressing the ends together. Butter a long baking-pan, lift the barches into the pan and set in a warm place to rise again for about one-half hour. Then brush the top with beaten egg and sprinkle poppy seed all over the top. Bake in a moderate oven one hour.

BARCHES

These are to be used for a meat meal and are made in the same manner as butter barches, omitting the milk and butter; use water and a little shortening of dripping or rendered fat or a vegetable oil; grate a dozen almonds (blanched) and add with two well-beaten eggs, one-half cup of sugar, salt, raisins and the grated peel of one lemon. Work just as you would butter barches. Bake one hour in moderate oven. Wrap in a damp, clean towel as soon as baked to prevent the crust from becoming too hard.

POTATO BREAD

Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to any of the foregoing recipes. This will give a more moist bread, which retains its freshness longer.

GRAHAM BREAD

Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and four tablespoons of light brown sugar or molasses in one cup of lukewarm water and one cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled to lukewarm. Add two tablespoons of melted butter, then four cups of Graham flour and one cup of white flour (sifted), adding flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly, being sure to keep dough soft. Cover and set aside in a warm place to rise for about two hours. When double in bulk, turn out on kneading board, mold into loaves, and place in well-greased pans, cover and set to rise again—about one hour or until light. Bake one hour, in a slower oven than for white bread. If wanted for overnight use one-half cake of yeast and an extra half teaspoon of salt.

GLUTEN BREAD

Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one tablespoon of sugar in one cup of milk, scalded and cooled, and one cup of lukewarm water; add one level tablespoon of butter then three cups of gluten flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly until smooth and elastic; place in well-greased bowl; cover and set aside in a warm place, free from draught, to rise until light, which should be in about two hours. Mold into loaves; place in greased pans, filling them half full. Cover, let rise again, and when double in bulk, which should be in about one hour, bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes.

This will make two one-pound loaves. For diet use omit shortening and sugar.

RAISIN BREAD

Make dough as directed for Butterbarches, using one-quarter cup of raisins and omitting the lemon and egg. Form in loaves, fill well-greased pans half full; cover and let rise until light; about one hour. Glaze with egg diluted with water, and bake forty-five minutes.

ROLLED OATS BREAD

Pour two cups of boiling water over two cups of rolled oats, cover and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one-fourth cup of brown sugar in one-half cup of lukewarm water, add two tablespoons of shortening, the oatmeal and the water in which it has been swelling. Beat well, add about three cups of flour to make a dough, also add one teaspoon of salt. Let rise until it doubles in bulk. Mold into two loaves in pan and bake forty-five minutes.

POTATO-RYE BREAD

Cook one quart of potatoes diced, in boiling water until tender. Strain, reserving potato water. Measure and add enough more water to make three cups. Let come to a boil, add one-quarter cup of salt, and very gradually one and one-quarter cups of cornmeal. Cook two minutes, stirring constantly until thick. Remove from fire, add two tablespoons of any kind of fat, the potatoes riced or mashed and when cooled two cups of flour; then one tablespoon of sugar and one cake of yeast dissolved in one cup of lukewarm water. Mix and knead to a stiff dough adding wheat flour to keep it from sticking. Cover, set aside in a warm place overnight, or until double its bulk. Shape into four loaves, let rise again; bake in a moderate oven one hour or more, until well done. Glaze with egg diluted with water before putting in the oven. These loaves will keep moist one week.

RYE BREAD (AMERICAN) No. 1

Dissolve one cake compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water and one cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled; or if so desired the milk may be omitted and all water used; add two and one-half cups of rye flour or enough to make a sponge. Beat well; cover and set aside in a warm place, free from draught, to rise about two hours. When light add one and one-half cups of sifted white flour, one tablespoon of melted butter or oil, two and one-half cups of rye flour to make a soft dough and last one tablespoon of salt. Turn on a board and knead or pound it five minutes. Place in greased bowl; cover and let rise until double in bulk—about two hours. Turn on board and shape into loaves; place in floured shallow pans; cover and let rise again until light—about one hour. Brush with white of egg and water, to glaze. With sharp knife cut lightly three strokes diagonally across top, and place in oven. Bake in slower oven than for white bread. Caraway seeds may be used if desired.

By adding one-half cup of sour dough, left from previous baking, an acid flavor is obtained, which is considered by many a great improvement. This should be added to the sponge.

RYE BREAD, No. 2

Sift three cups of rye flour, three cups of wheat flour and two teaspoons of salt in a bowl. Dissolve one-half cake of compressed yeast or any other yeast in two cups of lukewarm water. When the yeast is dissolved pour it into the flour and make into a dough. Lay it on a kneading board, and knead until smooth and elastic, put it back into the bowl, cover with a towel, and set aside overnight to rise. Next morning, lay the dough on a biscuit or kneading board again and knead well. Make into a loaf, put into a pan, and when well risen, moisten the top with a little cold water and bake in a moderate oven.

ZWIEBEL PLATZ

Take a piece of rye bread dough. After it has risen sufficiently roll out quite thin, butter a long cake pan and put in the rolled dough. Brush with melted butter; chop some onions very fine, strew thickly on top of cake, sprinkle with salt, put flakes of butter here and there. Another way is to chop up parsley and use in place of onions. Then called "Petersilien Platz."

VARIETY BREAD

Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water or milk, add two teaspoons of salt, three cups of bread or wheat flour, one cup of cornmeal, one cup of rye flour and one-half cup of dark molasses, and mix very thoroughly. Let rise, shape into loaves, let rise again and bake in a moderate oven for forty-five minutes.

ROLLS

Take bread dough, when ready to shape into loaves and make a long even roll. Cut into small even pieces, and shape with thumb and fingers into round balls. Set close together in a shallow pan, let rise until double the bulk, and bake in a hot oven from ten to twenty minutes. If crusty rolls are desired, set apart in a shallow pan, bake well, and cool in draft.

TEA ROLLS

Scald one cup of milk and when lukewarm dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and add one and one-half cups of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover and allow to stand until light. Add one-quarter cup of sugar, one and one-half teaspoons of salt, two eggs, one-third cup of butter and enough flour to knead. Allow to rise again until light. Shape into round or small oblong finger rolls, and place in buttered pans close together, when light bake in hot oven.

CRESCENT ROLLS

Take bread or kitchen dough, and when well risen, toss on floured baking board, roll into a square sheet, one-quarter inch thick. Spread with melted butter, and cut into six-inch squares, then cut each square into two equal parts through opposite corners, thus forming two triangles. Roll over and over from the longest side to the opposite corner and then shape the rolls into half moons or crescents. Place in floured or greased pans, rather far apart; brush with beaten yolk to which a little cold water has been added and sprinkle tops of crescents or horns with poppy seed. Set in warm place to and, when double its bulk, bake in hot oven until brown and crusty.

BUNS

Make same as tea rolls. When well risen mold into small round buns; place in well-greased pans, one inch apart. Coyer set aside to rise until light—about one hour. Brush with egg diluted with water; bake twenty minutes, just before removing from the oven, brush with sugar moistened with a little water.

RAISIN OR CURRANT BUNS

Boil two large potatoes and strain the water into a pitcher, dissolve two-thirds cake of yeast in a cup. Put potatoes in a pan with a cup of sugar; large lump of butter, and teaspoon of salt. The heat of potatoes will melt the sugar and butter. Mash with large masher to a cream; pour in rest of potato water, add pint of flour and mix together. Then cover and set in a warm place all night. In the morning add more flour, mix quickly and put currants or raisins in as you turn the dough. This will keep them from settling in the bottom of the bread. Put in hot pans and bake in a hot oven. This makes a delicious holiday bread. Eat with butter, hot or cold.

BREAD STICKS

Take pieces of raised bread dough, roll three-eighths inch thick and four or five inches long. Place in floured pan, far apart, brush tops with beaten yolk and poppy seed. Let rise, bake in a hot oven until brown.

FRENCH ROLLS

Prepare the yeast as for bread and work just the same; add one-quarter cup of butter, one-quarter cup of sugar, one whole egg and one egg yolk beaten very light, flavor with mace or a few gratings of lemon peel; work until it leaves the hand perfectly clean, then form into rolls, let raise, brush with beaten egg, place rolls in pan close together and bake.

BUTTERED TOAST

Slice even slices of baker's bread, not too thin, put in biscuit pan on the top rack of a very hot oven, brown nicely on one side, then turn and brown on the other, spread with butter, and a little powdered sugar, if desired, and serve at once. Or put the slices on a long fork, hold before a red coal fire, without flame, toast on both sides and proceed as above.

MILK OR CREAM TOAST

Toast as many slices of stale light bread as desired a light brown. Heat milk or cream, allowing one-half cup for each slice, add small lump of butter. When just at the boiling point, pour over bread which has been placed in dish, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, cover, and serve immediately. Nice for invalids.

CINNAMON TOAST FOR TEA

Bread cut thin and browned, but not dried.

Butter the toast while very hot, thinly and evenly, and sprinkle over each piece some powdered cinnamon and sugar.

ARME RITTER

Beat two eggs slightly, add one-half teaspoon of salt and two-thirds cup of milk; dip six slices of stale bread in the mixture. Have a griddle hot and well buttered; brown the bread on each side. Serve hot with cinnamon and sugar or a sauce.

*COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN)*

RENDERED BUTTER

Procure as much country or Western butter as desired, you may get several pounds of it when it is cheap during the summer; or any butter unfit for table use may be made sweet and good for cooking purposes and will last for months, if prepared in the following manner: Place the butter in a deep, iron kettle, filling only half full to prevent boiling over. Set it on the fire where it will simmer slowly for several hours. Watch carefully that it does not boil over. Do not stir it, but from time to time skim it. When perfectly clear, and all the salt and sediment has settled at the bottom, the butter is done. Set aside a few minutes, then strain into stone jars through a fine sieve, and when cold tie up tightly with paper and cloth. Keep in a cool, dry place.

COFFEE CAKE (KUCHEN) DOUGH

Soak one-half ounce of yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk; when dissolved put in a bowl, or round agate pan, and stir in one cup of sifted flour, one teaspoon of sugar and one-fourth teaspoon of salt, mix thoroughly, and put in a warm place (not hot) to rise, from one to two hours.

When well risen, cream well together one cup of sugar and three-fourths cup of butter, then add three eggs, five cups of sifted flour, one cup of milk and one teaspoon of salt, mix together until light, then stir in the risen yeast, and with a spoon work well for ten minutes, and set aside to rise again, five or six hours or all night. Dough should not be very stiff. When well risen it can be used for cinnamon cake, pies or pocket books. This recipe makes one large cinnamon cake, three pies, and about one dozen pocket books. If set at night use half the quantity of yeast.

KAFFEE KUCHEN (CINNAMON)

Butter long and broad cake-pans thoroughly, roll out enough dough to cover them, and let it rise about half an hour before baking, then brush it well with melted butter. Sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on top and some chopped almonds. Take a small lump of butter, a very little flour, some sugar and cinnamon and rub it between the hands until it is like lumps of almonds, then strew on top of cakes.

CINNAMON ROLLS OR SCHNECKEN

Take half the kitchen dough. Roll one-half inch thick and spread well with melted butter. Sprinkle generously with scraped maple, brown or granulated sugar and cinnamon, then roll. Cut the roll into equal parts about one inch thick, place close together endwise in a spider, generously buttered, spread with one-fourth inch layer of brown, or maple sugar. Let rise until light, and bake ten to twenty minutes in a hot oven, a golden brown. Invert the spider, remove rolls and serve caramel side up.

ABGERUEHRTER KUGELHOPF

Soak one-half ounce of yeast or one cake compressed yeast in a very little lukewarm milk; add a pinch of salt and one tablespoon of sugar, stir it up smooth and set back of the stove to rise. In the meantime rub a scant cup of butter and a scant cup of powdered sugar to a cream, add gradually the yolks of four eggs, one at a time and add also the grated peel of a lemon. Sift two cups of flour into a bowl, make a depression in the centre, pour in, the yeast, one cup of lukewarm milk, and make a light batter of this. Add the creamed butter and eggs and stir until it forms blisters and leaves the bowl clean. Take one-half cup of cleaned and seeded dark raisins and cut up some citron very fine. Dredge flour over them before adding, and if necessary, add more flour to the dough, which should be of the consistency of cup cake batter. Last add the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Place in a well-greased long or round pan with tube in centre; let rise until double in bulk, and bake in moderate oven until browned and thoroughly done.

PLAIN BUNT OR NAPF KUCHEN

Take one cake compressed yeast, add a pinch of salt, one tablespoon of sugar, and about two tablespoons of lukewarm water. Stir the yeast until it is a smooth paste and set it in a warm place to rise. Sift two and one-half cups of flour (use the same size cup for measuring everything you are going to use in your cake), make a depression in the centre, stir in the yeast and a scant cup of lukewarm milk, make batter, and let it rise until you have prepared the following: Rub one-half cup of butter and three-fourths cup of powdered sugar to a cream, just as for cup cake, then add gradually one egg at a time, using three altogether, and stirring all the time in one direction. Work in the risen batter two or three spoons at a time between each egg. Grate in the peel of a lemon or an orange. Butter the bunt-form well (do this always before you begin to work). Blanched almonds may be set in the grooves of the cake-form after buttering it. Put in the dough, set it in a warm place and let it rise for an hour and a half or two hours. Bake in a moderate oven one full hour, covered at first.

CHOCOLATE COFFEE CAKE

Pour a bunt kitchen dough into long, well-buttered tins, and when baked remove from the oven and cover thickly with boiled chocolate icing.

POCKET BOOKS

Take as much of the coffee cake dough as you desire, lay it on a well-floured biscuit board and mix just enough more flour with it to enable you to roll it out without sticking to the board. Roll out about one-fourth inch thick and cut the dough in squares about as long as your finger.

Beat the yolk of one egg and two tablespoons of milk together; wet each square well with the mixture, lay one raisin in the centre (after the seed has been removed from it), sprinkle thickly with sugar and cinnamon mixed together, then put a small dab of butter on top. Catch the four corners of each square together, so that the inside is protected. Lay the pocket books, not too closely together, in a greased pan and set aside to rise. When well risen bake in a moderately hot oven until well baked and browned nicely.

BOLA

Make a good, rich bread dough. Let it rise overnight; next morning; mix with dough two eggs; one-half pound of butter well kneaded; stand by fire until well risen. When risen, roll out into thin sheets and sprinkle with chopped almonds, citron, cinnamon and plenty of brown sugar and lumps of butter all through; roll up like jelly-roll, cut in pieces a finger long, grease pan, stand pieces in centre, others around and let rise before baking. Watch it well while baking.

FRENCH COFFEE CAKE (SAVARIN)

Soak one cake of compressed yeast in a little lukewarm water or milk. Put the yeast in a cup, add two tablespoons of lukewarm water, a pinch of salt and one tablespoon of sugar, stir it up well with a spoon and set back of the stove to rise. Rub one-half cup of butter to a cream, add one-third cup of powdered sugar and stir constantly in one direction. Add the yolks of four eggs, one at a time, and the grated peel of a lemon. Sift two cups of flour into a bowl, make a depression in the centre of the flour, pour in the yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk. Stir and make a light batter of this. Add the creamed butter and eggs, stir until it forms blisters and leaves the bowl clean; one-half cup of dark raisins, one-half cup of pounded almonds and a little citron, cut up very fine, and last the stiff-beaten whites of the eggs. Fill your cake forms which have been well-greased, set in a warm place to rise until double in bulk, about forty-five minutes, and bake in a moderate oven forty-five minutes. Fill the centre with whipped cream and serve with rum sauce.

BABA À LA PARISIENNE

Prepare the yeast as above; cream a scant cup of butter with four tablespoons of sugar, the grated peel of a lemon, add five eggs, one at a time, stirring each egg a few minutes before you add the next. Have ready two cups of sifted flour and add two spoonfuls between each egg until all is used. Make a soft dough of the yeast, a scant cup of lukewarm milk, add two spoonfuls between each egg until all is used up, a pinch of salt, and one cup of flour. Let it rise for fifteen minutes. Now mix all well, rub the form with butter, and blanch one-half cup of almonds, cut into long strips and strew all over the form. Fill in the mixture or cake batter, let it rise two hours and bake very slowly.

MOHN (POPPY SEED) ROLEY POLEY

Roll out a piece of dough large enough to cover your whole baking-board, roll thin. Let it rise until you have prepared the filling; grind one cup of black poppy seed in a coffee-mill as tight as possible and clean it well, throw away the first bit you grind so as not to have the coffee taste; put it on to boil with one cup of milk, add two tablespoons of butter, one-half cup of seeded raisins, one-half cup of walnuts or almonds chopped up fine, two tablespoons of molasses or syrup, and a little citron cut up fine. When thick, set it away to cool, and if not sweet enough add more sugar and flavor with vanilla. When this mixture has cooled, spread on the dough which has risen by this time. Take up one corner and roll it up, into a long roll, like a jelly-roll, put in a greased pan and let it rise an hour, then spread butter on top and bake very slowly. Let it get quite brown, so as to bake through thoroughly. When cold cut up in slices, as many as you are going to use at one time only.

MOHN WACHTEL

Take coffee cake dough. Let the dough rise again; for an hour, spread with a poppy seed mixture, after cutting into squares, fold into triangles and pinch the edges together. Lay in well-buttered pans, about two inches apart, and let them rise again, spread with poppy seed filling. Take one-half pound of poppy seed (mohn) which have previously been soaked in milk and then ground, add one-quarter of a pound of sugar and the yolks of three eggs. Stir this all together in one direction until quite thick and then stir in the beaten whites to which you must add two ounces of sifted flour and one-quarter of a pound of melted butter. Fill the tartlets and bake. The poppy seed filling in Mohn Roley Poley may be used in the Mohn Wachtel if so desired.

MOHNTORTS

Line a deep pie-plate with a thin sheet of kuchen dough, let it rise about half an hour, then fill with a poppy seed filling same as used with Mohn Wachtel. Fill the pie-plates and bake.

SMALL MOHN CAKES

Roll coffee cake dough out quite thin, spread with melted butter (a brush is best for this purpose). Let it rise a little while, then sprinkle well with one cup of sugar, add one-half pound of ground poppy seed moistened with one-half cup of water, cut into strips about an inch wide and four-inches long; roll and put in a well-buttered pan to rise, leaving enough space between each and brush, with butter. Bake in moderate oven at first, then increase the heat; bake slowly.

BERLINER PFANNKUCHEN (PURIM KRAPFEN)

Take one and one-half cups of flour, a pinch of salt sifted into a deep bowl, one cup of lukewarm milk and three-fourths cake of compressed yeast which has been, dissolved in a little warm water and sugar. Stir into a dough, cover with a towel and set away in a warm place to rise. When well risen, take one-half cup of butter, one cup of sugar, a little salt and rub to a cream. Add two eggs well beaten, stir all well and add the risen dough, one teaspoon of salt and work in gradually five cups of sifted flour and the grated peel of a lemon. Stir the dough till it blisters and leaves the dish perfectly clean at the sides. Let the dough rise slowly for about two hours (all yeast dough is better if it rises slowly). Take a large baking-board, flour well and roll out the dough on it as thin as a double thickness of pasteboard. When it is all rolled out, cut with a round cutter the size of a tumbler. When all the dough has been cut out, beat up an egg. Spread the beaten egg; on the edge of each cake (spread only a few at a time for they would get too dry if all were done at once). Then put one-half teaspoon of marmalade, jam or jelly on the cake. Put another cake on top of one already spread, having cut it with a cutter a little bit smaller than the one used in the first place. This makes them stick better and prevents the preserves coming out while cooking. Set all away on a floured board or pan about two inches apart. Spread the top of each cake with melted butter and let them rise from one to two hours. When ready to fry, heat at least two pounds of rendered butter or any good vegetable oil in a deep iron kettle. Try the butter with a small piece of dough. If it rises immediately, put in the doughnuts. In putting them in, place the side that is up on the board down in the hot butter. Do not crowd them in the kettle as they require room to rise and spread. Cover them with a lid. In a few seconds uncover. If they are light brown, turn them over on the other side but do not cover them again. When done they will have a white stripe around the centre. Take them up with a perforated skimmer, lay on a large platter, sprinkle with pulverized sugar. If the butter gets too hot take from the fire a minute. These are best eaten fresh.

The doughnuts may be baked in moderately hot oven and when half done glazed with sugar and white of egg.

TOPFA DALKELN. CHEESE CAKES (HUNGARIAN)

Take one-half ounce of yeast, mix with a little scalded milk which has cooled to lukewarm, one-half cup of flour and put aside in a warm place to rise. Allow two cups of scalded milk to become lukewarm. Add one pound of flour (four cups sifted flour) to the risen sponge, then the two cups of milk, mix these very well, cover with a cloth and put aside in a warm place to rise. Take one pound of sweet pot cheese, a pinch of salt, three egg yolks, rind of one lemon, one-half cup of light colored raisins and sugar to taste; mix very well and add the beaten whites and mix thoroughly. When the dough is very well risen, place on a pastry board, roll out and spread with melted butter, fold these edges over to the middle, then the top and bottom over, roll again and spread with butter, fold all sides in once more, roll, spread with butter, repeat the folding, roll out to one-half inch thickness, cut in three-inch squares, place a tablespoon of the cheese mixture in the centre of each square, fold over opposite corners, spread egg white over the top of each pocket, let rise fifteen minutes or one-half hour and bake in a hot oven; when they are well risen, lower heat and bake to a golden brown. This will make about thirty cakes. The dough in the above may be used with the following filling:

Boil and stone one-half pound of prunes, mash to a pulp, sweeten, add the grated peel of a lemon, some cinnamon, etc., and put one teaspoon of this into each square. Take up the corners, fasten them firmly, also pinch all along the edges and lay in a buttered pan, let them rise half an hour before baking. Spread them with melted butter, and bake a nice brown.

PUFFS (PURIM)

Make the dough same as for Berliner Pfannkuchen, and when well risen roll out on a floured board one-half inch thick, cut in triangles, lay on floured dishes or board to rise. When well risen, drop into a deep kettle of boiling butter and with a spoon baste with the butter until brown; remove with a perforated skimmer and sprinkle with powdered sugar.

KINDLECH

Into a large bowl sift one pound of fine flour. Make a depression in the centre and pour into it one yeast cake dissolved in a little milk. Let this remain until the milk and yeast have risen a little. Stir in the surrounding flour together with three well-beaten eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter, six ounces of sugar, a pinch of salt and two cups of lukewarm milk. Knead the whole into a smooth dough.

Roll this out very lightly on a well-floured board, brush over with a feather dipped in melted butter and strew thickly with chopped almonds, sultanas and currants. Next fold over about three fingers' width of the dough. Brush the upper surface of this fold with melted butter and strew with mixed fruit and almonds. Fold over again and repeat the operation until the whole of the dough is folded up in layer somewhat resembling a flattened, roley poley pudding. Brush the top well with another feather dipped in beaten egg and cut the whole into thick slices or fingers. Let them stand for half an hour and then bake for an hour in a rather slow oven.

A CHEAP COFFEE CAKE

This German coffee cake is made by kneading into a pint of bread dough one well-beaten egg, one-half cup of sugar, and a generous tablespoon of butter. The mixture is rolled flat, placed in a shallow pan, let rise again until very light, sprinkled with finely chopped nuts, dusted over with sugar and cinnamon and baked in a quick oven.

BOHEMIAN KOLATCHEN

Make kuchen dough. Add a little cinnamon and mace and one teaspoon of anise seed, well pounded, or flavor to taste. Let rise till very light, then take out on mixing board and roll out to about one-half inch in thickness. Cut in rounds three inches in diameter and lay on a well-buttered pan, pressing down the centre of each so as to raise a ridge around the edge. When well risen, brush the top over with stiffly-beaten white of an egg and sprinkle with granulated sugar.

ZWIEBACK

Scald one-half cup of milk and when lukewarm add to one cake of compressed yeast. Add one-fourth cup of sugar, one-fourth cup of melted butter, one-half teaspoon of salt and three eggs unbeaten, one-half teaspoon of powdered anise and enough flour to handle. Let rise until light. Make into oblong rolls the length of middle finger and place together in a buttered pan in parallel rows, two inches apart. Let rise again and bake twenty minutes. When cold, cut in one-half inch slices and brown evenly in the oven.

SOUR CREAM KOLATCHEN

Cream one-half cup of butter, add five yolks, two tablespoons of sugar, grated rind of a lemon, one cup of thick sour cream and one ounce or two cakes of yeast dissolved with a little sugar in two tablespoons of lukewarm milk. Stir all together and add three cups of flour; mix and drop from end of teaspoon on well-greased pans. Let rise until light in a warm place. Place a raisin or cherry on the top of each cake, spread with beaten white of egg, sprinkle with sugar and bake ten minutes in a hot oven.

RUSSIAN TEA CAKES

Mix one cup of sugar, one cup of eggs (about five), and one cup of sour cream with enough flour to roll. Toss on board, roll out one-fourth inch thick, spread with a thin layer of butter, fold the dough over, roll and spread again; repeat three or four times, using altogether three-fourths pound of brick butter. Then place dough in a bowl, cover, and let stand on ice to harden. Then roll as thin as possible, strew with one cup of chopped almonds, sugar and cinnamon, and cut into seven-inch strips. Roll each strip separately into a roll, cut into squares and strew top with chopped almonds, sugar and cinnamon. Bake in a hot oven.

WIENER KIPFEL

Dissolve one ounce of yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk, a pinch of salt and one tablespoon of sugar, set away in a warm place to rise. Sift one pound of flour into a deep bowl and make a dough of one cup of lukewarm milk and the yeast. Set it away until you have prepared the following: Rub a quarter of a pound of butter and four ounces of sugar to a cream, adding yolks of three eggs and one whole egg. Add this to the dough and work well. Let it rise about one hour, then roll out on a well-floured board, just as you would for cookies and let it rise again for at least one-half hour. Spread with beaten whites of eggs, raisins, almonds and citron. Cut dough into triangles. Pinch the edges together. Lay them in well-buttered pans about two inches apart and let then rise again. Then spread again with stiff-beaten whites of eggs and lay a few pounded almonds on each one. Bake a light yellow.

SPICE ROLL

Roll out coffee cake dough quite thin and let it rise half an hour, brush with melted butter and make a filling of the following: Grate some lebkuchen or plain gingerbread; add one-half cup of almonds or nuts, one cup of seeded raisins and one cup of cleaned currants. Strew these all over the dough together with some brown sugar and a little syrup. Spice with cinnamon and roll. Spread with butter and let it rise for an hour. Bake brown.

WIENER STUDENTEN KIPFEL

Make dough same as for Wiener Kipfel. Roll it out quite thin on a well-floured board and let it rise. Cut also into triangles (before you cut them, spread with melted butter). Mix one cup of chopped fresh walnuts with one cup of brown sugar, juice of a lemon, or grind the nuts; add cream to make a paste, sugar to taste and flavor with vanilla, and fill the triangles with the mixture. Take up the three corners and pinch together tightly. Set in well-buttered pans and let them rise again and spread or brush each one with melted butter. Bake a light brown.

YEAST KRANTZ

Take coffee cake dough, add one-fourth cup of washed currants. Let rise in warm place, then toss on floured board. Divide into three or four equal parts, roll each part into a long strand and work the strands together to form one large braid. Place braid in form of a circle in greased baking-pan or twist the braid to resemble the figure eight, pretzel shape. Let rise again in a warm place and bake in a moderate oven one-half hour or until thoroughly done. Brush with beaten eggs and sugar, sprinkle with a few chopped almonds. Return to oven to brown slightly.

STOLLEN

Sift two pounds of flour into a bowl and set a sponge in it with one cake of compressed yeast, one teaspoon of salt, one pint of lukewarm milk and one tablespoon of sugar. When this has risen, add one-half pound of creamed butter, a quarter of a pound of seeded raisins and one-quarter of a pound of sugar, yolks of four eggs, four ounces of powdered almonds, and the grated peel of a lemon. Work all well, beating with the hands, not kneading. Let this dough rise at least three hours, roll, press down the centre and fold over double, then form into one or two long loaves, narrow at the end. Brush the top with melted butter, let rise again and bake three-quarters of an hour in a moderate oven.

APPLE CAKE (KUCHEN)

After the pan is greased with butter, roll out a piece of dough quite thin, lay it in the pan, press a rim out of the dough all around the pan and let it rise for about ten minutes. Pare five large apples, core and quarter them, dipping each piece in melted butter before laying on the cake, sprinkle bountifully with sugar (brown being preferable to white for this purpose) and cinnamon. See that you have tart apples. Leave the cake in the pans and cut out the pieces just as you would want to serve them. If they stick to the pan, set the pan on top of the hot stove for a minute and the cake will then come out.

CHEESE CAKE OR PIE

Take one and one-half cups of cheese, rub smooth with a silver or wooden spoon through a colander or sieve, then rub a piece of sweet butter the size of an egg to a cream, add gradually one-half cup of sugar and the yolks of three eggs, a pinch of salt, grate in the peel of a lemon, one-half cup of cleaned currants and a little citron cut up very fine. Line two pie-plates with some kuchen dough or pie dough (See "Coffee Cakes (Kuchen)"), roll it out quite thin, butter the pie-plates quite heavily, and let the dough in them rise at least a quarter of an hour before putting in the cheese mixture, for it must be baked immediately after the cheese is put in, and just before you put the cheese into the plates whip up the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth and stir through the cheese mixture.

CHERRY CAKE

Line a cake-pan, which has been well-buttered, with a thin layer of kuchen dough. Stone two pounds of cherries and lay them on a sieve with a dish underneath to catch the juice. Sprinkle sugar over them and bake. In the meantime beat up four eggs with a cup of sugar, beat until light and add the cherry juice. Draw the kuchen to the oven door, pour this mixture over it and bake.

PEACH KUCHEN

Grease your cake-pans thoroughly with good clarified butter, then line them with a rich coffee cake dough which has been rolled very thin and set in a warm place to rise. Then pare and quarter enough peaches to cover the dough. Lay the peaches in rows and sweeten and set in oven to bake. Make a meringue quickly as possible and pour over the cakes and bake a light brown.

FRESH PRUNE CAKE (KUCHEN)

Line a greased biscuit-pan with some of the coffee cake dough. Roll the dough thin and let it come up on the sides of the pan, then set aside to rise. When risen, cut the prunes in halves (they must be the fresh ones, not dried), lay in rows thickly and close together all over the bottom of the pan, do not leave any space between the prunes. Sprinkle very thickly with sugar, lightly with cinnamon, and lay bits of fresh butter all over the top. Bake until done in a moderately hot oven.

PRUNE CAKE (KUCHEN)

Line one or two plates with a thin roll of kuchen dough and let it rise again in the pans which have been heavily greased. Have some prunes boiled very soft, take out the kernels, mash them until like mush, sweeten to taste, add cinnamon and grated peel of a lemon or lemon juice, put in the lined pie-plates and bake immediately. Serve with whipped cream, sweetened and flavored.

HUCKLEBERRY KUCHEN

Line your cake-pans, which should be long and narrow, with a rich kuchen dough, having previously greased them well. Make a paste of cornstarch, one cup of milk, one tablespoon of butter and one teaspoon of cornstarch wet with cold milk. Boil until thick, sweeten and flavor with vanilla and spread on top of the cake dough, then sprinkle thickly with huckleberries which have been carefully picked, sugared and sprinkled with ground cinnamon. Bake in a quick oven.

HUCKLEBERRY PIE

Clean, pick and wash two cups of huckleberries, then drain them. Beat yolk of one egg and two tablespoons of sugar until light, add one tablespoon of milk, then the drained berries. Line one pie-plate with rich pastry or cookie dough, pour on it the berry mixture, put in the oven and bake light brown; remove from the oven, spread with a meringue made of the white of the egg beaten stiff, and two tablespoons of sugar added. Brown nicely. The white can be beaten with the yolk and sugar, if preferred.

*MUFFINS AND BISCUITS*

BAKING-POWDER

Put eight ounces of bicarbonate of soda, one ounce of tartaric acid and one package of high-grade cornstarch together and sift them thoroughly five times. Keep closely covered in glass jars or tin boxes.

BAKING-POWDER BATTERS

Batter is a mixture of flour with sufficient liquid to make it thin enough to be beaten.

Pour-batter requires one measure of liquid to one measure of flour.

Drop-batter requires one measure of liquid to two measures of flour.

To make a batter. Sift flour before measuring. Put flour by spoonfuls into the cup; do not press or shake down. Mix and sift dry ingredients. Measure dry, then liquid ingredients, shortening may be rubbed or chopped in while cold, or creamed; or it may be melted and then added to dry ingredients, or added after the liquid. Use two teaspoons of baking-powder to one cup of flour. If eggs are used, less baking-powder will be required.

When sour milk is used, take one level teaspoon of soda to a pint of milk; when molasses is used, take one teaspoon of soda or baking-powder to each cup of molasses.

Mix dry materials in one bowl and liquids in another, combine them quickly, handle as little as possible and put at once into the oven.

The oven for baking biscuits should be hot enough to brown a teaspoon of flour in one minute.

BROWN BREAD

Mix and sift together one cup each of rye, graham flour, corn-meal and one teaspoon of salt. Dissolve one teaspoon of soda in one cup of molasses. Add alternately to flour with two cups of sour milk. Grease one-pound baking-powder cans, put in the dough and boil two and one-half hours, keeping the water always three-fourths up around the tins. Turn out on baking-tins and place in the oven fifteen minutes to brown.

To be eaten warm, whatever is left over can be steamed again or toasted.

CORN BREAD

Mix and sift one cup of corn-meal, one cup of flour, two tablespoons of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt, three teaspoons of baking-powder. Melt one tablespoon of butter and add to one egg; mix milk and egg and beat this into the dry ingredients, pour this mixture into well-greased tins and bake in a hot oven one-half hour. Cut in squares and serve hot. Bake in gem tins if preferred.

BRAN BREAD

Sift four teaspoons of soda, two teaspoons of salt with four cups of white flour, add four cups of bran flour and mix well. Add one cup of molasses and four cups of sweet milk. Use chopped nuts or raisins or both as desired. This will make three or four flat loaves. Place in greased pans (four and a half by nine inches), and bake one hour in a moderate oven.

JOHNNIE CAKE

Mix one cup flour and two cups corn-meal, one heaping teaspoon of soda, one-half cup sugar, add two eggs beaten with one and one-half cups of buttermilk, one half cup of molasses and one-half cup of shortening, melted. Beat all ingredients as fast as possible for a minute. Pour the dough into a warm, well-buttered pan and bake quickly and steadily for half an hour. The dough should be as soft as gingerbread dough. Serve hot.

EGGLESS GINGERBREAD WITH CHEESE

Sift two cups of flour, one teaspoon of soda, one-half teaspoon of salt and two teaspoons of ginger. Melt three-fourths cup of grated cheese in one-half cup of hot water, add one-half cup of molasses and blend perfectly. Add the flour and seasonings very gradually and beat thoroughly. Bake in muffin rings for fifteen minutes and serve while warm.

GINGERBREAD

To one cup of molasses add one cup of milk, sour or sweet, dissolve one teaspoon of soda in the milk, one tablespoon of butter, one or two eggs, one teaspoon of ginger and one of ground cinnamon, add enough sifted flour to make a light batter. Bake in a shallow pan.

WHITE NUT BREAD

Mix two and one-half cups of flour, four teaspoons of baking-powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, one-half cup of sugar and one-half cup of walnut meats, broken; add one egg beaten with one cup of milk and let this mixture stand for about twenty minutes in well-greased breadpan before placing in a moderate oven to bake. Bake about an hour. Better day after it is made.

BAKING-POWDER BISCUITS

Sift two cups of flour with one-half teaspoon of salt, four teaspoons of baking-powder, and four tablespoons of butter; cut butter in with two knives and mix with one-half to two-thirds cup of water or milk, stir this in quickly with a knife, when well mixed place on a well-floured board and roll out about one inch thick, work quickly, cut with a biscuit cutter or the cover of a half-pound baking-powder can; place on a greased pan and bake quickly in a well-heated quick oven tea to fifteen minutes.

Butter substitutes may be used in place of butter.

DROP BISCUIT

Add to ingredients for baking-powder biscuit enough more milk or water to make a thick drop batter, about two tablespoons; mix as directed for biscuit, drop by spoonfuls an inch apart on a greased baking-sheet or into greased gem pans, small size.

The more crust the more palatable these biscuits are. The mixture should not be soft enough to run. Bake in a hot oven ten to twelve minutes.

SOUR MILK BISCUITS

Mix and sift two cups of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt and one-half teaspoon of soda; cut in one tablespoon of butter, stir in with a knife enough sour milk to make a soft dough. Roll one-half inch thick; cut in small rounds and bake in a quick oven about twenty minutes.

MUFFINS.

Light the burners of the gas oven before beginning to mix the muffins and work rapidly. Place in a mixing-bowl one well-beaten egg, two tablespoons of butter, one tablespoon of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt, one scant cup of milk and two teaspoons of baking-powder that have been sifted with sufficient flour to form a batter that will "ribbon" from the spoon. Beat the batter steadily for five minutes, stir in one tablespoon of melted butter and bake in muffin-pans in a quick oven. These muffins will bake in ten minutes if pans are only half filled.

BRAN MUFFINS

Sift one-half cup of white flour with one teaspoon of soda; mix three tablespoons of molasses with one tablespoon of butter, add two cups of bran, one and one-half cups of sweet milk, then add the flour and one-half teaspoon of salt, stir all together; one-half cup of chopped dates or raisins may be added if so desired. Bake in muffin-pans in a moderate oven thirty minutes.

CORN MUFFINS, No. 1

Beat the yolks and whites of two eggs separately. Add to this two cups of flour, of which one is a full cup of white and three-quarters of the corn-meal. This must be sifted three times. Put into this flour two teaspoons of baking-powder, together with a pinch of salt. Mix the prepared flour with a little boiling water, adding the eggs; also a little sugar may be put in, if desired. Then add enough tepid milk to make the mixture into a batter, after which pour into your pans; or, if corn-bread is desired, into the plain pan (thin). Bake in a quick oven. This quantity makes a dozen muffins. Butter your pan well, or the small gem-pans, according to which is used, and in so doing heat the pan a little.

CORN MUFFINS, No. 2

Mix one cup of white flour; one-half cup of corn-meal, one tablespoon of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt and one-half teaspoon of soda, add one egg beaten into one cup of sour milk and one tablespoon of melted butter. Beat thoroughly and bake in well-greased tins.

GRAHAM MUFFINS

Mix one cup of Graham flour, one cup of wheat flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, two teaspoons of baking-powder, add to this one tablespoon of melted butter creamed with one-half cup of sugar and one well-beaten egg, moisten with one and one-half cups of milk. Beat all well and bake in muffin-tins in moderately hot oven one-half hour.

WHEAT MUFFINS

Mix two cups of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, three teaspoons of baking-powder, two tablespoons of sugar and sift these ingredients twice, rub in one tablespoon of butter. Separate one egg. Beat the yolk and add it to one cup of milk and one teaspoon of molasses. Mix with the dry ingredients and stir until smooth. Fold in the beaten white of egg and pour into hot, well-greased muffin-tins. Bake fifteen to twenty minutes in hot oven.

RICE MUFFINS

Beat one cup of cold rice, two eggs, one cup of sweet milk, one teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar, two teaspoons of baking-powder, enough flour to make a stiff batter and lastly one tablespoon of melted butter. Bake in muffin-tins.

RYE FLOUR MUFFINS

Sift one and one-half cups of rye flour with one-half teaspoon of salt and one teaspoon of baking soda; add one-half cup of molasses and one well-beaten egg or one-half cup of water if the egg is omitted, one-quarter cup of chopped raisins and four tablespoons of melted shortening—butter, or any good butter substitute will do. Bake in muffin-pans in rather hot oven twenty-five minutes. Fill pans three-fourths full.

GLUTEN GEMS

Beat the yolks of two eggs, add one cup of milk; then one and one-half cups of gluten flour, two teaspoons of baking powder; beat well, stir in the whites of the two eggs, and bake in hot buttered gem pans about twenty minutes.

EGGLESS GINGER GEMS

Mix one-half cup of molasses, one-half cup of sugar, one tablespoon of butter, and warm slightly; beat up well and stir at least ten minutes. Add the following spices: one-half teaspoon each of ginger and cinnamon; and gradually one-half cup of milk and two and one-half cups of sifted flour in which has been sifted two teaspoons of baking powder. One-fourth cup of currants or seeded raisins may be added. Bake in well-greased gem pans and eat warm for tea or lunch.

POPOVERS

Mix to a smooth batter two cups each of milk and well-sifted flour, the yolks of three fresh eggs and a teaspoon of salt. Butter well the inside of six or eight deep earthen popover cups and stand them in a pan in a hot oven. While the cups are heating, beat to a froth the whites of the three eggs and stir them quickly in the batter. Open the oven door, pull the pan forward, pour the batter in the hot buttered cups up to the brim. Push the pan back, close the oven door, and bake the popovers till they rise well and are brown at the sides where they part from the clips. Serve them hot, folded lightly in a napkin.

ONE-EGG WAFFLES

Mix one and one-half cups of flour, one teaspoon of baking powder, one-quarter teaspoon of salt; add one and three-fourths cups of milk, add the milk slowly; then one well-beaten egg and two tablespoons of melted butter; drop by spoonfuls on a hot buttered waffle iron, putting one tablespoon in each section of the iron. Bake and turn, browning both sides carefully; remove from the iron; pile one on top of the other and serve at once.

THREE-EGG WAFFLES

Mix two cups of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, and sift these ingredients; add the yolks of three eggs beaten and stirred into one and one-fourth cups of milk; then add one tablespoon of melted butter and fold in the whites of the eggs. Bake and serve as directed under One-Egg Waffles.

DOUGHNUTS

Mix two and one-half tablespoons of melted butter, one cup of granulated sugar, two eggs, one cup of milk, one-half nutmeg grated, sifted flour enough to make a batter as stiff as biscuit dough; add two teaspoons of baking-powder and one teaspoon of salt to the sifted flour. Flour your board well, roll dough out about half an inch thick, and cut into pieces three inches long and one inch wide. Cut a slit about an inch long in the centre of each strip and pull one end through this slit. Fry quickly in hot Crisco. Sprinkle powdered sugar on top of each doughnut.

FRENCH DOUGHNUTS

French doughnuts are much daintier than the ordinary ones, and are easily made. Take one-half pint of water, one-half pint of milk, six ounces of butter, one-half pound of flour, and six eggs. Heat the butter, milk, and water, and when it boils remove from the fire and stir in the flour, using a wooden spoon. When well mixed, stir in the eggs, whipping each one in separately until you have a hard batter. Now pour your dough into a pastry bag. This is an ordinary cheesecloth bag, one corner of which has a tiny tin funnel, with a fluted or fancy edge. (These little tins may be purchased at any tinware store.) It should be very small, not over two inches high at the most, so the dough may be easily squeezed through it. Pour the paste on buttered paper, making into ring shapes. Fry in hot oil or butter substitute. Dust with powdered sugar.

CRULLERS

Cream two tablespoons of butter with one-half cup of sugar, then beat in one at a time two whole eggs. Mix well, then add one-half cup of milk, two teaspoons of baking-powder, and sufficient flour to make a soft batter to roll out. (Try three cupfuls and then add as much more flour as necessary.) Last, add one-half teaspoon cinnamon. Roll one-half inch thick, cut in strips one inch wide, three inches long and fry in hot Crisco.

STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE (BISCUIT DOUGH)

Mix two cups of flour, four teaspoons of baking-powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar; work one-quarter cup of butter with tips of fingers, and add three-quarters of a cup of milk gradually. Toss on floured board, divide in two parts. Pat, roll out and bake twelve minutes in hot oven in layer-cake tins. Split and spread with butter. Pick, hull, and drain berries. Sweeten one to one and one-half boxes of strawberries to taste. Crush slightly and put between and on top of short cake. Allow from one to one and one-half boxes of berries to each short cake. Serve with cream, plain or whipped.

Strawberries make the best short cake, but other berries and sliced peaches are also good.

DOUGH FOR OPEN FACE PIES

The directions for making the dough for Cinnamon Buns may be followed in making the under crust for fruit pies, such as apple, plum, huckleberry and peach.

Enough for two pies. Drippings and water may be substituted for butter and milk respectively.

CINNAMON BUNS

Sift together one pint of flour, one tablespoon of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt, two teaspoons of baking-powder. Rub in two tablespoons of butter, mix with milk to soft dough. Roll out one-half inch thick, spread with soft butter, granulated sugar, and powdered cinnamon. Roll up like jelly roll, cut in inch slices, lay close together in greased pan, and bake in quick oven.

FRUIT WHEELS

Sift together two cups of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar. Rub in two large tablespoons of butter. Mix to soft dough with milk; roll out one-half inch thick. Spread thickly with soft butter, dust with one teaspoon of flour, four tablespoons of granulated sugar, one teaspoon of cinnamon; sprinkle over one-half cup each of seeded and cut raisins, chopped citron, and cleaned currants. Roll up, cut in one-inch slices, put one inch apart on greased, flat pans, and bake in hot oven.

*PANCAKES, FRITTERS, Etc.*

BUCKWHEAT CAKES

Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and two level teaspoons of brown sugar in two cups of lukewarm water and one cup of milk, scalded and cooled; add two cups of buckwheat and one cup of sifted white flour gradually and one and one-half teaspoons of salt. Beat until smooth; cover and set aside in a warm place, free from draft, to rise about one hour. When light stir well and bake on a hot griddle. If wanted for overnight, use only one-fourth cake of yeast and an extra half teaspoon of salt. Cover and keep in a cool place.

GERMAN PANCAKES, No. 1

Beat two eggs very thoroughly without separating the yolks and whites; add one-half teaspoon of salt, sift in two and one-half tablespoons of flour, add one cup of milk gradually at first, and beat the whole very well. Melt one tablespoon of butter in a large frying-pan, turn mixture in and cook slowly until brown underneath. Grease the bottom of a large pie plate, slip the pancake on the plate; add the other tablespoon of butter to the frying-pan; when hot, turn uncooked side of pancake down and brown. Serve at once with sugar and lemon slices or with any desired preserve or syrup. This pancake may be served rolled like a jelly roll.

GERMAN PANCAKES, No. 2

Beat two eggs until very light, add one-half cup of flour and one-half teaspoon of salt and beat again; then add one cup of milk slowly, and beat thoroughly. Heat a generous quantity of butter in a frying-pan and pour all the batter into this at one time; place on a hot stove for one minute; then remove to a brisk oven; the edges will turn up on sides of pan in a few minutes; then reduce heat and cook more slowly until light, crisp and brown, about seven minutes. Take it out, slide it carefully on a hot plate, sprinkle plentifully with powdered sugar and send to the table with six lemon slices.

GERMAN PANCAKES, No. 3

Beat the yolks of four eggs until very light, then add one-half cup of milk and stir in three-quarters cup of sifted flour, one-eighth teaspoon of baking-powder, a pinch of salt, and lastly, just before frying, add the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs and mix well together. Put on fire an iron skillet with a close-fitting top; heat in two tablespoons of rendered butter; when very hot, pour in enough of the batter to cover the bottom of the skillet, cover at once with the top, and when the pancake is brown on one side, remove the top and let it brown on the other side. Take it up with a perforated skimmer, lay on a plate and sprinkle with powdered sugar and some lemon juice. Serve at once. Pancakes must only be made and fried when ready to be eaten, as they fall from standing.

BREAD PANCAKES

Soak stale bread overnight in sour milk, mash the bread fine in the morning, and put in one-half teaspoon of salt, two eggs, two teaspoons of baking soda, dissolved in hot water, and thicken with finely sifted flour.

RICE PANCAKES OR GRIDDLE CAKES

Boil in a double boiler one pint of milk, three tablespoons of rice and two tablespoons of granulated sugar. It will take from fifty to sixty minutes for the rice to be thoroughly cooked, and the mixture to thicken. Remove from the fire and when a little cool, add one tablespoon of vanilla and the yolk of egg into which one tablespoon of flour has been smoothly stirred. Mix all thoroughly together, then pour, by spoonfuls, on hot buttered griddle. Let the cakes brown on one side, and turn over, and brown on the other.

GRIMSLICH

Half a loaf of bread, which has been soaked and pressed, two eggs; one-half cup of sugar, one-fourth cup raisins, one tablespoon of cinnamon, and one-fourth cup of almonds pounded fine. Beat whites to a froth and add last. Drop by tablespoonful and fry. Serve with stewed fruit. Pieces of stale bread can be used. Soak in tepid water. Squeeze water thoroughly from bread and make as directed.

POTATO PANCAKES

Peel six large potatoes and soak several hours in cold water; grate, drain, and for every pint allow two eggs, about one tablespoon of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, a little pepper; a little onion juice may be added if so desired. Beat eggs well and mix with the rest of the ingredients. Drop by spoonfuls on a hot greased spider in small cakes. Turn and brown on both sides. Serve with apple sauce.

When eggs are very expensive the cakes can be made with one egg. When required for a meat meal, the pancakes may be fried in drippings; the edges will be much more crisp than when fried in butter, which burns so readily.

POTATO CAKES

Made just as pancakes, only baked in the oven in a long cake pan with plenty of butter or drippings under and above.

SOUR MILK PANCAKES

Mash fine and dissolve one level teaspoon of baking-soda in three cups of sour milk; beat one egg well; then put in a little salt and one-half cup of flour; stir in the milk, make a smooth batter, and last stir in one tablespoon of syrup. Bake on a hot griddle.

FRENCH PANCAKE

Stir three egg-yolks with one-half teaspoon of salt and one-quarter cup of flour, until smooth; add one cup of cold milk gradually, then fold in the beaten whites. Heat pan, add two tablespoons of butter and when hot pour in pancake; let cook slowly and evenly on one side, finish baking in oven.

CHEESE BLINTZES

With a fork beat up one egg, one-half teaspoon of salt, add one cup of water and one cup of sifted flour, beat until smooth. Grease a frying-pan very slightly with butter or oil, pour in two tablespoons of the batter, tilting the pan so as to allow the batter to run all over the pan. Fry over a low heat on one side only, turn out the semi-cooked cakes on a clean cloth with the uncooked side uppermost; let cool. Prepare a filling as for cheese kreplich, using one-half pound of potcheese, a piece of butter size of an egg, add one egg, pinch of salt, a little cinnamon and sugar to taste and grated peel of a lemon. Spread this mixture on the cooled dough, fold over and tuck the edges in well. Then sprinkle with powdered sugar and cinnamon, and fry in plenty of oil or butter. These blintzes are served hot.

SWEET BLINTZES

These little pancakes may be filled with the fruit filling in following recipe; or with a poppy seed filling using one cup of seed and adding one cup of sugar, moistening with one-half cup of water. The recipe given for the dough makes only six blintzes and where more are required double or triple the quantities given to make amount desired.

For Purim, fold blintzes in triangular shapes. Fry as directed.

BLINTZES

Make dough as directed for cheese blintzes. Filling may be made of force meat, highly seasoned; fry in hot fat, or filling may be made of one-half pound of apples, peeled and cored and then minced with one ounce of ground sweet almonds, one ounce of powdered sugar, a pinch of cinnamon, juice of one-half lemon; mix well and bind with the beaten white of egg.

Spread either of these mixtures on the dough, fold over and tuck edges in well. Fry in plenty of oil or fat.

Sprinkle those containing the fruit mixture with sugar and cinnamon.
These may be served either hot or cold.

FRITTER BATTER

Mix and sift one and one-third cups of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, and add two-thirds cup of milk or water gradually, and one egg; well beaten. For fruit batter add a little sugar, for vegetables pepper and salt.

BELL FRITTERS

Stir three eggs until very light, then stir in one cup of sweet milk, then sift in three cups sifted flour; beat for ten minutes, then add three teaspoons of baking-powder and fry by spoonfuls in hot oil. One-half this amount will be sufficient for three persons.

Serve with any sweet sauce.

APPLE FRITTERS

Choose four sour apples; pare, core and cut them into small slices. Stir into fritter batter and fry in boiling hot fat or oil. Drain on paper; sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve.

PINEAPPLE FRITTERS

Soak slices of pineapple in sherry or white wine with a little sugar and let stand one hour. Drain and dip slices in batter and fry in hot oil. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with powdered sugar.

Fresh pears, apricots and peach fritters made the same as pineapple fritters. Bananas are cut in slices or mashed and added to batter.

ORANGE FRITTERS

Yolks of two eggs beaten with two spoons of sugar, stir into this the juice of quarter of a lemon and just enough flour to thicken like a batter; add the beaten whites and dip in one slice of orange at a time, take up with a large kitchen spoon and lay in the hot oil or butter-substitute and fry a nice brown. Sprinkle pulverized sugar on top.

MATRIMONIES

Sift three cups of flour in a bowl, pour in two scant cups of sour milk, beat very thoroughly, add one teaspoon of salt, the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, mix well, then add the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs and one level teaspoon of soda sifted with one teaspoon of flour. Mix well and fry at once in very hot butter or butter-substitute. Baste the grease over them with a spoon until they are nicely browned. Serve with preserves.

QUEEN FRITTERS

Put in a deep skillet on the fire one cup of water, one-fourth cup of fresh butter; when it comes to a boil, stir in one cup of sifted flour and continue stirring until the dough leaves the side of the skillet clean. Remove from the fire and when cool break in three eggs, one at a time, stirring continually. Add a little salt. Mix all well, then drop pieces about the size of a walnut into plenty of boiling butter or Crisco and fry a light brown. Drain, make an opening in each, fill with preserves and sprinkle with sugar; serve at once.

VEGETABLE FRITTERS

Cook the vegetables thoroughly; drain them, chop fine and add to the batter. Drop in boiling hot fat, drain and dry on paper.

CORN FRITTERS

Grate two cups of corn from the cob. Ears that are too old for eating in the ordinary method will serve very well for this. Mix with the corn one egg, beaten light, a cup of sweet milk into which has been stirred a bit of soda the size of a pea, two teaspoons of melted butter, a pinch of salt and enough flour to make a thin batter. Beat well together and fry on a griddle as you would cakes for breakfast.

ERBSEN LIEVANZEN (DRIED PEA FRITTERS)

Boil one cup of dried peas, pass through a hair sieve, pour into a bowl, add two ounces of butter rubbed to a cream, add also some soaked bread (soaked in milk), stir all into a smooth paste. Add salt, one teaspoon of sugar, one yolk and one whole egg; one ounce of blanched and pounded almonds. If too thick add more egg, if too thin more bread. Fry a nice brown.

SQUASH FRITTERS

Two cups of boiled squash, half a cup of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, one egg and two tablespoons of milk. It is assumed that the squash has been prepared as a vegetable, with seasoning and a little butter, and what is here used is a cold, left over portion of the same. Mix baking-powder with the flour and add to the squash; add milk and stir all together. Beat egg and stir in. Have hot fat in pan and drop fritters from spoon into pan. When browned on both sides remove to hot platter.

FRENCH PUFFS (WINDBEUTEL)

Put one cup of water and one-quarter pound of butter on to boil. When it begins to boil stir in one-quarter pound of sifted flour. Stir until it leaves the kettle clean, take off the fire and stir until milk-warm, then stir in four eggs, one at a time, stirring until all used up. Flavor with the grated peel of a lemon. Put on some rendered butter in a kettle. When the butter is hot, dip a large teaspoon in cold water and cut pieces of dough with it as large as a walnut, and drop into the hot butter. Try one first to see whether the butter is hot enough. Do not crowd—they want plenty of room to raise. Dip the hot butter over them with a spoon, fry a deep yellow and sprinkle powdered sugar over them.

SHAVINGS (KRAUS-GEBACKENES)

Sift about one pint of flour in a bowl, make a depression in the centre; break in five eggs, a pinch of salt, one teaspoon of ground cinnamon and one tablespoon of pulverized sugar. Mix this as you would a noodle dough, though not quite as stiff. Roll out very thin and cut into long strips with a jagging iron. Fry a light yellow. Roll on a round stick as soon as taken up from the fat or butter, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon or grated peel of a lemon. Mix both thoroughly. Do not let the butter get too brown; if the fire is too strong take off a few minutes.

SNIP NOODLES, FRIED

Sift two cups of flour with three teaspoons of salt in it, make into a dough by adding enough sweet milk to make soft as biscuit dough. Break off small pieces and roll between the hands in the shape of croquettes.

Now put one-half cup of rendered butter in a skillet that has a top to it; when the butter is hot, lay in the pieces of dough (do not put too many in at one time), throw in one-half cup of cold water, put on the cover and let cook until the water is cooked out and noodles are brown on one side. Remove the cover and brown on the other side.

NOODLE PUFFS

Make a noodle dough with as many eggs as desired, roll out somewhat thin, cut in strips four inches long by one inch wide.

Have a skillet half full of boiling hot chicken fat; drop in the strips, a few at a time, baste with the hot grease until brown on both sides. Remove to a platter, sprinkle generously with powdered sugar and cinnamon, and serve.

SNOWBALLS (HESTERLISTE)

Mix one teaspoon of butter, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar with one egg. Add one tablespoon of cream, one teaspoon of brandy and flour to make stiff dough. Work the whole together with a spoon until the flour is incorporated with the other ingredients and you have a dough easily handled. Break the dough in pieces about the size of a walnut; roll each piece out separately just as thin as possible without tearing (the thinner the better), make three lengthwise slashes in the centre of each piece of dough after rolling out.

Heat a large deep skillet about half full with boiling hot butter or Crisco, drop in the snowballs, not more than three at one time, brown quickly on one side, then on the other, turn carefully with a perforated skimmer as they are easily broken. Remove to a platter, sprinkle with powdered sugar and cinnamon and a few drops of lemon juice.

MACROTES

Blend one pound of good light dough with two eggs, six ounces of butter, and add as much flour as may be needed to make the whole sufficiently dry. Make it into the shape of a French roll, and cut off rather thin slices, which should be placed before the fire to rise, and then fried in oil. Let them drain carefully, and when nearly cold dip each in very thick syrup flavored with essence of lemon.

*CAKES*

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAKES

Use only the best material in making cake.

Gather together all ingredients and utensils that are required. If tins are to be greased, do so the first thing; some cakes require greased or buttered paper, if so, have paper cut the size that is needed and butter the paper.

All measurements are level. See "Measurement of Food Materials".

Use pastry flour. Sift flour twice at least and measure after sifting.

Measure or weigh the sugar, butter, milk and flour. In measuring butter always pack the cup so as to be sure to get the proper quantity. Use the half-pint measuring cup.

If fruit is to be used, wash and dry it the day before it is needed. Dust with flour just before using, and mix with the hand till each piece is powdered so that all will mix evenly with the dough instead of sinking to the bottom.

A few necessary implements for good cake making are a pair of scales, a wooden spoon, two wire egg-whips, one for the yolks and the other for the whites of eggs.

A ten-inch mixing-bowl, and two smaller bowls.

Two spatula or leveling knives.

A set of aluminum spoons of standard sizes.

For convenience, cakes are divided into two classes: Those containing butter or a butter substitute and cake containing no shortening.

The rules for mixing cakes with butter are:

Break the eggs, dropping each in a saucer or cup. If the whites and yolks are to be used separately divide them as you break the eggs and beat both well before using; the yolks until light and the whites to a stiff froth, so stiff that you can turn the dish upside down and the eggs will adhere to the dish.

Rub the butter to a cream which should be done with a wooden spoon in a deep bowl, add the sugar gradually. In winter set the bowl over hot water for a few minutes as the butter will then cream more easily. Add the yolks or the whole eggs, one at a time, to creamed butter and sugar. Sift the baking-powder with the last cup of flour, add flour and milk alternately until both are beaten thoroughly into the mixture, add beaten whites of eggs last to the dough and then set in the oven immediately.

Sponge cakes and cakes that do not contain butter and milk must never be stirred, but the ingredients beaten in, being careful to beat with an upward stroke. Separate the yolks of the eggs from the whites, and beat the yolks with an egg-beater until they are thick and lemon-colored. Then add the sugar, a little at a time, beating constantly. Now beat the whites until they are stiff and dry; add them; the flour should be added last and folded lightly through. Every stroke of the spoon after flour is added tends to toughen the batter. Bake at once. All sponge cakes and torten should be baked in ungreased molds.

TO BAKE CAKES

Make sure the oven is in condition, it can better wait for the cake than the other way around.

Light your gas oven five or ten minutes before needed and reduce heat accordingly when cake is put in oven.

For the coal range, have the oven the right temperature and do not add coal or shake the coals while cake is baking.

If a piece of soft yellow paper burns golden brown in five minutes the oven is moderately hot; if it takes four minutes the oven is hot, if seven minutes is required the oven is fit for slow baking.

Sponge cakes require a slow oven; layer cakes a hot oven, and loaf cakes with butter a moderate oven.

Never look after your cake until it has been in the oven ten minutes.

If cake is put in too cool an oven it will rise too much and be of very coarse texture. If too hot, it browns and crusts over the top before it has sufficiently risen. If, after the cake is put in, it seems to bake too fast, put a brown paper loosely over the top of the pan, and do not open the oven door for five minutes at least; the cake should then be quickly examined and the door carefully shut, or the rush of cold air will cause it to fall. Setting a small dish of hot water in the oven will also prevent the cake from scorching.

When you think your cake is baked, open the oven door carefully so as not to jar, take a straw and run it through the thickest part of the cake, and if the straw comes out perfectly clean and dry your cake is done. When done, take it out and set it where no draft of air will strike it, and in ten minutes turn it out on a flat plate or board.

Do not put it in the cake box until perfectly cold. Scald out the tin cake box each time before putting a fresh cake in it. Make sure it is air-tight. Keep in a cool place, but not in a damp cellar or a refrigerator.

TIME-TABLE FOR BAKING CAKES

Sponge cake, three-quarters of an hour.
Pound cake, one hour.
Fruit cake, three and four hours, depending upon size.
Cookies, from ten to fifteen minutes. Watch carefully.
Cup cakes, a full half hour.
Layer cakes, twenty minutes.

ONE EGG CAKE

Cream one-fourth cup of butter with one-half cup of sugar, add sugar gradually, and one egg, well-beaten. Mix and sift one and one-half cups of flour and two and one-half teaspoons of baking-powder, add the sifted flour alternately with one-half cup of milk to the first mixture; flavor with vanilla or lemon. Bake thirty minutes in a shallow pan. Spread with chocolate frosting.

LITTLE FRENCH CAKES

Beat one-fourth cup of butter to a cream with one-fourth cup of sugar and add one cup of flour. Stir well and then add one egg which has been beaten into half a pint of milk, a little at a time. Fill buttered saucers with the mixture, bake and when done, place the cakes one on top of another with jam spread between.

GRAFTON CAKE. LAYERS AND SMALL CAKES

Cream four tablespoons of butter with one and one-half cups of sugar, beat in separately two whole eggs, add one cup of milk alternately with two cups of flour in which has been sifted two teaspoons of baking-powder, beat all thoroughly.

This recipe will make two layer-cakes which may be spread with any of the cake fillings or icings.

To make small cakes omit one of the egg-whites, fill well-buttered gem pans a little more than half full, and bake in a moderately hot oven until a delicate brown. The white reserved may be beaten to a stiff froth and then gradually stir in four tablespoons of powdered sugar and the juice of half a lemon. When the cakes are cool, spread with the icing and decorate with raisins, nut meats, one on top of each or sprinkle with candied caraway seeds.

CUP CAKE

Cream one cup of butter with two cups of sugar and add gradually the yolks of four eggs, one at a time. Sift three cups of flour, measure again after sifting, and add two teaspoons of baking-powder in the last sifting. Add alternately the sifted flour and one cup of sweet milk. Add last the beaten whites of the eggs. Flavor to taste. Bake in loaf or jelly-tins.

GOLD CAKE

Take one cup of powdered sugar, one-half cup of butter rubbed to a cream; add yolks of six eggs and stir until very light. Then sift two cups of flour with one and one-half teaspoons of baking-powder sifted in well (sift the flour two or three times). Grate in the peel of a lemon or an orange, add the juice also, and add three-quarters cup of milk alternately with the flour. Bake in moderate oven.

WHITE CAKE

Cream three-quarters cup of butter and one and one-quarter cups of sugar very well. Stop stirring, pour one-half cup of cold water on top of butter mixture and whites of eight eggs slightly beaten on top of water; do not stir, add one teaspoon of vanilla. Sift two and one-half cups of pastry flour, measure, then mix with two heaping teaspoons of baking-powder, and sift three times. Add to cake mixture and then beat hard until very smooth. Turn into ungreased angel cake pan, place in slow oven. Let cake rise to top of pan, then increase heat and bake until firm. Invert pan, when cool cut out.

MARBLE CAKE

Take two cups of sugar, one cup of butter, four eggs (yolks), one cup of milk, three cups of flour, and three teaspoons of baking-powder (scant). Cream the butter and sugar, and add the yolks of eggs. Then add the milk, flour, baking-powder, and the beaten whites of the eggs; flavor with lemon. To make the brown part; take a square of bitter chocolate and melt above steam, and mix with some of the white; flavor the brown with vanilla. Put first a tablespoon of brown batter in the pan, and then the white. Bake in quick oven thirty-five minutes.

LEMON CAKE

Rub to a cream one-half cup of butter with one and one-half cups of pulverized sugar and add gradually the yolks of three eggs, one at a time, and one-half cup of sweet milk. Sift two cups of flour with one teaspoon of baking-powder, add alternately with the milk and the stiffly-beaten whites of three eggs. Add the grated peel of one-half lemon and the juice of one lemon. Bake in moderate oven thirty minutes.

ORANGE CAKE

Beat light the yolks of five eggs with two cups of pulverized sugar, add juice of a large orange and part of the peel grated; one-half a cup of cold water and two cups of flour, sifted three times. Add two teaspoons of baking-powder in last sifting and add last the stiff-beaten whites of three eggs. Bake in layers, and spread the following icing between and on top. Icing: beat the whites of two eggs stiff, add the juice and peel of one orange and sugar enough to stiffen.

POTATO CAKE

Cream two-thirds cup of butter with two cups of granulated sugar; add one-half cup of milk, yolks of four eggs, one cup of hot mashed potatoes, one cup of chocolate, one teaspoon each of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, one teaspoon of vanilla, one cup of chopped walnuts, two cups of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder, then beaten whites of four eggs. Bake slowly in two pans, and cut in half when cold. Put jam between layers.

POUND CAKE

Rub one pound of butter and one pound of powdered sugar to a cream, add the grated peel of a lemon, a glass of brandy and the yolks of nine eggs, added one at a time, and last one pound and a quarter of sifted flour with one-half teaspoon of baking-powder and the beaten whites of the eggs. Bake slowly.

BAKING-POWDER BUNT KUCHEN

Beat two whole eggs for ten minutes with two cups of sugar, two and one-half tablespoons of melted butter, add one cup of milk, three cups of flour in which have been sifted two teaspoons of baking-powder, flavor with one teaspoon of vanilla; one-fourth cup of small raisins may be added. Bake one hour.

QUICK COFFEE CAKE

Cream one-half cup of butter with one cup of sugar, add three eggs, one and one-half cups of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder, mixed with the flour, and one-half cup of milk. Mix well together; bake in a long bread or cake pan, and have on top chopped almonds, sugar and cinnamon.

BAKING-POWDER CINNAMON CAKE

Cream three-fourths cup of sugar with a piece of butter the size of an egg, beat together; then add two eggs, one-half cup of milk (scant), one and one-half cups of flour, one teaspoon of vanilla and two teaspoons of baking-powder. Put cinnamon, flour, sugar and a few drops of water together and form in little pfärvel with your hand and sprinkle on top of cake; also sprinkle a few chopped nuts on top. Do not bake too quickly. Bake in flat pan.

GERMAN COFFEE CAKE (BAKING-POWDER)

Take three cups of flour sifted, one teaspoon of salt, three tablespoons of sugar, three teaspoons of baking-powder, two eggs, two tablespoons of butter, and two-thirds of a cup of milk. Stir well together, adding more milk if necessary. Keep batter very stiff, sprinkle with melted butter (generously) sugar and cinnamon, and again with melted butter. Put into well-buttered shallow pans and bake about half an hour.

COVERED CHEESE CAKE

Cream one cup of sugar with butter the size of an egg, add two eggs well beaten and one cup of water alternately with two and one-half cups of flour in which has been sifted two teaspoons of baking-powder.

*Filling.*—Beat two eggs with one-half cup of sugar, add one-half pound of pot cheese, one tablespoon of cornstarch boiled in one cup of milk, cool this and add, flavor with lemon extract.

Put one-half of the batter in cake pan, then the filling and the other half of batter. Bake in slow oven thirty-five minutes. Sift sugar on top when done.

BLITZ KUCHEN

Take one cup of powdered sugar, one-half cup of butter, one cup of pastry flour, one-quarter of a teaspoon of baking-powder, peel and juice of one lemon, five or six eggs. Beat sugar with two whole eggs; add butter, beat until foamy; after that the flour mixed with baking-powder, lemon and four yolks. Last the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Mix this well, bake in form in a moderately hot oven.

KOENIG KUCHEN

Cream one-quarter cup of butter with one cup of sugar, yolks of six eggs, one-quarter pound of raisins, one-quarter pound of currants, juice and peel of one lemon, one spoon of rum, twenty blanched and grated almonds, two cups of flour mixed with one-half teaspoon of baking-powder, two stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Bake in an ungreased form one to one and one-half hours.

NUT CAKE

Take one-half cup of butter, three eggs, one and one-half cups of sugar, two and one-half cups of flour, two and one-half level teaspoons of baking-powder, and one-half cup of milk. One cup of any kind of nuts. Rub the butter and sugar to a light white cream; add the eggs beaten a little; then the flour sifted with the powder. Mix with the milk and nuts into a rather firm batter. Bake in a paper lined tin in a steady oven thirty-five minutes.

LOAF COCOANUT CAKE

Rub one cup of butter and two cups of sugar to a cream. Add one cup of milk, whites of four eggs, three cups of flour (measure after sifting), and three teaspoons of baking-powder added in last sifting. Add a grated cocoanut and last the stiffly-beaten whites. Bake in a loaf. Line tin with buttered paper.

FRUIT CAKE (WEDDING CAKE)

Take one pound of butter and one pound of sugar rubbed to a cream, yolks of twelve eggs, one tablespoon of cinnamon, one teaspoon of allspice, one-half teaspoon of mace, one-half teaspoon of cloves, one-fourth of a pound of almonds pounded, two pounds of raisins (seeded and chopped), three pounds of currants (carefully cleaned), one pound of citron (shredded very fine), and one-quarter of a pound of orange peel (chopped very fine). Soak all this prepared fruit in one pint of brandy overnight. Add all to the dough and put in the stiffly-beaten whites last. Bake in a very slow oven for several hours, in cake pans lined with buttered paper. When cold wrap in cloths dipped in brandy and put in earthen jars. If baked in gas oven have light very low. Keep oven the same temperature for four or five hours.

APPLE SAUCE CAKE

This apple sauce cake will be found as delicious and tasty as the rich fruit cake, which is so difficult to prepare, and it is very much less expensive.

In a big mixing bowl, beat to a creamy consistency four tablespoons of butter, one egg and one cup of sugar. Add a saltspoon of salt, one teaspoon of allspice, one teaspoon of vanilla and a little grated nutmeg. Beat and stir all these ingredients well together with the other mixture, then add one cup of chopped raisins, after dusting them with flour. Mix these well through the dough and then add one cup of unsweetened apple sauce which has been pressed through a fine wire sieve. After this is well mixed with the other ingredients, stir in one teaspoon of baking-soda dissolved in one tablespoon of boiling water. Last of all, stir in one cup of flour, sifting twice after measuring it. Bake forty-five minutes in moderate oven.

The tendency in making this cake is to get the dough too thin, therefore the apple sauce should be cooked quite thick, and then if the dough is still too thin add more flour. Bake one hour in moderate oven. This cake can be made with chicken schmalz in place of butter. Ice with plain white frosting.

SPICE CAKE

This spice cake is economical, easy to make and delicious, three qualities which must appeal to the housewife.

Cream one cup of brown sugar and one-half cup of butter (or a little less of any butter substitute). Add one-half teaspoon of ground cloves and ground cinnamon, one cup of sour milk; one teaspoon of baking-soda, two cups of flour and one cup of raisins chopped. Have ready a warm oven and bake three-quarters of an hour.

GREEN TREE LAYER CAKE AND ICING

One cup of granulated sugar, one-half cup of butter, three eggs, one cup of milk, two and one-half scant cups of sifted flour, one teaspoon of vanilla extract, two teaspoons of baking-powder. Cream the butter and sugar together as usual, and then break in three eggs and beat until very creamy. Add the flour and milk alternately, reserving a little of the flour to add after the vanilla and baking-powder. Beat well and bake in layer cake tins. The entire success and lightness of this cake depends upon the beating of the sugar, butter and eggs. If these are beaten long enough they will become as creamy and fluffy as whipped cream.

*Icing for This Cake.*—One and one-half cups of confectioner's sugar (not powdered), butter the size of a large egg, two tablespoons of cocoa, one teaspoon of vanilla, moisten to make the mixture the consistence of very thick cream. Cream or whipped cream may be used for the mixing, but many like this icing when made with lukewarm coffee. The sugar and butter are creamed together thoroughly and then the cocoa and vanilla are added, and lastly the cream or coffee. This is a good imitation of German tree cake. The icing on tree cake is an inch thick, and it is marked to represent the bark of a tree. The way it is served is with a little green candy on it, and it is really very delicious although extremely rich. The thicker or rather firmer this icing is, the better.

EGGLESS, BUTTERLESS, MILKLESS CAKE

One package of seeded raisins, two cups of sugar, two cups of boiling water, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one teaspoon of cloves, two tablespoons of Crisco, chicken schmalz or clarified drippings, one-half teaspoon of salt. Boil all together five minutes, cool, add one teaspoon of soda dissolved in water, three cups of flour. Bake forty-five minutes, make two cakes in layer pans.

APPLE JELLY CAKE

Rub one cup of butter and two cups of sugar to a cream, add four eggs, whites beaten separately, one cup of milk, two teaspoons of baking-powder and three and one-half cups of flour. Bake in layer tins.

*Filling.*—Pare and grate three large apples ("Greenings" preferred),
the juice and peel of a lemon, one cup of sugar and one well-beaten egg.
Put in ingredients together and boil, stirring constantly until thick.
Cool and fill in cake.

CREAM LAYER CAKE

Rub one cup of butter and two scant cups of sugar to a cream; the yolks of four eggs beaten in well, add gradually one cup of milk and three cups of sifted flour, and add three teaspoons of baking-powder in last sifting; put whites in last. Bake in layers as for jelly cake. When cold, spread with the following filling: Moisten two tablespoons of cornstarch with enough cold milk to work it into a paste. Scald one-half pint of milk with one-half cup of sugar and a pinch of salt. Beat the yolks of two eggs light; add the cornstarch to this, and as soon as the milk is scalded pour in the mixture gradually, stirring constantly until thick. Drop in one teaspoon of sweet butter, and when this is mixed in, set away until cool. Spread between layers.

COCOANUT LAYER CAKE

Rub to a cream one-half cup of butter and one and one-half cups of pulverized sugar. Add gradually three eggs, one-half cup of milk and two cups of flour, adding two teaspoons of baking-powder in last sifting. Bake in layers.

*Filling.*—One grated cocoanut and all of its milk, to half of which add the beaten whites of two eggs and one cup of powdered sugar. Lay this between the layers. Mix with the other half of the grated cocoanut five tablespoons of powdered sugar and strew thickly on top of cake, which has been previously iced.

CHOCOLATE LAYER CAKE

Stir one scant half cup of butter to a cream with one cup of sugar. Add alternately one-half cup of sweet milk, yolks of two eggs which you have previously beaten until quite light, add whites of two, and one-half cup of sifted flour. Make a custard of one-half cup of milk, with one cup of grated chocolate, one-half cup of granulated sugar; boil until thick, add the yolk of one egg, then remove from the fire; stir until cool, add this to the cake batter, add one and one-half cups of sifted flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder and one of vanilla flavoring. Bake in layers and ice between and on top with plain white icing flavored to taste. You may substitute almond or colored icing.

CARAMEL LAYER CAKE

Place one-half cup of sugar in pan over fire. Stir until liquid smokes and burns brown. Add one-half cup of boiling water and cook into syrup. Take one cup butter, one and one-half cups of sugar, yolks of two eggs, over one cup of water and two cups of flour. Beat all thoroughly. Add enough of the burnt sugar to flavor, also one teaspoon of vanilla, another half cup of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder and whites of two eggs. Bake in two layers, using remainder of burnt sugar for icing.

HUCKLEBERRY CAKE

Stir to a cream one cup of butter and two cups of powdered sugar and add gradually the yolks of four eggs. Sift into this three cups of flour, adding two teaspoons of baking-powder in the last sifting and add one cup of sweet milk alternately with the flour to the creamed butter, sugar and yolks. Spice with one teaspoon of cinnamon and add the stiff-beaten whites of the eggs. Lastly, stir in two cups of huckleberries which have been carefully picked over and well dredged with flour. Be careful in stirring in the huckleberries that you do not bruise them. You will find a wooden spoon the best for this purpose, the edges not being so sharp. Bake in a moderately hot oven; try with a straw, if it comes out clean, your cake is baked. This will keep fresh for a long while.

CREAM PUFFS

One cup of hot water, one-half cup of butter; boil together, and while boiling stir in one cup of sifted flour dry; take from the stove and stir to a thin paste, and after this cools add three eggs unbeaten, and stir vigorously for five minutes. Drop in tablespoonfuls on a buttered tin and bake in a quick oven twenty-five minutes, opening the oven door no oftener than is absolutely necessary, and being careful that they do not touch each other in the pan. This amount will make twelve puffs. Cream for puffs: one cup of milk, one cup of sugar, one egg, three tablespoons of flour, vanilla to flavor. Stir the flour in a little of the milk; boil the rest, turn this in and stir until the whole thickens. When both this and the puffs are cool open the puff a little way with a sharp knife and fill them with the cream.

CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS

To make éclairs spread the batter, prepared as in foregoing recipe, in long ovals and when done cover with plain or chocolate frosting, as follows: Boil one cup of brown sugar with one-half cup of molasses, one tablespoon of butter and two tablespoons of flour. Boil for one-half hour, then stir in one-fourth pound of grated chocolate wet in one-fourth cup of sweet milk and boil until it hardens on the spoon. Flavor with vanilla. Spread this upon the éclairs.

DOBOS TORTE

Cream yolks of six eggs with one-half pound of powdered sugar; add three-fourths cup of flour sifted three times; then add beaten whites of six eggs lightly and carefully into the mixture. Butter pie plates on under side and sprinkle with flour lightly over the butter and spread the mixture very thin. This amount makes one cake of twelve layers. Remove layers at once with a spatula.

*Filling.*—Cream one-half pound of sweet butter and put on ice immediately; take one-half pound of sweet chocolate and break it into a cup of strong liquid coffee; add one-half pound of granulated sugar and let it boil until you can pull it almost like candy; remove from fire and stir the chocolate until it is quite cold. When cold add the chocolate mixture to the creamed butter. This filling is spread thin between the layers, spread the icing thicker on top and sides of the cake. This is very fine, but care must be taken in baking and removing the layers, as layers are as thin as wafers. Bake and make filling a day or two before needed.

SPONGE CAKE

Weigh any number of eggs, take the same weight of sugar and one-half the weight of flour; the grated rind and juice of one lemon to five eggs. For mixing this cake, see the directions given in "To Bake Cakes"; the mixture should be very light and spongy, great care being used not to break down the whipped whites. The oven should be moderate at first, and the heat increased after a time. The cake must not be moved or jarred while baking. The time will be forty to fifty minutes according to size of cake. Use powdered sugar for sponge-cake. Rose-water makes a good flavoring when a change from lemon is wanted.

SMALL SPONGE CAKES

Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs, beat the whites stiff, and beat into them one-half cup of granulated sugar. Beat the yolks to a very stiff froth and beat into them one-half cup of granulated sugar. This last mixture must be beaten for exactly five minutes. Add the juice and grated rind of one small lemon; beat yolks and whites together well, then stir in very gently one scant cup of flour that has been sifted three times. Remember that every stroke of the spoon after the flour is added toughens the cake just that much, so fold the flour in just enough to mix well. If baked in small patty pans they taste just like lady fingers. Bake twenty or twenty-five minutes in moderate oven.

DOMINOES

Make a sponge cake batter, and bake in long tins, not too large. The batter should not exceed the depth of one-fourth of an inch, spread it evenly and bake it in a quick oven (line the tins with buttered paper). As each cake is taken from the oven, turn it upside down on a clean board or paper. Spread with a thin layer of currant or cranberry jelly, and lay the other cake on top of it. With a hot, sharp knife cut into strips like dominoes; push them with the knife about an inch apart, and ice them with ordinary white icing, putting a tablespoonful on each piece, the heat of the cake will soften it, and with little assistance the edges and sides may be smoothly covered. Set the cakes in a warm place, where the frosting will dry. Make a horn of stiff white paper with just a small opening; at the lower end. Put in one spoon of dark chocolate icing and close the horn at the top, and by pressing out the icing from the small opening, draw a line of it across the centre of each cake, and then make dots like those on dominoes. Keep the horn supplied with the icing.

LADY FINGERS

Beat the yolks of three eggs until light and creamy, add one-quarter pound of powdered sugar (sifted) and continue beating; add flavoring to taste, vanilla, lemon juice, grated rind of lemon or orange. To the whites of the three eggs add one-half saltspoon of salt and beat until very stiff. Stir in lightly one-half cup of flour and then fold in the beaten whites very gently. Press the mixture through a pastry tube on a baking-tin, covered with paper in portions one-half inch wide by four inches long, or drop on oblong molds; sift a little powdered sugar on top of each cake, and bake from ten to fifteen minutes in a moderate oven. Do not let brown. Remove immediately from pan, brush the flat surface of one cake with white of egg and press the underside of a second cake upon the first.

JELLY ROLL

Take three eggs creamed with one cup of granulated sugar, one cup of flour sifted with two teaspoons of baking-powder, add one-half cup of boiling water. Bake in broad pan—while hot, remove from pan and lay on cloth wet with cold water. Spread with jelly and roll quickly. Sprinkle with powdered sugar.

ANGEL FOOD

Sift one cup of pastry flour once, then measure and sift three times. Add a pinch of salt to the whites of eight or nine eggs or just one cup of whites, beat about one-half, add one-half teaspoon of cream of tartar, then beat the whites until they will stand of their own weight; add one and one-fourth cups of sugar, then flour, not by stirring but folding over and over until thoroughly mixed in; flavor with one-half teaspoon of vanilla or almond extract. Bake in an ungreased pan, patent tube pan preferred. Place the cake in an oven that will just warm it enough through until the batter has raised to the top of the mold, then increase the heat gradually until the cake is well browned over; if by pressing the top of the cake with the finger it will spring back without leaving the imprint of the finger the cake is done through. Great care should be taken that the oven is not too hot to begin with as the cake will rise too fast and settle or fall in the baking. Bake thirty-five to forty minutes. When done, invert the pan; when cool remove from pan.

SUNSHINE CAKE

Beat yolks of five eggs lightly, add one teaspoon of vanilla, or grated rind of one lemon. In another bowl beat seven whites to a froth with a scant one-half teaspoon of cream of tartar, then beat until whites are very stiff. Gradually add one cup of granulated sugar, sifted three times, to the beaten whites. Fold whites and sugar, when beaten, into the beaten yolks. Sift one cup of flour three times, then put into sifter and shake lightly, fold into the cake. Bake forty minutes in ungreased cake pan. As directed for sponge cake invert pan. Remove cake when it has cooled.

MOCHA TORTS

Beat one cup of powdered sugar with the yolks of four eggs; when very light, add one cup of sifted flour in which has been mixed one teaspoon of baking-powder, add three tablespoons of cold water, one-half teaspoon of vanilla, one tablespoon essence of mocha, add the stiffly-beaten whites and bake fifteen to twenty minutes in two layer pans in a moderate oven. Spread when cold with one-half pint of cream to which has been added one tablespoon of mocha essence, one and one-half tablespoon of powdered sugar and then well whipped. Garnish with pounded almonds.

PEACH SHORTCAKE

Make a sponge cake batter of four eggs, one cup of pulverized sugar, a pinch of salt and one cup of flour. Beat the eggs with the sugar until very light. Beat until the consistency of dough and add the grated peel of a lemon, and last the sifted flour. No baking-powder necessary. Bake in jelly tins. Cut the peaches quite fine and sugar bountifully. Put between layers. Eat with cream.

The same recipe may be used for Strawberry Shortcake.

BREMEN APPLE TORTE

Take seven peeled and cored apples, six tablespoons of sugar, two tablespoons of butter, and cook together until apples are soft. Cream six eggs; add to them one pint of sour cream, one tablespoon of vanilla, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, and sugar to taste; then pour into the cooked apples and let all boil together till thick. Remove from stove. Take three cups of finely rolled zwieback, and in the bottom of a well-greased pan put a layer of two cups of crumbs, then a layer of the apple mixture, a layer of the remaining crumbs, and lastly lumps of butter over all. Bake one hour.

VIENNA PRATER CAKE

Cream the yolks of six eggs with one cup of granulated sugar. Add three-fourths cup of sifted chocolate, three-fourths cup of flour (sifted twice), one and one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Add the beaten whites. Bake thirty minutes. When cold; cut in half and fill with the following: One cup of milk, yolks of two eggs, one cup of chopped walnuts. Boil, stirring constantly to prevent curdling. Sweeten to taste, and after removing from the fire add one tablespoon of rum. Spread while hot.

SAND TORTE

Cream one-half pound of butter with one-half pound of sugar; drop in, one at a time, the yolks of six eggs. Add one small wine glass of rum, one-fourth pound of corn-starch, and one-fourth pound of flour that have been thoroughly mixed; one teaspoon of baking-powder, the beaten whites of six eggs. Bake one hour in a moderate oven.

ALMOND CAKE OR MANDEL TORTE, No. 1

Take one-half pound of almonds and blanch by pouring boiling water over them, and pound in a mortar or grate on grater (the latter is best). Beat yolks of eight eggs vigorously with one cup of sugar, add one-half lemon, grated peel and juice, one tablespoon of brandy, and four lady-fingers grated, the almonds, and fold in the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Bake in moderate oven one hour.

ALMOND CAKE OR MANDEL TORTE, No. 2

Take one-fourth pound of sweet almonds and one-eighth pound of bitter ones mixed. Blanch them the day previous to using and then grate or pound them as fine as powder. Beat until light the yolks of nine eggs with eight tablespoons of granulated sugar. Add the grated peel of one lemon and one-half teaspoon of mace or vanilla. Beat long and steadily. Add the grated almonds and continue the stirring in one direction. Add the juice of the lemon to the stiff-beaten whites. Grate four stale lady fingers, add and bake slowly for one hour at least.

BROD TORTE

Take six eggs, seven tablespoons of granulated sugar, seven tablespoons of bread crumbs, one-eighth pound of chopped almonds, one-half teaspoon of allspice, one tablespoon of jelly, grated rind and juice of one lemon, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one-half teaspoon of cloves, one-half wine glass of brandy. Beat yolks of eggs well and add sugar and beat until it blisters, add bread crumbs, almonds, jelly, spice, lemon, and brandy. Then add beaten whites, and bake slowly about forty minutes.

RYE BREAD TORTE

Beat the yolks of four eggs very light with one cup of sugar; add one cup of sifted dry rye bread crumbs to which one teaspoon of baking-powder and a pinch of salt have been added. Moisten one-half cup of ground almonds with two tablespoons of sherry, add and lastly fold in the beaten whites of eggs. Bake in ungreased form in moderate oven.

ZWIEBACK TORTE

Beat the yolks of six eggs with one and one-eighth cups of sugar, add one-half box of zwieback, which has been rolled very fine, add one teaspoon of baking-powder, season with one tablespoon of rum or sherry wine and one-half teaspoon of bitter almond extract. Lastly fold in the stiffly-beaten whites of the six eggs and bake in ungreased form in moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.

CHOCOLATE BROD TORTE

Separate the yolks and whites of ten eggs. Beat the yolks with two cups of pulverized sugar. When thick add one and three-fourth cups of sifted dry rye bread crumbs, one-half pound of sweet almonds, also some bitter ones, grated or powdered as fine as possible, one-fourth pound of citron shredded fine, one cake of chocolate grated, the grated peel of one lemon, the juice of one orange and one lemon, one tablespoon of cinnamon, one teaspoon of allspice, one-half teaspoon of cloves, and a wine glass of brandy. Bake very slowly in ungreased form. Frost with a chocolate icing, made as follows: Melt a small piece of chocolate. Beat the white of an egg stiff with scant cup of sugar, and stir into the melted chocolate and spread with a knife.

BURNT ALMOND TORTE

Beat up four eggs with one cup of sifted powdered sugar. Beat until it looks like a heavy batter. When you think you cannot possibly beat any longer stir one cup of sifted flour with one-half teaspoon of baking-powder. Stir it into batter gradually and lightly, adding three tablespoons of water. Bake in jelly tins. Filling: Scald one-fourth pound of almonds (by pouring boiling water over them), remove skins, put them on a pie plate and set them in the oven to brown slightly. Meanwhile, melt three tablespoons of white sugar, without adding water, stirring it all the while. Stir up the almonds in this, then remove them from the fire and lay on a platter separately to cool. Make an icing of the whites of three eggs beaten very stiff, with one pound of pulverized sugar, and flavor with rose-water. Spread this upon layers and cover each layer with almonds. When finished frost the whole cake, decorating with almonds.

CHOCOLATE TORTE

Take nine eggs, one-half pound of pulverized sugar, one-half pound of almonds, half cut and grated; one-half pound of finest vanilla chocolate grated, one-half pound of raisins, cut and seeded; seven soda crackers, rolled to a powder; one teaspoon of baking-powder, juice of three lemons and one-fourth glass of wine. Beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth and stir in last. Beat yolks with sugar until very light; then add chocolate, and proceed as with other torten.

DATE TORTE

Beat one-half pound of pulverized sugar with the yolks of six large eggs. Beat long and steadily until a thick batter. Add one-half pound of dates, cut very fine, one teaspoon each of allspice and ground cinnamon, one-fourth pound of chocolate grated, juice and peel of one lemon, three and one-half soda crackers, rolled to a fine powder, one teaspoon of baking-powder, and last the stiff-beaten whites. Bake slowly. Cake can be cut in half and put together with jelly.

GERMAN HAZELNUT TORTE

Beat together for twenty minutes until very light the yolks of eight eggs with one-half pound of granulated sugar, then add the very stiffly-beaten whites of eggs, place the bowl in which it has been stirred over a boiler in which water is boiling on the stove, stir continually but slowly until all the batter is well warmed but not too hot, add a small pinch of salt, and one-half pound of grated hazelnuts, add the nuts gradually, mix well and pour into a greased spring form. Bake very slowly. The grated rind of one-half lemon can be added if desired. Ice with boiled icing.

LINZER TORTE

Cream one pound of butter with one pound of sugar until foamy, then add one by one four whole eggs. Mix well, then stir in three-fourths pound of pounded almonds or walnuts, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one-fourth teaspoon of cloves, one pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, and a few drops of bitter almond essence. Put in four layer pans and bake in slow oven. Put together with apricot, strawberry, or raspberry jam and pineapple marmalade, each layer having a different preserve. Ice top and sides. If only two layers are desired for home use, half the quantity of ingredients can be used. This is a very fine cake. It is better the second day.

RUSSIAN PUNCH TORTE

Bake three layers of almond tart and flavor it with a wine glass of arrack. When baked, scrape part of the cake out of the thickest layer, not disturbing the rim, and reserve these crumbs to add to the following filling: Boil one-half pound of sugar in one-fourth cup of water until it spins a thread. Add to this syrup a wine glass of rum, and the crumbs, and spread over the layers, piling one on top of the other. Another way to fill this cake is to take some crab-apple jelly or apple marmalade and thin it with a little brandy.

WALNUT TORTE, No. 1

Grate eight ounces of walnuts and eight ounces of blanched almonds. Beat light the yolks of twelve eggs and three-fourths pound of sugar. Add the grated nuts and one-fourth pound of sifted flour, fold in the whites beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in layers and fill with sweetened whipped cream.

WALNUT TORTE, No. 2

Separate the yolks and whites of six eggs, being very careful not to get a particle of the yolks into the whites. Sift one-half pound of granulated sugar into the yolks and beat until thick as batter. Add a pinch of salt to the whites and beat very stiff. Have ready one-fourth pound of grated walnuts, reserve whole pieces for decorating the top of cake. Add the pounded nuts to the beaten yolks, and two tablespoons of grated lady fingers or stale sponge cake. Last add the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in layers and fill with almond or plain icing.

CHESTNUT TORTE

Boil one pound of chestnuts in the shells, peel them while warm, put nuts through potato ricer or colander. Beat well the yolks of six eggs with six tablespoons of sugar, add all the chestnut purée but two or three tablespoons reserved for top of torte, then add three teaspoons of baking-powder and the well-beaten whites of the six eggs; bake in moderate oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Whip one-half pint of cream, add to this the chestnut purée which was reserved, and a little sugar; garnish torte with this mixture. Enough for twelve persons.

NUT HONEY CAKE

Mix two cups of brown sugar, two cups of honey, six egg yolks and beat them thoroughly. Sift together three cups of flour, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, three teaspoons of ground cinnamon, one-half teaspoon each of ground cloves, ground nutmeg and allspice, and one and one-half teaspoons of soda; add one cup of chopped raisins, one-half ounce of citron cut in small pieces, one-half ounce of candied orange peel cut in small pieces, one-half pound of almonds coarsely chopped. Beat the whites of three eggs very stiff and add them last. Pour the dough to the depth of about half an inch into well-buttered tins and bake in a slow oven for one-half hour.

*ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES*

BOILED ICING

One cup of sugar, one-third cup of boiling water, white of one egg beaten stiff. Pour water on sugar until dissolved, heat slowly to boiling point without stirring; boil until syrup will thread when dropped from tip of spoon; as soon as it threads, pour slowly over beaten white, then beat with heavy wire spoon until of proper consistency to spread. Flavor.

WHITE CARAMEL ICING

Put on to boil two cups of brown sugar, one cup of milk and a small lump of butter. Boil until it gets as thick as cream, then beat with a fork or egg whip until thick and creamy. Spread quickly on cake.

MAPLE SUGAR ICING

Boil two cups of maple sugar with one-half cup of boiling water until it threads from the spoon. Pour it upon the beaten whites of two eggs and beat until cold. Spread between layers and on top of cake. Do not make icings on cloudy or rainy days.

UNBOILED ICING

Take the white of one egg and add to it the same quantity of water (measure in an egg shell). Stir into this as much confectioner's sugar to make it of the right consistency to spread upon the cake. Flavor with any flavoring desired. You may color it as you would boiled frosting by adding fruit coloring.

COCOANUT ICING

Mix cocoanut with the unboiled icing. If you desire to spread it between the cakes, scatter more cocoanut over and between the layers.

NUT ICING

Mix any quantity of finely chopped nuts into any quantity of cream icing (unboiled) as in the foregoing recipes. Ice the top of cake with plain icing, and lay the halves of walnuts on top.

ORANGE ICING

Grate the peel of one-half orange, mix with two tablespoons of orange juice and one tablespoon of lemon juice and let stand fifteen minutes. Strain and add to the beaten yolk of one egg. Stir in enough powdered sugar to make it the right consistency to spread upon the cake.

CHOCOLATE GLAZING

Grate two sticks of bitter chocolate, add five tablespoons of powdered sugar and three tablespoons of boiling water. Put on the stove, over moderate fire, stir while boiling until smooth, glossy and thick. Spread at once on cake and set aside to harden.

CHOCOLATE ICING, UNBOILED

Beat the whites of three eggs and one and one-half cups of pulverized sugar, added gradually while beating. Beat until very thick, then add four tablespoons of grated chocolate and two teaspoons of vanilla.

This quantity is sufficient for a very large cake.

INSTANTANEOUS FROSTING

To the white of an unbeaten egg add one and one-fourth cups of pulverized sugar and stir until smooth. Add three drops of rose-water, ten of vanilla, and the juice of half a lemon. It will at once become very white, and will harden in five or six minutes.

PLAIN FROSTING

To one cup of confectioner's sugar add some liquid, either milk or water, to make it the right consistency to spread, flavor with vanilla. Instead of the water or milk, orange juice can be used. A little of the rind must be added. Lemon juice can be substituted in place of vanilla. Chocolate melted over hot water and added to the sugar and water makes a nice chocolate icing; flavor with vanilla.

ALMOND ICING

Take the whites of two eggs and one-half pound of sweet almonds, which should be blanched, dried and grated or pounded to a paste. Beat the whites of the eggs, add half a pound of confectioner's sugar, one tablespoon at a time, until all is used, and then add the almonds and a few drops of rosewater. Spread between or on top of cake. Put on thick, and when nearly dry cover with a plain icing. If the cakes are well dredged with a little flour after baking, and then carefully wiped before the icing is put on, it will not run and can be spread more smoothly. Put the frosting in the centre of the cake, dip a knife in cold water and spread from the centre toward the edge.

MOCHA FROSTING

One cup of pulverized sugar into which sift two dessertspoons of dry cocoa, two tablespoons of strong hot coffee in which is melted a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Beat well and add a little vanilla.

MARSHMALLOW FILLING

Melt one-half pound marshmallows over hot water, cook together one cup of sugar and one-quarter cup of cold water until it threads thoroughly. Beat up the white of an egg and syrup and mix, then add to the melted marshmallows and beat until creamy and cool. Can be used for cake filling or spread between two cookies.

FIG FILLING

One pound of figs chopped fine, one cup of water, one-half cup of sugar; cook all together until soft and smooth.

BANANA FILLING

Mash six bananas, add juice of one lemon and three or more tablespoons of sugar; or add mashed bananas with whipped cream or boiled icing.

CREAM FILLING

Scald two cups of milk. Mix together three-fourths of a cup of sugar, one-third cup of flour and one-eighth teaspoon of salt. Add to three slightly-beaten eggs and pour in scalded milk. Cook twenty minutes over boiling water, stirring constantly until thickened. Cool and flavor. This can be used as a foundation for most fillings, by adding melted chocolate, nuts, fruits, etc.

COFFEE FILLING

Put three cups of warmed-over or freshly made coffee in a small casserole, add two tablespoons of powdered sugar, one-half teaspoon of vanilla. When at boiling point (do not let it boil), add one cup of milk or cream. Then add one tablespoon of cornstarch which has been moistened with cold water. Stir in while cooking till it is smooth and glossy. When the cake is cool, pour mixture over the layers.

LEMON JELLY FOR LAYER CAKE

Take one pound of sugar, yolks of eight eggs with two whole ones, the juice of five large lemons, the grated peel of two, and one-quarter pound of butter. Put the sugar, lemon and butter into saucepan and melt over a gentle fire. When all is dissolved, stir in the eggs which have been beaten, stir rapidly until it is thick as honey, and spread some of this between the layers of cake. Pack the remainder in jelly glasses.

LEMON PEEL

Keep a wide-mouthed bottle of brandy in which to throw lemon peel. Often you will have use for the juice of lemons only. Then it will be economical to put the lemon peel in the bottle to use for flavoring. A teaspoon of this is sufficient for the largest cake.

LEMON EXTRACT

Take the peel of half a dozen lemons and put in alcohol the same as for vanilla.

VANILLA EXTRACT

Take two ounces of vanilla bean and one of tonka. Soak the tonka in warm water until the skin can be rubbed off; then cut or chop in small pieces and put in two wine bottles. Fill with half alcohol, half water; cork, seal, and in a week's time will be ready for use.

*PIES AND PASTRY*

PUFF PASTE OR BLAETTER TEIG

To make good puff paste one must have all the ingredients cold. Use a marble slab if possible and avoid making the paste on a warm, damp day. It should be made in a cool place as it is necessary to keep the paste cold during the whole time of preparation. This recipe makes two pies or four crusts, and requires one-half pound of butter and one-half teaspoon of salt, one-half pound of flour and one-fourth to one-half cup of ice-water.

Cut off one-third of the butter and put the remaining two-thirds in a bowl of ice-water. Divide this into four equal parts; pat each into a thin sheet and set them away on ice. Mix and sift flour and salt; rub the reserved butter into it and make as stiff as possible with ice-water. Dust the slab with flour; turn the paste upon it; knead for one minute, then stand it on ice for five minutes. Roll the cold paste into a square sheet about one-third of an inch thick; place the cold batter in the centre and fold the paste over it, first from the sides and then the ends, keeping the shape square and folding so that the butter is completely covered and cannot escape through any cracks as it is rolled. Roll out to one-fourth inch thickness, keeping the square shape and folding as before, but without butter. Continue rolling and folding, enclosing a sheet of butter at every alternate folding until all four sheets are used. Then turn the folded side down and roll in one direction into a long narrow strip, keeping the edges as straight as possible. Fold the paste over, making three even layers. Then roll again and fold as before. Repeat the process until the dough has had six turns. Cut into the desired shapes and place on the ice for twenty minutes or longer before putting in the oven.

If during the making the paste sticks to the board or pin, remove it immediately and stand it on the ice until thoroughly chilled. Scrape the board clean; rub with a dry cloth and dust with fresh flour before trying again. Use as little flour as possible in rolling, but use enough to keep the paste dry. Roll with a light, even, long stroke in every direction, but never work the rolling-pin back and forth as that movement toughens the paste and breaks the bubbles of air.

The baking of puff paste is almost as important as the rolling, and the oven must be very hot, with the greatest heat at the bottom, so that the paste will rise before it browns. If the paste should begin to scorch, open the drafts at once and cool the temperature by placing a pan of ice-water in the oven.

FLEISCHIG PIE CRUST

For shortening; use drippings and mix with goose, duck or chicken fat. In the fall and winter, when poultry is plentiful and fat, save all drippings of poultry fat for pie-crust. If you have neither, use rendered beef fat.

Take one-half cup of shortening, one and one-half cups of flour. Sifted pastry flour is best. If you have none at hand take two tablespoons of flour off each cup after sifting; add a pinch of salt. With two knives cut the fat into the sifted flour until the shortening is in pieces as small as peas. Then pour in six or eight tablespoons of cold water; in summer use ice-water; work with the knife until well mixed (never use the hand). Flour a board or marble slab, roll the dough out thin, sprinkle with a little flour and put dabs of soft drippings here and there, fold the dough over and roll out thin again and spread with fat and sprinkle with flour, repeat this and then roll out not too thin and line a pie-plate with this dough. Always cut dough for lower crust a little larger than the upper dough and do not stretch the dough when lining pie-pan or plate.

If fruit is to be used for the filling, brush over top of the dough with white of egg slightly beaten, or sprinkle with one tablespoon of bread crumbs to prevent the dough from becoming soggy.

Put in the filling, brush over the edge of pastry with cold water, lay the second round of paste loosely over the filling; press the edges together lightly, and trim, if needed. Cut several slits in the top crust or prick it with a fork before putting it in place.

Bake from thirty-five to forty-five minutes until crust is a nice brown.

A gas stove is more satisfactory for baking pies than a coal stove as pies require the greatest heat at the bottom.

The recipe given above makes two crusts. Bake pies having a cooked filling in a quick oven and those with an uncooked filling in a moderate oven. Let pies cool upon plates on which they were made because slipping them onto cold plates develops moisture which always destroys the crispness of the lower crust.

TO MAKE AND BAKE A MERINGUE

To beat and bake a meringue have cold, fresh eggs, beat the whites until frothy; add to each white one level tablespoon of powdered sugar. Beat until so stiff that it can be cut with a knife. Spread on the pie and bake with, the oven door open until a rich golden brown. Too much sugar causes a meringue to liquefy; if not baked long enough the same effect is produced.

PIE CRUST (MERBERTEIG)

Rub one cup of butter to a cream, add four cups of sifted flour, a pinch of salt and a tablespoon of brown sugar; work these together until the flour looks like sand, then take the yolk of an egg, a wine-glass of brandy, one-half cup of ice-water and work it into the flour lightly. Do not use the hands; knead with a knife or wooden spoon, knead as little as possible. If the dough is of the right consistency no flour will be required when rolling out the dough. If it is necessary to use flour use as little as possible. Work quickly, handle dough as little as possible and bake in a hot oven. Follow directions given with Fleischig Pie Crust. Fat may be substituted for butter in the above recipe.

PARVE, COOKIE AND PIE DOUGH

Sift into a mixing-bowl one and one-half cups of flour and one-half teaspoon of baking-powder. Make a depression in the centre; into this pour a generous half cup of oil and an exact half cup of very cold (or ice) water; add pinch of salt, mix quickly with a fork, divide in two portions; do not knead, but roll on a well-floured board, spread on pans, fill and bake at once in a quick oven.

No failure is possible if the formula is accurately followed and these things observed; ingredients cold, no kneading or re-rolling; dough must not stand, but the whole process must be completed as rapidly as possible.

Do not pinch or crimp the edge of this or any other pie. To do so makes a hard edge that no one cares to eat. Instead, trim the edges in the usual way, then place the palms of the hand on opposite sides of the pie and raise the dough until the edges stand straight up. This prevents all leakage and the crust is tender to the last morsel.

TARTLETS

Roll puff paste one-eighth of an inch thick; cut it into squares; turn the points together into the middle and press slightly to make them stay. Bake until thoroughly done; place a spoonful of jam in the centre of each; cover the jam with meringue and brown the meringue in a quick oven.

By brushing the top of the paste with beaten egg, diluted with one teaspoon of water, a glazed appearance may be obtained.

BANBURY TARTS

Cut one cup of seeded muscatel raisins and one cup of nuts in small pieces, add one cup of sugar, one well-beaten egg, one tablespoon of water, the juice and grated rind of one lemon. Mix well. Line patty-pans with pie dough, fill with mixture and bake until crust is brown.

FRUIT TARTLETS

If canned fruit is used, take a large can of any kind of fruit, drain all the syrup off and put in a saucepan with an equal quantity of sugar. Cook until it forms a syrup, then pour in the fruit, which has been stoned (if necessary), and cook until the whole is a syrupy mass.

If fresh fruit is used, put on two parts of sugar to one of water and cook until syrupy, then add the fruit, which has been peeled, sliced and stoned, and cook until the whole is a thick, syrupy mass.

Line the patty cases or plain muffin rings with the puff paste. Put a spoonful or two of the fruit in each one and bake a nice brown. Peaches, white cherries, Malaga grapes, huckleberries and apples make nice tartlets.

One large can California fruit fills twelve tartlets.

APPLE FLADEN (HUNGARIAN)

Rub together on a pastry-board one-half pound of sweet butter with one pound (four cups sifted) of flour, add four tablespoons of powdered sugar, a little salt, four egg yolks and moisten with one-half cup of sour cream; cover and set aside in the ice-box for one-half hour. Take two pounds of sour apples, peel, cut fine, mix with one-half cup of light-colored raisins, sugar and cinnamon to taste. Cut the dough in two pieces, roll out one piece and place on greased baking-pan, spread over this four tablespoons of bread crumbs and the chopped sugared apples, roll out the other half of dough, place on top and spread with white of one egg, sprinkle with two tablespoons of powdered almonds. Bake in hot oven.

LINSER TART

Make a dough of one-half pound each of flour, sugar and almonds that are grated with peel on, two eggs, a little allspice, a little citron, pinch of salt. Flavor with brandy. Take a little more than half, roll it out and line a pie-pan, put strawberry jam on and then cut rest of dough in strips and cover the same as you would prune pie. Brush these strips with yolk of egg and bake in moderate oven.

MACAROON TARTS

Line a gem or muffin-pan with rich pie dough; half fill each tart with any desired preserve, and bake in a quick oven. Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth and add one-half pound of powdered sugar and stir about ten minutes or until very light, and gradually one-half pound of grated almonds. Divide this macaroon paste into equal portions. Roll and shape into strips, dusting hands with powdered sugar in place of flour. Place these strips on the baked tarts in parallel rows to cross each other diagonally. Return to oven and bake in a slow oven about fifteen minutes. Let remain in pans until almost cold.

LEMON TART (FLEISCHIG)

Make a rich crust and bake in small spring form. Beat three whole eggs and yolks of three very light with one cup of sugar. Add juice of three lemons and grated rind of one, and juice of one orange. Put whole on stove and stir until it comes to a boil. Put on baked crust, spread a meringue made of the remaining three whites and three tablespoons of sugar on top, and put in oven to brown. May be used as a filling for tartlets.

VIENNA PASTRY FOR KIPFEL

Take one-half pound of pot cheese and one-half pound of butter and two cups of flour sifted four times, add a pinch of salt and work these ingredients into a dough; make thirty small balls of it and put on a platter on the ice overnight. In the morning roll each ball separately into two-inch squares. These squares may be filled with, a teaspoon of jelly put in the centre and the squares folded over like an envelop; or fill them with one-half pound of walnuts, ground; one-half cup of sugar and moisten with a little hot milk. Roll and twist into shape. Brush with beaten egg and bake in a moderately hot oven.

CHEESE STRAWS

One-half cup of flour, two tablespoons of butter, four tablespoons of grated cheese, yolk of one egg, dash of cayenne pepper, enough ice-water to moisten. Mix as little as possible. Roll out about a quarter of an inch thick and cut into long, narrow strips. Shake a little more cheese on top and bake in hot oven. This is also an excellent pie crust for one pie, omitting pepper and cheese.

Serve cheese straws with salads.

LAMPLICH

Make a mince-meat by chopping finely eight medium-sized apples, one-half pound each of raisins, currants and sugar, a little citron peel, two or three cloves and one teaspoon of powdered cinnamon.

Cut some good puff paste into little triangles and fill with the mince, turning the corners of the paste over it so as to make little puffs. Place these closely together and on a buttered baking-dish until it is full. Now mix two tablespoons of melted butter with one teacup of thick syrup flavored with essence of lemon, and pour it over the puffs. Bake until done in a rather slow oven.

MIRLITIOUS

Pound and sift six macaroons; add one tablespoon of grated chocolate and one pint of hot milk. Let stand ten minutes, and then add yolks of three eggs well beaten, one tablespoon of sugar, one teaspoon of vanilla. Line patty-tins with puff paste; fill with the mixture and bake twenty minutes.

APPLE PIE, No. 1

Pare, core and slice four apples. Line a pie-plate with plain pastry. Sprinkle with bread crumbs. Lay in the apples, sprinkle with one-half cup of sugar, flavor with cinnamon, nutmeg or lemon juice or two tablespoons of water if apples are not juicy. Cover with upper crust, slash and prick and bake in moderate oven until the crust is brown and the fruit is soft.

APPLE PIE, No. 2

Put in saucepan one-half cup of sugar and one-fourth cup of water, let it boil a few minutes, then lay in five large apples or six small ones, which have previously been peeled and quartered; cover with a lid and steam until tender but not broken. Line pie-plate with rich milchig pastry, lay on the apples, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and bits of butter drop a few drops of syrup over all and bake.

INDIVIDUAL APPLE DUMPLINGS

Butter six muffin rings and set them on a shallow agate pan which has been well buttered. Fill the rings with sliced apples. Make a dough of one and one-half cups of pastry flour sifted several times with one-half teaspoon of salt and three level teaspoons of baking-powder. Chop into the dry ingredients one-fourth of a cup of shortening, gradually add three-fourths of a cup of milk or water. Drop the dough on the apples on the rings. Let bake about twenty minutes. With a spatula remove each dumpling from the ring, place on dish with the crust side down. Serve with cream and sugar, hard sauce or with a fruit sauce.

WHIPPED CREAM PIE

Make a crust as rich as possible and line a deep tin. Bake quickly in a hot oven and spread it with a layer of jelly or jam. Next whip one cup of sweet cream until it is thick. Set the cream in a bowl of ice while whipping. Sweeten slightly and flavor with vanilla, spread this over the pie and put in a cool place until wanted.

GRATED APPLE PIE

Line a pie-plate with a rich puff paste. Pare and grate four or five large tart apples into a bowl into which you have stirred the yolks of two eggs with about half a cup of sugar. Add a few raisins, a few currants, a few pounded almonds, a pinch of ground cinnamon, and the grated peel of a lemon. Have no top crust. Bake in a quick oven. In the meantime, make a meringue of the whites of the eggs by beating them to a very stiff froth and add about three tablespoons of pulverized sugar. Spread this over the pie when baked and set back in the oven until brown. Eat cold.

APPLE CUSTARD PIE

Line your pie-plates with a rich crust. Slice apples thin, half fill your plates and pour over them a custard made of four eggs and two cups of milk, sweetened and seasoned to taste.

CHERRY PIE, No. 1

Line a pie-plate with rich paste, sprinkle cornstarch lightly over the bottom crust and fill with cherries and regulate the quantity of sugar you scatter over them by their sweetness. Bake with an upper crust, secure the edges well by pinching firmly together. Eat cold.

CHERRY PIE, No. 2

Pick the stems out of your cherries and put them in an earthen crock, then set them in the oven until they get hot. Take them out and seed them. Make tarts with or without tops and sugar to your taste. The heating of the fruit gives the flavor of the seed, which is very rich, but the seeding of them while hot is not a delightful job. Made this way they need no water for juice.

SNOWBALLS

Pare and core nice large baking apples, fill the holes with some preserves or jam, roil the apples in sugar and cover with a rich pie crust and bake. When done, cover with a boiled icing and set back in the oven, leaving both doors open to let the icing dry.

BLACKBERRY AND CURRANT PIE

When ready to make the pie, mix as much fruit in a bowl as required, sweeten, stirring the sugar through the berries and currants lightly with a spoon. Dust in a little flour and stir it through the fruit. Cut one of the pieces of pastry in halves, dust the pastry-board with flour and roll the lump of pastry out very thin, cover the pie-plate, a big deep one, with the pastry, trim off the edges with a knife, cutting from you. Fill the dish with the fruit, dust the surface well with flour. Roll out the other piece for the top crust, fold it over the rolling pin, cut a few gashes in it for a steam vent.

Carefully put on the top crust, trim it well about the edge of the pie-plate. Press it closely together with the end of your thumb or with a pastry knife and stand the pie in a moderate oven and bake till the surface is a delicate brown. Then remove the pie and let it stand until it is cool.

The top crust may be made lattice fashion by cutting the pastry in strips, but it will not be as good as between two closed crusts.

CUSTARD PIE

Line the pie-plate with a rich crust. Beat up four eggs light with one-half cup of sugar, a pinch of salt, one pint of milk and grated nutmeg or grated lemon peel, and pour in shell and bake in slow oven.

CREAM PIE

First line a pie-plate with puff paste and bake, and then make a cream of the yolks of four eggs, a little more than a pint of milk, one tablespoon of cornstarch and four tablespoons of sugar, and flavor with two teaspoons of vanilla. Pour on crust and bake; beat up the whites with two tablespoons of powdered sugar and half a teaspoon of cream of tartar. Spread on top of pie and set back in the oven until baked a light brown.

COCOANUT PIE

Line a pie-plate with puff paste and fill with the following custard: Butter size of an egg, creamed with one cup of granulated sugar, one tablespoon of flour, three-fourths cup of grated cocoanut, one tablespoon of milk, vanilla, pinch of salt, and the beaten whites of three eggs.

COCOANUT LEMON PIE

Beat the yolks of six eggs and one cup of sugar until very light, squeeze in the juice of three lemons and the rind of two of them, stir well, then add one-half of a cocoanut grated, and lastly add the whites of six eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Line a deep pie-plate with rich pastry, sprinkle a little flour over it, pour in the lemon mixture and bake. This makes one pie in deep pie-plate.

LEMON PIE, No. 1

Cover the reverse side of a deep pie-plate with a rich puff paste, and bake a light brown. Remove from the oven until the filling is prepared. Take a large juicy lemon, grate and peel and squeeze out every drop of juice. Now take the lemon and put it into a cup of boiling water to extract every particle of juice. Put the cup of water on to boil with the lemon juice and grated peel, and a cup of sugar; beat up the yolks of four eggs very light and add to this gradually the boiling lemon juice. Return to the kettle and boil. Then wet a teaspoon of cornstarch with a very little cold water, and add also a teaspoon of butter and when the boiling mixture has thickened remove from the fire and let it cool. Beat up the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth, add half of the froth to the lemon mixture and reserve the other half for the top of the pie. Bake the lemon cream in the baked pie-crust. Add a few tablespoons of powdered sugar and half a teaspoon of cream of tartar to the remaining beaten whites. If you desire to have the meringue extra thick, add the whites of one or more eggs. When the pie is baked take from the oven just long enough to spread the meringue over the top, and set back for two or three minutes, leaving the oven doors open just the least bit, so as not to have it brown too quickly.

LEMON PIE, No. 2

Line a deep pie-plate with nice crust, then prepare a filling as follows: After removing the crust from two slices of bread about two inches thick, pour over it one cup of boiling water; add one dessertspoon of butler, and beat until the bread is well soaked and smooth; then add the juice and rind of one lemon, one cup of sugar, the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, and a little salt; mix well; fill pie with mixture and bake in hot oven until firm. Beat white of two eggs to a stiff froth, add four tablespoons of powdered sugar and spread on top and brown.

MOCK MINCE PIE

Pare, core, and chop fine eight tart apples. Add one cup of seedless raisins, one-half cup of currants, one ounce of chopped citron, one-half teaspoon each of cinnamon, cloves, spice and mace, a tiny bit of salt and grated nutmeg. Pour over whole one tablespoon of brandy, and juice and rind of one lemon. Line bottom and sides of plate with crust, fill in with mixture, and put strips of dough across.

MINCE PIE

Boil two pounds lean, fresh beef. When cold, chop fine. Add one-half pound chopped suet, shredded very fine, and all gristle removed. Mix in a bowl two pounds of seeded raisins, two pounds of currants, one-half pound of citron, chopped very fine. Two tablespoons of cinnamon, two tablespoons of mace, one grated nutmeg, one tablespoon of cloves, allspice, and salt. Mix this with meat and suet. Then take two cups of white wine, two and one-half pounds of brown sugar. Let stand. Chop fine four apples, and add meat to fruits. Then mix wine with whole, stir well, and put up in small stone jars. This will keep all winter in a cool place. Let stand at least two days before using. Line pie-plates with a rich crust, fill with mince meat mixture, put a rich paste crust on top, or strips if preferred, prick slightly and bake. Serve warm, not hot.

PUMPKIN PIE

Press through a sieve one pint of stewed pumpkin, add four eggs and a scant cup of sugar. Beat yolks and sugar together until very thick and add one pint of milk to the beaten eggs. Then add the pressed pumpkin, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, less than one-half teaspoon of mace and grated nutmeg. Stir the stiffly-beaten whites in last. Bake in a very rich crust without cover.

GRAPE PIE

Squeeze out the pulps and put them in one vessel, the skins into another. Then simmer the pulp a little and press it through a colander to separate the seeds. Then put the skins and pulps together and they are ready for the pies.

HUCKLEBERRY PIE

Line a pie-plate with rich pastry. Pick, clean and wash one pint of huckleberries, drain and lay them thickly on the crust. Sprinkle thickly with sugar, lightly with cinnamon, and drop bits of butter over the top. Bake a nice even brown.

PEACH CREAM TARTS

One cup of butter, and a little salt; cut through just enough flour to thoroughly mix, a cup of ice-water, one whole egg and the yolks of two eggs mixed with a tablespoon of brown sugar. Add to the flour in which you have previously sifted two teaspoons of baking-powder. Handle the dough as little as possible in mixing. Bake in round rings in a hot oven until a light brown. When baked, sift pulverized sugar over the top and fill the hollow centre with a compote of peaches. Heap whipped cream or ice-cream on top of each one, the latter being preferable.

MOCK CHERRY PIE

Cover the bottom of pie-plate with rich crust; reserve enough for upper crust. For filling use two cups of cranberries, cut in halves; one cup of raisins, cut in pieces; two cups of sugar, butter the size of walnut. Dredge with flour, sprinkle with water. Bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven.

PEACH CREAM PIE

Line a pie-plate with a rich crust and bake, then fill with a layer of sweetened grated peaches which have had a few pounded peach kernels added to them. Whip one cup of rich cream, sweeten and flavor and spread over the peaches. Set in ice-chest until wanted.

PEACH PIE, No. 1

Line a pie-plate with a rich pie-crust, cover thickly with peaches that have been pared and sliced fine (canned peaches may be used when others are not to be had), adding; sugar and cover with strips of dough; bake quickly.

PEACH PIE, No. 2

Pare, stone, and slice the peaches. Line a deep pie-plate with a rich paste, sprinkle a little flour over the bottom crust and lay in your fruit, sprinkle sugar liberally over them in proportion to their sweetness. Add a few peach kernels, pounded fine, to each pie and bake with crossbars of paste across the top. If you want it extra fine, with the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth and sweeten with about four tablespoons of pulverized sugar, adding one-fourth of a teaspoon of cream tartar, spread over the pie and return to the oven until the meringue is set. Eat cold.

PINEAPPLE PIE, No. 1

Line your pie-plate with a rich paste, slice pineapples as thin as possible, sprinkle sugar over them abundantly and put flakes of sugar here and there. Cover and bake.

You may make pineapple pies according to any of the plain apple pie recipes.

PINEAPPLE PIE, No. 2

Pare and core the pineapple and cut into small slices and sprinkle abundantly with sugar and set it away in a covered dish to draw enough juice to stew the pineapple in. Bake two shells on perforated pie-plates of a rich pie dough. When the pineapple is stewed soft enough to mash, mash it and set it away to cool. When the crust is baked and cool whip half a pint of sweet cream and mix with the pineapple and fill in the baked shell.

PRUNE AND RAISIN PIE

Use one-half pound of prunes, cooked until soft enough to remove the stones. Mash with a fork and add the juice in which they have been cooked; one-half cup of raisins, cooked in a little water for a few minutes until soft; add to the prune mixture with one-half cup of sugar; a little ground clove or lemon juice improves the flavor. Bake with two crusts.

PRUNE PIE

Make a rich pie paste. After the paste is rolled out thin and the pie-plate lined with it, put in a layer of prunes that have been stewed the day before, with the addition of several slices of lemon and no sugar.

Split the prunes in halves and remove the pits before laying them on the pie crust.

After the first layer is in sprinkle it well with sugar, then pour over the sugar three or four tablespoons of the prune juice and dust the surface lightly with flour.

Repeat this process till there are three layers, then cut enough of the paste in strips to cover the top of the fruit with a lattice crust and bake the pie in a rather quick oven.

Few pies can excel this in daintiness of flavor.

PLUM PIE

Select large purple plums, about fifteen plums for a good-sized pie; cut them in halves, remove the kernels and dip each half in flour. Line your pie-tin with a rich paste and lay in the plums, close together, and sprinkle thickly with a whole cup of sugar. Lay strips of paste across the top, into bars, also a strip around the rim, and press all around the edge with a pointed knife or fork, which will make a fancy border. Sift powdered sugar on top. Damson pie is made in the same way. Eat cold.

RHUBARB PIE

Make a very rich crust, and over the bottom layer sprinkle a large tablespoon of sugar and a good teaspoon of flour. Fill half-full of rhubarb that has been cut up, scatter in one-fourth cup of strawberries or raspberries, sprinkle with more sugar and flour, and then proceed as before. Over the top dot bits of butter and another dusting of flour. Use a good cup of sugar to a pie. Pinch the crusts together well after wetting them, to prevent the juice, which should be so thick that it does not soak through the lower crust at all, from cooking out.

STRAWBERRY PIE

Make a rich fleischig pie-crust and bake on the reverse side of pie-pan. Pick a quart of berries, wash and drain, then sugar. Take the yolks of four eggs beaten well with one-half cup of sugar and stir the beaten whites gently into this mixture. Pour over strawberries. Put in pie-crust and bake until brown. This mixture with most all fruit pies will be found delicious.

SWEET POTATO PIE

Measure one cup of mashed, boiled sweet potatoes. Thin with one pint of sweet milk. Beat three whole eggs very light with one-half cup of sugar. Mix with sweet potatoes. Season with one-quarter of a nutmeg grated, one teaspoon of cinnamon, and one-half teaspoon of lemon extract. Line pie-plate with crust, fill with mixture, and bake in quick oven.

VINEGAR PIE

Line a pie-plate with a rich crust and fill with the following mixture: One cup of vinegar, two of water and two cups of sugar, boil; add a lump of butter and enough cornstarch to thicken; flavor with lemon essence and put in a shell and bake.

MOHNTORTE

Line a form with a rich puff paste, fill with half a pound of white mohn (poppy seed) which has been previously soaked in milk and then ground. Add a quarter of a pound of sugar and the yolks of six eggs; stir all together in one direction until quite thick. Then stir the beaten whites, to which add two ounces of sifted flour and a quarter of a pound of melted butter. Fill and bake. When done, frost either with vanilla or rose frosting.

RAISIN PIE

Line pie pan with rounds of rich pastry, fill with same mixture as for
"Banbury Tarts"; cover with a round of pastry and bake a light brown.

RAISIN AND RHUBARB PIE

Chop one cup of rhubarb and one cup of raisins together, add two tablespoons of melted butter or chicken fat, grated rind and juice of one lemon, one cup of sugar, one well beaten egg, one-quarter cup of bread or cracker crumbs, one-half teaspoon of salt; mix all ingredients thoroughly. Bake between two rounds of pastry. Canned rhubarb may be used.

*COOKIES*

In baking small cakes and cookies, grease the pans. If the pans cool before you can take off the cookies, set back on stove for a few moments. The cakes will then slip off easily. Sponge, drop cakes, anise cakes, etc., are better baked on floured pans.

A whole raisin, an almond blanched, a piece of citron or half a walnut may be used to decorate.

A good way to glaze is, when cookies are about baked, rub over with a brush dipped in sugar and water and return to oven a moment.

FILLED BUTTER CAKES (DUTCH STUFFED MONKEYS)

Make a paste by working three-fourths pound of butter into one pound of flour, with three-fourths pound of light brown sugar, one egg, one teaspoon of cinnamon, and a pinch of salt.

Next mix one-half pound of finely chopped citron peel with one-half pound of ground almonds, and three ounces of butter. Then flavor with one-half teaspoon of vanilla and bind with the yolks of two eggs.

Roll out the dough and divide into two parts. Place one-half on a well-buttered flat pan and spread the mixture over it and cover with the other half of the paste. Brush with beaten egg, sprinkle with poppy seed and bake in a moderately quick oven for one-half hour. When done let cool and then cut into square or oblong pieces.

The butter cakes may be made of one layer of dough sprinkled with citron and almonds and some poppy seed.

SUGAR COOKIES

In a mixing bowl put a cup of sweet butter and two cups of granulated sugar; beat these ingredients to a cream, then add three eggs, grated lemon rind, and four tablespoons of brandy. Beat the added ingredients thoroughly with the others till the mixture is smooth and creamy. Sift three cups of flour in a big bowl with a teaspoon of salt and three teaspoons of baking-powder; stir this a little at a time in the bowl with the other ingredients, until the mixture is a light dough, just stiff enough to roll out. If there is not enough flour, sift more in to make the dough the desired stiffness; then dust the pastry board well with flour, put part of the dough on the board, toss it lightly with your hands from side to side till the dough is covered with flour. Then dust the rolling-pin well with flour and roll the dough very thin; cut it in shapes with a cookie cutter, lift each cookie up carefully with a pancake turner, slip them quickly in a big baking-pan, the inside of which has been well rubbed with flour, and bake them in a moderate oven till light brown.

Just a moment before taking the pan out of the oven sprinkle the surface of the cookies lightly with granulated sugar. When a little cool take the cookies out of the pan with the pancake turner and lay them on a big platter. When they are cold put the cookies in a stone crock.

It is a good plan to have two or three baking-pans so, while one panful is baking, another may be filled and be ready to put in the oven when the other is removed. Only put enough dough on the pastry board at a time to roll out nicely on it.

OLD-FASHIONED HAMBURGER COOKIES

Take one pound of butter one pound of sugar, yolks of six eggs, hard-boiled, and flour enough to make a dough that is not too stiff.

Dissolve three cents worth of ammonia (hartshorn) in scalded milk. Place the ammonia in a large bowl and pour one cup of scalding milk over it. After this has cooled add it to the dough with one-half cup of cold milk. Flavor to taste. Flour the pans and the cookie dough. Roll and proceed as with sugar cookies.

MOTHER'S DELICIOUS COOKIES (MERBER KUCHEN)

Take ten boiled eggs and two raw ones, one pound of best butter, half a pound of almonds, one lemon, some cinnamon one wineglass of brandy, one pound of pulverized sugar and about one pound and a half of flour. This quantity makes one hundred cookies, and like fruit cake, age improves them, in other words, the older the better. Now to begin with: Set a dish of boiling water on the stove, when it boils hard, break the eggs carefully, one at a time, dropping the whites in a deep porcelain dish, and set away in a cool place. Take each yolk as you break the egg and put it in a half shell, and lay it in the boiling water until you have ten boiling. When boiled hard take them up and lay them on a plate to cool. In the meantime, cream the butter with a pound of pulverized sugar, add the grated peel of a lemon, a teaspoon of cinnamon and half of the almonds, which have been blanched and pounded or grated (reserve the other half for the top of the cookies, which should not be grated, but pounded). Add the hard-boiled yolks, which must be grated, and the two raw eggs, sift in the flour, and add the brandy. Beat up the whites of the twelve eggs very stiff, add half to the dough, reserving the other half, but do not make the dough stiff, as it should be so rich that you can hardly handle it. Flour the baking-board well, roll out about an eighth of an inch thick. Now spread with the reserved whites of eggs, reserving half again, as you will have to roll out at least twice on a large baking-board. Sprinkle well with the pounded almonds after you have spread the beaten whites of the eggs on top, also sugar and cinnamon. Cut with a cookie-cutter. Have at least five large pans greased ready to receive them. See that you have a good fire. Time to bake, five to ten minutes. Pack them away when cold in a stone jar or tin cake-box. These cookies will keep a long time.

VANILLA COOKIES

Rub one cup of butter and one cup of sugar to a cream; add two eggs and two level teaspoons of baking-powder, flour enough to make a dough. Flavor with vanilla, roll very thin, spread with beaten white of egg and sugar. Proceed as for sugar cookies.

OLD-FASHIONED MOLASSES COOKIES

Put in a mixing bowl one generous cup of butter which has stood in a warm place until quite soft; add two cups of New Orleans molasses; whip these ingredients to a foam; then add two teaspoons of powdered ginger, one teaspoon of powdered cinnamon and grate in half a large nutmeg; stir these spices well through the mixture; then dissolve two teaspoons of baking-soda in half a cup of hot water; stir it through the mixture, and last, stir in enough sifted flour to make a light dough just stiff enough to roll out.

Dust the pastry board well with flour and rub the rolling-pin well with flour; then flour the hands well, take out some of the dough, put it on the pastry board, quickly roll it out to the thickness of a quarter of an inch; cut the dough out with a round cutter, with or without scallops, and put them in well-floured baking-pans and bake in a slow oven till a golden brown.

SOUR MILK COOKIES

Take one cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two or three eggs, and two-thirds of a cup of sour milk. Dissolve a teaspoon of soda in a little hot water; add part of it at a time to the milk until it foams as you stir it. Be careful not to get in too much. Mix up soft only using flour sufficient to roll out thin. A teaspoon of cardamom seed may be sprinkled into the dough.

HUNGARIAN ALMOND COOKIES

Scant one-quarter of a pound of almonds, blanched and grated; scant one-half pound of sweet butter; not quite three-quarters of a pound of flour; a little sugar and a pinch of salt, and two yolks. Mix this well, pound the dough well with the rolling-pin, then roll out not too thin. Bake.

NUTMEG CAKES (PFEFFERNUESSE)

Sift one pound of flour and one pound of pulverized sugar into a large bowl, four eggs, a piece of citron grated or chopped very fine, also the peel of a lemon, one whole nutmeg grated, one tablespoon of ground cinnamon, one-half teaspoon of ground cloves, and half a teaspoon of allspice. Mix all thoroughly in a deep bowl. Sift a heaping teaspoon of baking-powder in with the flour. Work into little balls as large as hickory nuts with buttered or floured hands. Bake on waxed or buttered tins, an inch apart.

ANISE SEED COOKIES (SPRINGELE)

Four eggs, not separated, but thoroughly beaten, then add one and one-half cups of granulated sugar, and beat for thirty minutes; add two heaping cups of flour and fourteen drops of anise seed oil; drop from a teaspoon on well-buttered pans, and bake in a moderate oven. It will improve them to let them stand from two to three hours in the pans before baking.

CARDAMOM COOKIES

Boil six eggs hard. When cold shell and grate the yolks (reserve the whites for salads or to garnish vegetables), add one-half pound of sugar, the grated peel of a lemon and one-half wineglass of brandy. Stir in one-half pound of butter which has been worked to a cream. Sift in as much flour as you think will allow you to roll out the dough; take as little as possible, a little over half a pound, and flour the board very thick. Put in about two cents worth of cardamom seed and a little rosewater. Cut out with a fancy cake-cutter and brush with beaten egg. Sprinkle pounded almonds and sugar on top.

PURIM CAKES

Take two cups of flour, one tablespoon of sugar, add four eggs and two tablespoons of oil; knead all these together, roll out not very thin, cut in squares, close two sides, prick with a fork so they will not blister; put on tins and bake well. Then take one pound of honey, boil, and put the squares in this and let boil a bit; then drop in one-quarter pound of poppy seeds and put back on fire. When nice and brown sprinkle with a little cold water, take off and put on another dish so they do not stick to each other.

PARVE COOKIES

To one pound of flour take one teaspoon of baking-powder, four eggs, one-quarter pound of poppy seeds, three tablespoons of oil, two pounds of sugar and a little salt; knead not too stiff and put on tins and bake in hot oven till a nice brown. (Do not let burn.)

TEIGLECH

Mix one pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, three tablespoons of oil, and four eggs; knead very well. Roll out in strips three inches long, place on tins and bake. Take a pound of chopped nuts, one-half pound of honey, and one-half pound of sugar; mix thoroughly with wooden spoon and boil with the cakes until brown. Take off the stove; wet with cold water, spread out on board. When cold, pat with the hands to make thin and sprinkle with dry ginger.

HONEY CORN CAKES

Boil one pound of pure honey. Take one pound of cornmeal mixed with a little ground allspice, cloves, and pepper, add the boiled honey, make a loose batter, add one wineglass of brandy; mix all, and cool. Wet the hands with cold water, take pieces of the dough and knead until the dough comes clear from the hand; afterwards knead with white flour so it is not too hard; add one pound of chopped nuts, sprinkle flour on tins, spread dough, not too thin; leave the stove door open till it raises; then close door, and when done take out. Spread with brandy and cut in thin slices.

CROQUANTE CAKES (SMALL CAKES)

Blanch and cut in halves three-fourths pound of shelled almonds, and slice one-half pound of citron; mix well together and roll in a little flour; add to them three-fourths pound of sugar, then six eggs well beaten, and last the rest of the flour (three-fourths pound). Butter shallow pans, and put in the mixture about two inches thick; after it is baked in a quick oven slice cake in strips three-fourths of an inch wide and turn each piece. Put back in oven and bake a little longer. When cold put away in tin box.

KINDEL

Two pounds of soup fat rendered a day or two before using, three pints of flour, one teaspoon of salt, two-thirds cup of granulated sugar, one teaspoon of baking-powder, two teaspoons of vanilla, flour. Knead well, add enough beer to be able to roll. Let it stand two hours.

Roll, cut in long strips three inches wide. Fill with the following: One and one-half cups of brown sugar, two tablespoons of honey, two pounds of walnuts chopped fine, one pound of stewed prunes chopped fine, two cups of sponge cake crumbs, juice of one lemon, spices to taste, few raisins and currants, and a little citron chopped fine; add a little wine, a little chicken schmalz; heat a few minutes. You may use up remnants of jellies, jams, marmalades, etc. Put plenty of filling in centre of strips, fold over, with a round stick (use a wooden spoon), press the dough firmly three inches apart, then with a knife cut them apart. They will be the shape of the fig bars you buy. Grease the pan and the top of cakes, and bake in moderate oven. They will keep—the longer the better.

ALMOND MACAROONS, No. 1

Blanch half a pound of almonds, pound in mortar to a smooth paste, add one pound of pulverized sugar and the beaten whites of four eggs, and work the paste well together with the back of a spoon. Dip your hands in water and roll the mixture into balls the size of a hickory nut and lay on buttered or waxed paper an inch apart. When done, dip your hands in water and pass gently over the macaroons, making the surface smooth and shiny. Set in a cool oven three-quarters of an hour.

ALMOND MACAROONS, No. 2

Prepare the almonds by blanching them in boiling water. Strip them of the skins and lay them on a clean towel to dry. Grate or pound one-half pound of almonds, beat the whites of five eggs to a stiff, very stiff froth; stir in gradually three-quarters of a pound of pulverized sugar (use confectioner's sugar if you can get it), and then add the pounded almonds, to which add a tablespoon of rosewater or a teaspoon of essence of bitter almonds. Line a broad baking-pan with buttered or waxed paper and drop upon this half a teaspoon of the mixture at a time, allowing room enough to prevent their running together. Sift powdered sugar over them and bake in a quick oven to a delicate brown. If the mixture has been well beaten they will not run. Try one on a piece of paper before you venture to bake them all. If it runs add a little more sugar.

ALMOND MACAROONS WITH FIGS

Beat stiff the whites of three eggs, add one-half pound of sugar, and one-half pound of finely cut figs, one-half pound of either blanched almonds cut into long slices, or cut up walnuts. Heat a large pan, pass ironing-wax over surface, lay in waxed paper, and drop spoonfuls of mixture on paper, same distance apart. Bake very slowly in very moderate oven. Remove and let cool; then take paper out with the macaroons, turn over and place hot cloths on wrong; side, when cakes will drop off.

ALMOND STICKS—FLEISCHIG

Take one-half glass of fat, two eggs, four cups of flour, two teaspoons of baking-powder, one cup of water, one-half cup of sugar; knead lightly, and roll out not too thin. Two cups of sugar, mix with two teaspoons of cinnamon; one-half pound of grated almonds, one-half pound of small raisins (washed). Reserve one-half of the sugar and cinnamon, the nuts and raisins; brush the dough with melted fat and sprinkle with almonds and sugar. Put a little of the almond and raisin mixture around the edge and roll around twice. Cut in small pieces, brush every piece with fat, and roll in the sugar and almonds which has been reserved for this purpose. Place in greased pan and bake in hot oven.

ALMOND STICKS

Grind two cups of almonds and reserve one-quarter cup each of sugar and nuts, and an egg yolk for decorating. Cream one cup of butter, add three-fourths cup of sugar, then two whole eggs, almonds and two cups of flour. Roll thin and cut in strips or squares, with fluted cookie cutter. Brush with yolk, sprinkle with nuts and sugar, set aside, and bake in medium oven.

PLAIN WAFERS

Sift one cup of flour and one teaspoon of salt together. Chop in one tablespoon of butter, and add milk to make a very stiff dough; chop thoroughly and knead until smooth; make into small balls and roll each one into a thin wafer. Place in shallow greased and floured pans and bake in a hot oven until they puff and are brown.

POPPY SEED COOKIES (MOHN PLAETZCHEN)

Take an equal quantity of flour, sugar and butter, and mix it well by rubbing with the hollow of the hands until small grains are formed. Then add one cup of poppy seed, two eggs, and enough Rhine wine to hold the dough together. Roll out the dough on a well-floured board, about half a finger in thickness, cut into any shape desired.

CARAWAY SEED COOKIES

Beat three-quarters of a pound of butter and a pound of sugar to a cream; add three eggs, one saltspoon of salt, a gill of caraway seeds and a teaspoon of powdered mace, stirring all well together to a cream; then pour in a cup of sour milk in which a level teaspoon of baking-soda is stirred.

Hold the cup over the mixing bowl while stirring in the soda, as it will foam over the cup. Last of all stir in enough sifted flour to make a light dough, stiff enough to roll thin. Roll on a pastry board well dusted with flour. Cut in round shapes and place in baking-tins well rubbed with flour.

Sprinkle a little sugar over the cookies and bake them in a moderate oven till a light brown. When cool, carefully lift the cookies from the pans with a pancake turner.

CITRON COOKIES

Take one-half cup of butter and one cup and a half of sugar, and rub to a cream. Add two eggs, three-quarters of a cup of milk; one-half cup of citron, cut up very fine, one teaspoon of allspice and one of cloves. Sift one heaping teaspoon of baking-powder into enough flour to thicken. Make stiffer than ordinary cup cake dough; flavor to suit taste, and drop on large tins with a teaspoon. Grease the pans, and bake in a quick oven. The best plan is to try one on a plate. If the dough runs too much add more flour.

GINGER WAFERS

Take one cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one cup of molasses, half a cup of cold coffee, with two teaspoons of soda, one teaspoon of ginger, and flour enough to make a dough stiff enough to roll out thin. Shape with cutter and bake in quick oven.

ANISE ZWIEBACK

Take the yolks of five eggs, one-half pound of sugar, one tablespoon of water, vanilla, one-half pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, one-half of five cents worth anise seeds, and the beaten whites of the eggs. Butter square tins and bake. When cooled cut in strips one inch wide and toast on both sides.

HURRY UPS (OATMEAL)

Sift one cup of flour with two teaspoons of baking-powder, one teaspoon of salt, add one cup of rolled oats, one tablespoon of sugar and two tablespoons of melted butter, mix with one-half cup of milk.

Drop by teaspoons onto a greased pan, press well into each two or three raisins, or a split date and bake for twenty minutes in a hot oven. Can be served with butter, honey, or maple sugar.

PECAN, WALNUT, OR HICKORY NUT MACAROONS

Take one cup of pulverized sugar, and one cup of finely-pounded nut meats, the unbeaten whites of two eggs, two heaping teaspoons of flour, and one scant teaspoon of baking-powder. Mix these ingredients together and drop from a teaspoon which, you have previously dipped in cold water, upon buttered paper. Do not put them too near each other, for they always spread a great deal. Bake about fifteen minutes.

DATE MACAROONS

Stone thirty dates; chop them fine. Cut one-half pound of almonds lengthwise in slices, but do not blanch them. Beat the whites of two eggs until foamy, add one cup of powdered sugar, and beat until stiff; add the dates, then the almonds, and mix very thoroughly. Drop mixture with teaspoon in small piles on tins, one-half inch apart. Bake thirty minutes in a very slow oven or until dry. They are done when they leave the pan readily.

MANDELCHEN

Blanch two cups of almonds and dry them overnight. Grind very fine, add one-half cup of sugar and enough butter to knead into a very stiff paste. Roll very thin, cut in small rounds, place in baking-tin in moderate oven. When done, roll in grated almonds and powdered sugar.

COCOANUT KISSES

Beat the white of one egg; add one-half cup of sugar with a flavoring of vanilla, fold in one cup of shredded cocoanut, drop by teaspoonfuls on a well-greased baking-pan, inverted, and bake for about ten or twelve minutes in a slow oven. Remove from pan when cookies are cold.

CORNFLAKE COCOANUT KISSES

Mix the whites of two eggs, beaten stiff, with one-half cup of sugar, add one-half cup of shredded cocoanut, fold in two cups of corn flakes, a pinch of salt, one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Make and bake same as kisses above.

CHOCOLATE COOKIES

Beat whites of three eggs to a snow, add three-fourths cup of powdered sugar, one cup of ground sweet chocolate, one cup of walnuts chopped, three tablespoons of flour. Drop by teaspoonful on greased baking-tin. Bake in slow oven.

BASELER LOEKERLEIN (HONEY CAKES)

Take half a pound of strained honey, half a pound of sifted powdered sugar, half a pound of almonds (cut in half lengthwise), half a pound of finest flour, one ounce of citron (cut or chopped extremely fine), peel of a lemon, a little grated nutmeg, also a pinch of ground cloves and a wineglass of brandy. Set the honey and sugar over the fire together, put in the almonds, stir all up thoroughly. Next put in the spices and work into a dough. Put away in a cold place for a week, then roll about as thick as a finger. Bake in a quick oven and cut into strips with a sharp knife after they are baked (do this while hot), cut three inches long and two inches wide.

HONEY CAKES, No. 1

One pound of real honey, not jar; one cup of granulated sugar, four eggs, one tablespoon of allspice, three tablespoons of salad-oil, four cups of flour, well sifted; three teaspoons of baking-powder. Warm up or heat honey, not hot, just warm. Rub yolks well with sugar, beat whites to a froth, then mix ingredients, add flour and bake in moderate oven for one hour.

HONEY CAKES, No. 2

Three eggs, not separated, beaten with one cup of sugar, one cup of honey, one cup of blanched almonds chopped finely, one teaspoon each of allspice, cloves, and cinnamon, one cup of chocolate and flour enough to make a thick batter; one teaspoon of baking-soda. Spread very thin on square, buttered pans, bake in a hot oven, and when done, spread with a white icing, cut into squares, and put a half blanched almond in the centre of each square.

LEKACH

This recipe is one that is used in Palestine. It makes a honey cake not nearly as rich as those in the foregoing recipes for honey cakes, but will very nicely take the place of a sweet cracker to serve with tea.

Take three cups of sifted flour, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, add three eggs, one teaspoon of allspice, one teaspoon of soda, the grated rind and juice of one-half lemon and three tablespoons of honey, mix all ingredients well. Roll on board to one-fourth inch in thickness and cut with form. Brush with white of egg or honey diluted with water. On each cake put an almond or walnut. Bake in moderate oven from fifteen to twenty minutes.

LEBKUCHEN

Four eggs, one pound of brown sugar; beat well. Add one-eighth pound of citron shredded, one-eighth pound of shelled walnuts (broken), one and one-half cups of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, two teaspoons of cinnamon, one-fourth teaspoon of allspice. Spread the dough in long pans with well-floured hands, have about one and one-half inches thick. Bake in very moderate oven. When baked, cut in squares and spread with icing. Set in a cool stove or the sun to dry.

It is best to let these cakes and all honey cakes stand a week before using.

OLD-FASHIONED LEBKUCHEN

Heat one cup of molasses, mix it with two cups of brown sugar and three eggs, reserving one white for the icing; add one level teaspoon of baking-soda that has been dissolved in a little milk, then put in alternately a little flour and a cup of milk; now add one tablespoon of mixed spices, half cup of brandy, one small cup each of chopped nuts and citron, and lastly, flour enough to make a stiff batter. Place in shallow pans and bake slowly. When done, cover with icing and cut in squares or strips.

*Icing for Lebkuchen.*—One cup of powdered sugar added to the beaten white of one egg; flavor with one teaspoon of brandy or lemon juice.

*DESSERTS*

BOILED CUSTARD

Take two cups of milk, two eggs or the yolks of three eggs, two tablespoons of sugar and one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Put the milk on to heat in a double boiler. Beat the eggs thoroughly with the sugar; into them pour the hot milk, stirring to prevent lumps. Return all to the double boiler and cook until the custard coats the spoon, but no longer. If the mixture should curdle, set the boiler in a pan of cold water and beat with a wire egg-beater until smooth. When the steam passes off add the vanilla, or other flavoring.

In the winter, when eggs are expensive, the custard may be made with one egg and one heaping teaspoon of cornstarch dissolved in a little cold milk.

If desired, the whites of the eggs may be beaten separately and added to the custard after it is cold or beaten with sugar into a meringue.

CARAMEL CUSTARD

Melt one-half cup of sugar until it is light brown in color, add four cups of scalded milk. Beat the eggs, add the milk and sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of vanilla and bake in cups as directed for cup custard. Serve with caramel sauce.

CUP CUSTARD FOR SIX

Stir until quite light four eggs, yolks and whites, and four tablespoons of sugar; have ready four cups of scalded milk; mix, add pinch of salt and one teaspoon of good vanilla; pour into cups and place cups into pan of boiling water. Put into oven and bake exactly twenty-five minutes.

CHOCOLATE CUSTARD

Beat yolks of three eggs, three tablespoons of sugar till light, dissolve one heaping tablespoon of grated unsweetened chocolate, one tablespoon of sugar and one of hot water. When dissolved, add slowly one pint of milk heated to boiling, pour this hot mixture over the beaten eggs and sugar, cook in double boiler, stirring constantly till it thickens; when cool, flavor with vanilla, and place on ice. When ready to serve, half-fill small punch glasses with the custard, heap over them sweetened whipped cream, flavored; putting on top of each glass, and serve cold.

CHOCOLATE CORNSTARCH PUDDING

Take one quart of milk, one and one-half cups of sugar, seven heaping tablespoons of cocoa, six level tablespoons of cornstarch, one tablespoon of vanilla; place milk and sugar up to boil, when boiling, add cocoa, dissolved to a smooth paste; then add cornstarch dissolved in cold water, let come to a boil, remove from fire and add the vanilla; then place in mold and allow to get cold. Serve with whipped cream.

BLANC MANGE

Heat one quart of milk to boiling point. Dissolve four large tablespoons of cornstarch in a quarter cup of cold milk. Beat two whole eggs with one-half cup of sugar until light, and add a tiny pinch of salt. When the milk begins to boil, add a piece of butter, size of a hickory nut, then pour it over the well-beaten eggs and sugar, mix well, and put back on the stove. Stir until it begins to boil, then stir in the dissolved cornstarch until the custard is very thick. Remove from the fire, flavor with vanilla or lemon, pour into a mold, and set on ice till very cold and firm. Serve with cream.

FLOATING ISLAND

Beat light the yolks of three eggs with one-quarter cup of sugar. Scald a pint of milk, beat up the whites of three eggs very stiff and put them into the boiling milk, a spoonful at a time. Take out the boiled whites and lay them on a platter; now pour the hot milk gradually on the beaten yolks, when thoroughly mixed, return to the fire to boil. When it begins to thicken remove. When cool, flavor with vanilla or bitter almond. Pour into a deep glass dish; put the whites on top, and garnish with jelly or candied fruit. Eat cold.

RED RASPBERRY OR CURRANT FLOAT

Take a half-pint glass of red raspberry or currant juice and mix it with a quarter cup of sugar. Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth and add gradually a quarter cup of powdered sugar. Press the raspberries through a strainer to avoid seeds and by degrees beat the juice with the sugar and eggs until so stiff that it stands in peaks. Chill it thoroughly and serve in a glass dish half filled with cold whipped cream. Heap on the mixture by the spoonful, like floating island. If currant juice is used it will require a pint of sugar.

ROTHE GRITZE

Take one cup of currant juice, sufficiently sweetened, and a pinch of salt. Let this boil and add to it enough cornstarch to render it moderately thick and then boil again for ten minutes. It should be eaten cold with cream. (About one-quarter cup of cornstarch dissolved in cold water will be sufficient to thicken.)

APPLE SNOW

Peel and grate one large sour apple, sprinkling over it three-fourths cup of powdered sugar as it is grated to keep it from turning dark. Add the unbeaten whites of two eggs; beat constantly for half an hour; arrange mound fashion on a glass dish with cold boiled custard around it.

BOHEMIAN CREAM

Stir together and whip one pint of double cream and one pint of grape juice or grape jelly melted, this must be whipped to a froth. Drain if needed. Put in cups and set on ice for several hours. Serve with lady lingers.

PRUNE WHIP

Soak one-half pound of prunes in cold water overnight. In the morning let them simmer in this water until they are very soft. Remove stones and rub through strainer. Add one-half cup of sugar and cook five minutes or until the consistency of marmalade. When the fruit mixture is cold, add the well-beaten whites of three eggs and one-half teaspoon of lemon juice; add this gradually, then heap lightly in buttered dish and bake twenty minutes in a slow oven. Serve cold with thin custard or cream.

RICE CUSTARD

Beat four eggs light with one cup of sugar. Add one cup of cooked rice, two cups of sweet milk, juice and rind of one lemon, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon. Pour in pudding-pan and place in a pan filled with hot water; bake until firm in moderate oven. Serve with lemon sauce.

PRUNE CUSTARD

Heat a little more than a pint of sweet milk to the boiling point, then stir in gradually a little cold milk in which you have rubbed smooth a heaping tablespoon of butter and a little nutmeg. Let this just come to a boil, then pour into a buttered pudding-dish, first adding one cup of stewed prune with the stones taken out. Bake for fifteen to twenty minutes, according to the state of oven. A little cream improves it when it is served in the saucers.

TAPIOCA CUSTARD

Soak four tablespoons of tapioca overnight in one quart of sweet milk. In the morning beat the yolks of three eggs with one cup of sugar. Put the milk and tapioca on in a double boiler, adding a pinch of salt; when this comes to boiling point stir in the eggs and sugar. Beat the whites to a stiff froth and stir quickly and delicately into the hot mixture. Flavor with vanilla. Eat cold.

WHIPPED CREAM

To one pint of rich thick cream add one-quarter of a pound of powdered sugar and one-half teaspoon of vanilla.

Put in a large platter in a cool place and whip with a wire egg-whip until perfectly smooth and velvety. Set on ice until wanted. In the summer set the cream on ice before whipping. A good plan is to set the bowl in another one filled with ice while whipping.

DESSERT WITH WHIPPED CREAM

Line the edges of a mold or a large glass dish with lady fingers and fill up with whipped cream. Ornament with macaroons and candied fruit. Serve cold.

AMBROSIA

Cut up into small pieces different kinds of fruit; then chop up nuts and marshmallows (not too fine). Mix these and sugar, not allowing it to draw too much juice. Flavor with sherry, if you like. Serve individually, putting whipped cream on the top with a cherry.

MACAROON ISLAND

Fill a glass bowl with alternate layers of macaroons and lady fingers, sprinkle a layer of finely-chopped nuts over the cake, then a layer of crystallized cherries.

Boil one cup of wine, one cup of sugar and one-half cup of water together until syrupy and thick, pour it over the contents of the bowl, let this cool, then place a thick layer of thickly-whipped sweetened and flavored cream over all. Serve very cold.

PISTACHIO CREAM

Take out the kernels of half a pound of pistachio nuts and pound them in a mortar with one tablespoon of brandy. Put them in a double boiler with a pint of rich cream and add gradually the yolks of three eggs, well beaten. Stir over the fire until it thickens and then pour carefully into a bowl, stirring as you do so and being careful not to crack the bowl. (Put a silver spoon into the bowl before pouring in the cream, as this will prevent it cracking). When cold, stick pieces of the nuts over the cream and serve.

TIPSY PUDDING

Cut stale sponge cake into thin slices, spread with jelly or preserves, put two pieces together like sandwiches and lay each slice or sandwich on the plate on which it is to be served. Wet each piece with wine, pour or spread a tablespoon of rich custard over each piece of pudding, and then frost each piece with a frosting and put in a moderate oven for a few minutes. Eat cold.

APPLE AND LADY-FINGER PUDDING

Core and peel apples, take top off, chop the top with almonds, citron and raisins; butter your pan, fill apples, sugar them and pour over a little wine, bake until tender; when cool add four yolks of eggs beaten with one cup of sugar, then last, add beaten whites and eight lady fingers rolled, and juice of one whole lemon; pour over apples, bake. Eat cold.

FIG DESSERT

Soak two cups white figs overnight. In the morning boil slowly until tender, add two cups of sugar and boil until a thick syrup is formed. Line a dish with sponge cake or lady fingers; pour the figs in the centre and cover with whipped cream that has been sweetened and flavored. Decorate with candied cherries or angelica.

STRAWBERRIES À LA "BRIDGE"

Into a champagne-glass put large strawberries, halved and sugared, and an equal amount of marshmallows halved. Place on top a mass of whipped cream, already sweetened and flavored then a single strawberry, sprinkle with shelled pecans.

QUEEN OF TRIFLES

Make a rich custard of four eggs, one cup of granulated sugar and one quart of milk to which has been added one teaspoon of cornstarch. Let this cook in double boiler, stirring constantly, until the custard is very thick. Cool.

Soak one-half pound of macaroons in sherry wine, blanch and chop one-quarter pound of almonds, cut fine one-quarter pound of dried figs; one-quarter pound of crystallized cherries and one-half pound of lady fingers are required as well.

Line a deep glass bowl with the lady fingers cut in half, add macaroons, fruit and almonds in layers until all are used. Then pour the boiled custard over all. Set on ice and when cold, fill the bowl with whipped cream that has been sweetened and flavored with vanilla. Decorate with a few cherries.

ICE-BOX CAKE

One-half cup of butter creamed with one-half cup of confectioner's sugar, three whole eggs added, one at a time, beat these all for twenty minutes, add one-half pound of chopped nuts, one tablespoon mocha essence or one square of bitter chocolate melted, or one teaspoon of vanilla.

Grease a spring form, put two dozen lady fingers around the edge, at the bottom put one dozen macaroons, then add the filling and let this all stand for twenty-four hours in ice-box. When ready to serve, pour one-half pint of cream, whipped, over all and serve.

AUFLAUF

Boil one cup of milk and when boiling stir in quickly one-half cup of sifted flour and work smooth until all lumps are out and it is the consistency of soft mashed potatoes. Stir all the while over fire. When smooth remove from stove and while yet warm break in, one by one, yolks of three eggs, a pinch of salt, then the beaten whites of three eggs. Bake in well-buttered hot square pans, in very hot oven, from fifteen to twenty minutes. Serve as soon as done with jelly or preserves. If batter is not thick enough a little more flour must be added to the milk.

LEMON PUFFS

Beat the yolks of four eggs until very light, add the stiffly-beaten whites and then stir in two cups of milk, add a pinch of salt, three tablespoons of fresh butter melted, and five level tablespoons of flour that have been wet with a little of the milk from the pint, stir well together and divide equally between cups. Butter the cups before pouring in the mixture. Bake in hot oven until brown (generally twenty minutes). Turn out carefully in the dish in which they are to be served, and pour over them the following:

LEMON SAUCE

Put on to boil one and one-half cups of water with juice of two lemons, sweeten to taste, add a few small pieces of cinnamon bark; when boiling stir in three teaspoons of cornstarch that have been dissolved in a little cold water. Boil a few minutes, then pour over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, stirring all the time. Stir in stiffly-beaten whites of eggs, and pour over and around puffs when cold. Serve cold.

LEAF PUFFS

Cream one cup of butter until soft, add two cups of sifted flour, mix well, and add just enough sweet cream to make a nice dough, not too soft. Roll thin, cut in long strips or squares, bake in long pans in a moderately hot oven. When light brown, draw to the door of the oven, sprinkle with powdered sugar and let stand a few minutes longer in the oven.

SAGO PUDDING WITH STRAWBERRY JUICE

Prepare one cup berry juice and sweeten to taste. Have ready a scant half teacup of sago soaked one hour in water enough to cover. Boil the sago in the fruit juice until thick like jelly. Beat up the whites of two eggs and add to the sago while hot and remove immediately from the stove. Mold and serve with cream or berry juice.

This mold can be made with any kind of fruit juice preferred

APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING

Soak three-quarter cup of tapioca and boil it in one quart of water until clear, sweetening to taste. Pare and core six apples and place them in a baking dish. Fill the cores with sugar, pour the tapioca around them and grate a little nutmeg over the top. Cover and bake until the apples are soft Serve with cream.

RHUBARB PUDDING

Grate some stale rye bread and take a bunch of rhubarb; cut fine without peeling, put the cut rhubarb in a pan with a big pinch of baking-soda, and pour boiling water over to cover. While that is steeping, grate the rye bread and butter pudding-form well, and put crumbs all over the pan about one-quarter inch deep, then add one-half the rhubarb that has been well drained of the water; season with brown sugar, cinnamon, nuts and any other seasoning you like; then some more crumbs, and other one-half of rhubarb, and season as before the top crumbs, put flakes of butter all over top; bake until done.

SCALLOPED PEACHES

Pare a number of peaches and put them whole into a baking-tin, together with layers of bread crumbs and sugar and add a few cloves. Bake until the top is brown. Serve with hot butter sauce or cream.

CHESTNUT PUDDING

Boil one pound of chestnuts fifteen minutes. Shell and skin them, then put back on stove with a cup of milk and boil till tender. Rub through a colander. Butter a mold, line it with the pulp, then add a layer of apple sauce that has been colored with currant jelly, then another layer of chestnuts, and again apple sauce. Squeeze lemon juice over all, and bake in a moderate oven. Turn out on a platter and serve with whipped cream colored with currant jelly.

FARINA PUDDING WITH PEACHES

To one quart of milk add one-half cup of farina, salt, and a small piece of butter. Boil in a double boiler until thick. Beat the yolks of four eggs with four tablespoons of white sugar, and add this just before taking off the fire. Stir it thoroughly, but do not let it boil any more. Flavor with vanilla. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth with pulverized sugar. After the eggs have been whipped, butter a pudding dish, put in part of the custard, in which you have mixed the whites (If you have any extra whites of eggs beat and use them also), then a layer of stewed or canned peaches; cover with the remaining custard and bake. Eat with rum sauce.

FARINA PUDDING, No. 2

One and one-half pints of milk with nine level tablespoons of sugar, five bitter and five sweet almonds chopped fine, brought to boiling point, and twelve level tablespoons of farina dropped in slowly and stirred constantly. Cook for twelve minutes, add vanilla to taste, then add slowly the beaten whites of five eggs. Put it in a form and when cold serve with a fruit sauce.

RICE PUDDING

To three cups of milk, add half a cup of rice, which you have previously scalded with hot water. Boil in a double boiler until quite soft. Beat the yolks of three eggs with three tablespoons of white sugar, add this just before taking it off the fire. Stir it thoroughly with a wooden spoon, but do not let it boil any more. Add salt to the rice while boiling, and flavor with vanilla. Beat the whites of the eggs with powdered sugar to a stiff froth, and after putting the custard into the pudding dish in which you wish to serve it, spread with the beaten whites and let it brown slightly in the oven.

PRUNE PUDDING

Take one quart of milk, one teaspoon of salt, one cup of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Heat this and then pour in slowly one cup of cream of wheat or farina, stirring constantly. Boil fifteen minutes; then butter a deep pudding dish and put in a layer of stewed prunes—that have been cut up in small pieces with a scissors; on the bottom, over this, pour a layer of the above, alternating in this order until all has been used. Bake ten minutes in a hot oven. Plain cream, not whipped or sweetened, is a delicious sauce for this.

BROWN BETTY

Pare, quarter, core and slice four medium-sized apples. Melt one-quarter cup of butter and pour it with the juice of half a lemon over one cup of bread crumbs. Mix one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, grated rind of one-half lemon and one-quarter cup of sugar together. Butter a baking dish; put in alternate layers of apple and bread crumbs, sprinkling the apples with the sugar mixture, and making the last layer of crumbs. Pour one-quarter cup of boiling water on before adding the last layer of crumbs; cover and bake for thirty minutes or until the apples are soft; then uncover and brown the crumbs. Serve with cream or with soft custard or lemon sauce. If desired for a meat meal, substitute chicken-fat for butter and use lemon sauce.

APPLE AND HONEY PUDDING

Take four cups of raw apples cut in small pieces, two cups of bread crumbs, one-half cup of hot water, two teaspoons of butter, two teaspoons of cinnamon, one-half cup of honey. Put a layer of the apple in a well-buttered pudding dish; then a layer of crumbs. Mix the honey and hot water. Pour part of this over the crumbs, sprinkle with cinnamon and dot with a few bits of butter. Fill the dish with alternate layers of apples, crumbs, honey, etc., having a layer of crumbs on top. Cover and bake forty-five minutes. Serve with cream.

QUEEN BREAD PUDDING

Take one cup of grated bread crumbs, soak it in one pint of sweet milk; then break three eggs; separate the whites, add to the yolks one cup of sugar and a small piece of butter; beat it well, and squeeze the bread crumbs out of the milk, and add this to the yolks and flavor with vanilla. Grease the pans with butter, put the mixture in the pan, and pour the milk over it; set in the oven to bake until nearly dry, then add a layer of fresh fruit (apricots or peaches are the best or strawberry preserves); add the whites of eggs that were beaten stiff. Serve cold with cream or milk. This can also be served hot.

BREAD PUDDING

Soak one and one-half cups of bread crumbs in a pint of sweet milk for half an hour; separate the whites and yolks of two eggs, setting the whites in a cool place until needed. Beat the yolks with a half cup of sugar and add the grated peel of one lemon and stir into the bread crumbs. Put in some raisins and pour into a greased pudding dish and bake in a moderate oven, about half an hour. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, adding half a cup of powdered sugar; and spread this on top of pudding and return to the oven and brown delicately. May be eaten hot or cold, with jelly sauce or whipped cream. Stale cake of any kind may be used instead of bread; and ginger bread also is particularly nice, adding raisins and citron, and spreading a layer of jelly on the pudding before putting on the icing.

CORNMEAL PUDDING

Bring one pint of milk to the boiling point; pour it gradually on one-half cup of Indian meal, stirring all the while to prevent lumps. When cool add three eggs well beaten, and one tablespoon of flour, one-half cup of sugar, one-half teaspoon of ginger, one teaspoon of cinnamon, pinch of salt and one pint cold milk. Pour into battered pudding dish and bake an hour and a half. Serve with hot maple sugar or cream.

BLACK BREAD PUDDING

Yolks of three eggs beaten with one cup of sugar; add one teaspoon of cinnamon, pinch of cloves, and pinch of allspice; one cup of stale rye bread crumbs added gradually. Mix well and add beaten whites. Bake slowly. Half an hour before serving, add one cup of claret or white wine. Serve with sherry wine sauce or whipped cream.

DIMPES DAMPES (APPLE SLUMP)

Mix one-half cup of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, two cups of flour and gradually two cups of milk to make a smooth batter.

Melt one-half cup or a little less of butter in a large shallow dripping-pan and let it spread all over the pan to grease it well, then pour one-half cup of butter and one quart of sliced apples to the batter. Mix and pour into pan or pans not more than three-quarters of an inch deep and bake in a moderate oven, thirty to forty-five minutes, until a golden brown. This quantity serves ten people.

BIRD'S NEST PUDDING

Pare four or five large tart apples and cut off the top of each apple to use as a cover. Now scrape out all the inside, being careful not to break the apples; mix scrapings with sugar, cinnamon, raisins, a few pounded almonds and add a little white wine and the grated peel of one lemon. Fill up the apples with this mixture and put back the top of each apple, so as to cover each well. Grease a deep dish, set in the apples and stew a few minutes. In the meantime make a sponge cake batter of four eggs, one cup of pulverized sugar, one cup of flour and pour over the apples and bake one-half hour. Eat warm or cold, with or without sauce.

Plain baked apples can be substituted for the filled apples.

SUET PUDDING WITH PEARS

Take half a pound of suet and chop it to a powder. Soak a loaf of stale bread, squeeze out the water and add to the suet. Work bread and suet well with your hands and add two eggs, one cup of sugar, one teaspoon, of salt, allspice, cloves, cinnamon and grated peel of a lemon. Add flour enough to work into a huge ball; sift two teaspoons of baking-powder in flour. Pare about half a peck of cooking pears and cut in halves, leaving the stems on. Lay half the pears in a large kettle, put the pudding in centre of the pears, and lay the rest of the pears all around. Add sugar, sliced lemon, a few cloves, some cinnamon bark and three tablespoons of syrup. Fill up with cold water and boil half an hour on top of stove. Then bake for at least three hours, adding water if needed.

CORN PUDDING

Scrape with a knife six ears of green corn, cutting each row through the middle. Add two cups of milk, one-half cup of butter, three eggs—the whites and yolks beaten separately—a little salt and white pepper. Stir the yolks into the milk and corn, pour into a baking dish, stir in the whites and bake one and one-half hours.

CHERRY PUDDING

Scald a pint of crackers or bread crumbs in a quart of boiling milk; add a piece of butter the size of an egg, a good pinch of salt, four eggs, a cup and a half of sugar, a little ground cinnamon and a quart of stoned cherries. Bake in quick oven.

HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING

Sprinkle four tablespoons of flour over one and one-half pints huckleberries and set aside for half an hour. Soak one pint crumbed bread in one quart milk; add three tablespoons of sugar, pinch of salt, and the huckleberries. Put all into a greased pudding dish with flakes of butter on top. Bake forty-five minutes. Serve with hard sauce.

PUDDING À LA GRANDE BELLE

This pudding is economical and dainty if nicely made. Brush small molds with butter, fill with crumbed bread and dried English currants. Beat three eggs without separating, add one pint of milk and four tablespoons of sugar. Pour carefully over the bread and let stand five minutes. Place molds in baking-pan of boiling water and bake in the oven thirty minutes, or steam half an hour. Serve with liquid pudding sauce.

*STEAMED PUDDINGS*

The tin molds are best for this purpose, either melon, round, or brick. If the mold is buttered first, then sprinkled with granulated sugar, a nice crust will form. Have a large, deep pan filled with boiling water. Place mold in, let water come up to rim, put a heavy weight on top of mold to keep down, and boil steadily. The pan must be constantly replenished with boiling water, if the pudding is to be done in time. Always place paper in top of mold to prevent water from penetrating. When puddings are boiled in bags, a plate must be placed in bottom of pan to prevent burning. Only certain puddings can be boiled in bags. Always grease inside of bag, so puddings will slip out easily. A bag made of two thicknesses of cheese-cloth, stitched together, will do. Always leave room in mold or bag for pudding to rise, using a smaller or larger mold according to quantity of pudding. If not boiled steadily, and emptied as soon as done, puddings will fall and stick.

ALMOND PUDDING

Beat the yolks of four eggs very light with one-half cup of sugar; then add one-half cup of grated walnuts or almonds, one-half cup of grated white bread crumbs, then the stiffly-beaten whites of four eggs. Put in pudding form and steam from one and one-half to two hours. Serve with wine or fruit sauce.

RYE BREAD PUDDING

Dry one-half cup of rye bread crumbs in oven. Beat the yolks of four eggs very light with one-half cup of sugar, then add a pinch of cloves and allspice, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, grated rind of one-half lemon and one-quarter pound of chopped almonds. Moisten crumbs with three tablespoons of whiskey or brandy, add to eggs, then add stiffly-beaten whites of four eggs. Put in mold and boil three hours. Serve with a brandy or whiskey sauce.

NAPKIN PUDDING

Soak one-half loaf of stale white bread in water until moist, squeeze perfectly dry. Put in skillet two tablespoons of clear fat or butter, and when hot add bread, and stir until smooth and dry. Beat five eggs light with one cup of sugar, stir bread in, mix well, and flavor with rind (grated) and juice of one lemon. Grease a bag or very large napkin, place pudding in this, tie, leaving plenty room to rise, place in boiling water and boil two hours. Make a jelly sauce, not as thin as usual, and pour over just before serving. If desired one-half cup of currants can be added to pudding.

STEAMED BERRY PUDDING

Take one tablespoon of butter (or other shortening), one-quarter cup of sugar, yolk of one egg, one-half cup of milk, one cup of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, one-half cup of berries or pitted cherries rolled in flour. Put in a well-greased melon mold and cook in boiling water steadily for two hours. Serve with hard sauce.

CARROT PUDDING

Take one cup of sugar, one-third cup of butter, one cup of grated carrots, one cup of grated potatoes, one cup of raisins, one cup of currants, two cups of bread crumbs, one-half teaspoon of baking-soda stirred in the potatoes, one teaspoon each of cloves, cinnamon, and allspice. Mix all these and add a little syrup and four tablespoons of whiskey. Steam four hours. Serve with hard sauce.

CHERRY PUDDING

Grate one-half pound of stale rye bread and wet this with a wineglass of red wine. Pound two tablespoons of almonds, stir the yolks of four eggs with half a cup of powdered sugar, flavor with cinnamon, and add the grated bread and almonds. Stone one-half pound each of sweet and sour cherries. Mix all thoroughly with the beaten whites added last. Do not take the juice of the cherries. Butter the pudding mold well before you put in the mixture. To be eaten cold.

DATE PUDDING

Melt three tablespoons of butter, add one-half cup of molasses, one-half cup of milk, one and two-third cups of flour sifted with one-half teaspoon of baking-soda, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, one-quarter teaspoon each of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg. Add to the above one-half pound of dates, stoned and cut. Turn into a well-buttered mold. Butter the cover also and steam two and one-half hours. Keep at a steady boil. Serve with any kind of sauce.

PRINCE ALBERT PUDDING

Rub to a cream half a pound of sweet butter and half a pound of sifted powdered sugar; add the yolks of six eggs, one at a time, and the grated peel of one lemon. Stone half a pound of raisins, and add also a little citron, cut very fine. Now add gradually half a pound of the finest flour, sifted three or four times, and the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Pour this mixture into a well-buttered mold, into which you have strewn some blanched and pounded almonds. Boil fully three hours. Serve with sweet brandy or fruit sauce.

PEACH PUDDING

In a large mixing bowl whip to a cream two eggs, three tablespoons of sugar, and two tablespoons of butter. To this, after it is well beaten, add a saltspoon of salt and half a grated nutmeg. Stir these ingredients well into the mixture; then stir in a cup of milk. Last add, a little at a time—stirring it well in to make a smooth batter—a cup and a half of flour and three-quarters of a cup of Indian meal, which have been sifted together with three teaspoons of baking-powder in another bowl.

Butter well the inside of a two-quart pudding mold; put a layer of the pudding batter an inch deep in the mold; cover this with a layer of fine ripe peaches that have been peeled and cut in quarters or eighths—this depends upon the size of the peaches. Sprinkle the layer of peaches with a light layer of sugar; then pour in a layer of batter; then a layer of peaches. Repeat this process till all the material is in, leaving a layer of batter on top. Steam for two hours.

NOODLE PUDDING

Make noodles with two eggs. Boil in boiling salt water for ten minutes, drains and set aside.

Beat the yolks of four eggs with one cup of powdered sugar until light, add a quarter of a cup of pounded almonds, a pinch of salt, the drained noodles, and the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Mix well, pour into a greased pudding mold, and boil one and one-half hours.

PRUNE PUDDING

Take the yolks of four eggs, a cup of granulated sugar, and stir to a cream. Chop fine thirty prunes (prunes being boiled without sugar), and add two tablespoons of sweet chocolate, two tablespoons of grated almonds, and the whites, which have been beaten to a snow. Boil two and one-half hours in a pudding form and serve with whipped cream.

PLUM PUDDING (FOR THANKSGIVING DAY)

Soak a small loaf of bread; press out every drop of water, work into this one cup of suet shaved very fine, the yolks of six eggs, one cup of currants, one cup of raisins seeded, one-half cup of citron shredded fine, three-quarters cup of syrup, one wineglass of brandy, one cup of sifted flour and the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs last. Boil four hours in greased melon mold.

PLUM PUDDING, No. 2

Chop a half box of raisins and currants, one-quarter pound of citron, one-quarter pound of suet (chopped very fine), two eggs, one and one-half cups of sugar, a wineglass of brandy, two cups of cider, one teaspoon of cinnamon and ground cloves. When all these are well mixed add enough flour (with a teaspoon of baking-powder in it) to thicken well. Cook in a greased mold and allow to steam for three hours.

HONEY PUDDING

Mix one-half cup of honey with six ounces of bread crumbs and add one-half cup of milk, one-half teaspoon of ginger, grated rind of half a lemon and yolks of two eggs. Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add two tablespoons of butter and the whites of the eggs well beaten. Steam for about two hours in a pudding mold which is not more than three-quarters full.

*PUDDING SAUCES*

BRANDY SAUCE

Take one cup of water, a quarter glass of brandy, one cup of sugar, juice of half a lemon. Boil all in double boiler. Beat the yolks of two eggs light, and add the boiling sauce gradually to them, stirring constantly until thick.

CARAMEL SAUCE

Put one cup cut loaf sugar in a saucepan on the stove without adding a drop of water. Let it melt slowly and get a nice brown without burning.

Beat the yolks of three eggs until light, stir in two cups of sweet milk, and when the sugar is melted, stir all into the saucepan and continue stirring until the sugar is dissolved and the sauce is somewhat thickened; then remove from the fire, add one teaspoon of vanilla essence, put in a bowl and put the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs on top. Serve with puddings, cakes or fritters.

CHOCOLATE SAUCE, No. 1

Dissolve one-half pound chocolate in one cup of water and sugar to taste, boil somewhat thick and flavor with vanilla.

CHOCOLATE SAUCE, No. 2

Scald two cups of milk, add two tablespoons of cornstarch diluted with one-half cup of cold milk, and cook ten minutes over boiling water. Melt three squares of chocolate over hot water, add three tablespoons of sugar and three tablespoons of hot water; stir until smooth, then add to cooked mixture. Beat the whites of three eggs until stiff, add three-fourths of a cup of powdered sugar; add the yolks and stir into cooked mixture; cool and add vanilla.

FOAM SAUCE

Cream one-quarter cup of butter with one cup of powdered sugar, until very light. Add separately the unbeaten whites of two eggs, stirring briskly and beat again. Add one teaspoon of vanilla and one-half cup of hot water. Pour in sauceboat, and place boat in a pan of boiling water on stove, until it becomes frothy then serve immediately.

FRUIT SAUCES

Wash the fruit well, then put on the stove in a saucepan without adding any more water. Cover with a lid, and let the fruit get thoroughly heated all through until it comes to a boil, but do not boil it. Stir occasionally.

When well heated, mash the fruit well with a wooden potato masher, then strain through a fine sieve, being careful to get every drop of substance from the fruit.

Sweeten the juice with sugar to taste, add a few drops of wine or lemon juice, put back on the stove, and cook until it thickens, stirring occasionally. Serve with cake, fritters or puddings.

Blackberries, strawberries or raspberries, make a nice sauce.

HARD SAUCE

Take one cup of sugar, one-half cup of sweet butter and stir to a cream. Flavor with grated lemon peel or essence of lemon. Make into any shape desired and serve.

JELLY SAUCE

Take thin jelly, add one cup boiling water and brandy or wine (one-half cup), add a little more sugar and thicken with one teaspoon cornstarch dissolved in a little cold water. The beaten white of egg may be added.

KIRSCH SAUCE

Put one cup of sugar and two cups of water on to boil. Mix two tablespoons of cornstarch in one-quarter cup of cold water, and when the water in the saucepan is boiling, add cornstarch and stir for two minutes. Remove from stove and add one cup of Kirsch wine and stir again. Strain and serve with pudding.

LEMON SAUCE, No. 1

Boil one cup of sugar with one-half cup of water, rind of one lemon, juice of two, and one-half teaspoon of butter. When boiling stir in a scant teaspoon of cornstarch dissolved in a little cold water. Serve hot. Serve with puddings or fritters.

LEMON SAUCE, No. 2

Boil the strained juice of two lemons and the grated peel of one with a cup of sugar and one glass of white wine or water. When boiled to a syrup add the yolks of three eggs well beaten, also half of the whites beaten to a froth. Use the other half of the stiffly-beaten whites, sweetened with powdered sugar, to decorate the sauce. Serve immediately.

PRUNE SAUCE

Take about one pound of Turkish prunes, wash them in hot water, and put on to boil in cold water. Boil until they are very soft. Remove the pits or kernels, and strain over them the water they were boiled in, sweeten to taste. Flavor with ground cinnamon, then mash them until a soft mush. If too thick, add the juice of an orange.

WINE SAUCE, No. 1

Take one-half cup of white wine and one and one-half cups of water, put on to boil in double boiler and in the meantime beat up the yolks of two eggs very light, with two teaspoons of white sugar, some grated nutmeg or three small pieces of cinnamon bark, or the grated rind of half a lemon, and add a teaspoon of flour to this gradually. When perfectly smooth add the boiling wine, pouring very little at a time and stirring constantly. Return to boiler and stir until the spoon is coated.

WINE SAUCE, No. 2

Melt one tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, stir in one tablespoon of flour, then add one-half cup of cold water, stirring constantly until smooth. Then add one cup of white wine, one ounce of chopped citron. Remove from fire, let cool, flavor with one teaspoon each of pistache and vanilla. If desired, one teaspoon of red Curaçao or Maraschino liquor can be added for flavoring.

VANILLA OR CREAM SAUCE

Mix one teaspoon cornstarch and one tablespoon of sugar thoroughly; on them slowly pour one cup of scalding milk, stirring all the time. Cook and stir in a double boiler for ten minutes; then set aside to cool. When ready to use stir in one teaspoon of vanilla and the white of one egg, stiffly beaten. Serve in place of whipped cream.

*FROZEN DESSERTS*

In making frozen desserts attention to detail is the essential thing to perfect success.

PREPARING SALT

The smaller the ice is broken the better, while the salt should never be too fine. A salt prepared especially for the purpose is known as "ice cream salt." This salt and the finely broken ice are put in alternate layers about the cream can. Begin with a layer of ice, making this about three inches deep. Then put in a layer of salt about an inch in depth, and continue in this way up to the top of the cream can. The ice can be put in a gunny sack and then broken up with a heavy hammer or hatchet.

FREEZING CREAMS AND WATER ICES

Fill the cream can three-fourths full. Cover; place in wooden bucket; adjust the top and pack, as directed above. Turn crank slowly and steadily. After freezing drain off water, remove dasher; with a spoon pack hard. Put cork in top of lid. Repack freezer. Cover top with heavy pieces of carpet and paper. When time comes to serve, wipe top of can carefully before opening. In very hot weather renew the salt and ice three times, and keep the blanket cold and wet with the brine from the freezer.

VANILLA ICE CREAM, No. 1

Take one pint of milk, two cups of sugar, one large tablespoon of flour rubbed smooth in cold milk, two eggs beaten light, one teaspoon of vanilla extract, and one quart of sweet cream, well beaten. Heat the milk in a double boiler, and when it is at boiling point add the flour, eggs and one cup of sugar. Cook about twenty minutes, stirring very often. Let the mixture get cold, then add the remaining sugar and the vanilla and cream, and freeze. A more novel flavoring is made with a mixture of vanilla, lemon and almond extracts. The quantities given in this recipe make about two quarts of ice cream.

VANILLA ICE CREAM, No. 2

Beat three whole eggs very light with one cup of granulated sugar until all grain is dissolved and mass is a light yellowish color. Whip one pint of cream until stiff, add to eggs and sugar, then add one cup of sweet milk, flavor with vanilla to taste, and put in freezer and turn until hard. This is a basis for almost any kind of cream.

CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM, No. 1

Make same as Vanilla Ice Cream, No. 2, only omitting the milk. Dissolve on stove one-half pound of sweet chocolate, in one cup of sweet milk, rub smooth and thick, let get cold, and add to the eggs, just before putting in cream. Flavor with vanilla.

CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM, No. 2

Take one quart of cream, one pint of new milk, two eggs, one teacup of grated chocolate (double vanilla), two cups of pulverized sugar, one teaspoon of cornstarch and one of extract of vanilla. Beat the yolks of the eggs, sugar and let them come to a boil. Then take them quickly from the fire, dissolve the chocolate in a little milk over the fire, stir it all the time. When smooth mix with the milk and eggs, add the cream and vanilla. Freeze when cold.

COFFEE ICE CREAM

Make same as Vanilla Ice Cream No. 2. Flavor with one and one-half tablespoons of mocha extract, add one cup of grated walnuts. Freeze.

FROZEN CUSTARD

One quart of milk, yolk of five eggs, sweeten to taste, and flavor with vanilla to taste. Boil the milk first, and after the yolks of eggs are beaten stir into the milk. When cold add the beaten whites and vanilla; put in freezer and turn. Canned strawberries are very nice in this.

APRICOT, PEACH, STRAWBERRY, BANANA OR PINEAPPLE CREAM

Make same as Vanilla Ice Cream No. 2, omitting the milk. If canned fruit is to be used, drain off the juice, and add it to the eggs and cream. Mash the fruit through a sieve, add it to rest of mixture, and freeze the whole. If fresh fruits are used, one pint is required. Mash fine, strain and sweeten before adding to the cream. For peach and strawberry a few drops of pink coloring may be added. Bananas must be mashed smooth, but not sweetened. Chop all fruits very fine For pineapple, the sliced is preferred to the grated. Either canned or fresh can be used.

TUTTI-FRUTTI ICE CREAM

Take three pints of cream, one pound of pulverized sugar and the yolks of nine eggs. Prepare just like the other creams. When half frozen add one-half pound of crystallized fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries, citron, etc., chopped very fine. Put in also a wineglass of pale sherry and the juice of an orange or lemon. Finish freezing.

FROZEN PUDDINGS

For frozen puddings ice must be crushed and mixed with rock-salt, the same way as for freezing cream. Pudding-mold must have a tight cover; have a receptacle sufficiently large to line bottom and sides with a thick layer of mixed salt and ice. Put the mold in the centre, fill with the pudding, cover tightly, then put ice on top and all around. Put a sheet of plain tissue paper in top of mold to prevent salt from penetrating. Cover whole with a cloth and let freeze from three to four hours.

BISCUIT TORTONI, No. 1

Take one-half cup of granulated sugar, one-fourth pound of stale macaroons grated, one-half pint of heavy cream (whipped), three eggs, vanilla or sherry wine. Stir yolks of eggs until thick and add sugar and stir again; add whipped cream, and whipped whites of eggs, and grated macaroons; flavor to taste. Put this all into freezer and pack outside with ice and salt alternately. Do not turn. Let stand five or six hours, adding ice from time to time. When serving put grated macaroons on top.

BISCUIT TORTONI, No. 2

Take yolks of two eggs, one pint of cream, eight macaroons, vanilla and flavor, one-half cup of sugar, one-half cup of milk. Beat yolks of eggs and the sugar very light. Put on milk to a boil, and when it comes to a boil stir into the beaten eggs and sugar and set away to cool. Beat cream and add macaroons, leaving just enough to put in the bottom of your form. When your custard is cool, add cream, put all in forms, pack and freeze two hours or longer.

MOCHA MOUSSE

Cream yolks of three eggs with one-half cup of granulated sugar. Add one-half pint of cream, whipped; one-half cup of grated macaroons, two tablespoons of mocha essence, one teaspoon of vanilla, lastly beaten whites. Put in a mold and pack in salt and ice for three hours.

MAPLE MOUSSE

Whip one pint of cream until quite thick. Break two eggs into another bowl, beat until light and add gradually, one-half cup of maple syrup. When the two are well mixed, whip them gradually into the cream. Pour the whole into a freezer can, without the dasher; cover; pack in ice and salt, and let stand for three hours.

MAPLE BISQUE

Boil one cup of maple syrup until quite thick; beat yolks of three eggs; add to syrup while hot, stirring constantly until well mixed. Let cool. Beat whites of eggs to a froth. Whip one pint of cream, mix all together; add one-half cup of chopped nuts. Have a pudding-mold buttered; see that the edges fit close. Pack in rock salt and ice four hours.

FROZEN CREAM CHEESE WITH PRESERVED FIGS

Take three Neufchatel cheeses. Mash the cheese to a smooth paste and add one-half cup of thick cream, one-half teaspoon of salt, one rounding teaspoon of sugar. Place in a small square mold, bury in salt and ice and let stand several hours. When ready to serve unmold, cut in squares, place each on a lettuce leaf, decorate the centre of the cheese square with a preserved fig and serve at once.

RUM PUDDING

Beat yolks of two eggs with one-half cup of sugar until light, then add stiffly-beaten whites. Flavor with one tablespoon of rum. Whip one pint of cream very stiff, stir into beaten eggs. Line a melon mold with lady fingers, split in half. Then put a layer of whipped cream over. Chop one-half pound of marron glacé fine and sprinkle some over cream. Put another layer of lady fingers, cream and marrons, and so on until mold is filled. Close tightly, and pack in rock salt and ice, from three to four hours.

CHERRY DIPLOMATE

Line a mold with white cake, thinly sliced, which you have previously dipped in maraschino or some other fine brandy. Then fill in with plain white ice-cream, then a layer of cherry ice, next a layer of candied cherries, next a layer of cherry-ice then a layer of strawberry ice-cream or the plain white vanilla. Finish it up with a layer of cake again and be sure to dip the cake in maraschino. Cover all up tight and pack in ice until wanted.

NESSELRODE PUDDING

Put on one-half pound of shelled and skinned chestnuts in cold water, and let them boil until very tender, then press them through a purée sieve. Beat the yolks of five eggs with one-half pound of sugar until light, then add the mashed chestnuts, then stir in one pint of sweet cream. Put on to boil in a double boiler, add a few grains of salt, and stir until the mixture begins to boil, then remove at once from fire and set aside to cool. In a bowl put one-fourth pound of crystallized cherries, cut in half; one-fourth pound of crystallized pineapple cut up, one ounce of citron cut fine, one-fourth cup of stoned raisins and one-half cup of maraschino cordial. Put the chestnut cream in a freezer, freeze ten minutes, then add one pint cream that has been whipped stiff with two tablespoons of powdered sugar, turn until it begins to get stiff, then add the fruits and turn awhile longer. Pack in a pudding-mold in rock salt and ice two hours.

CANNED FRUIT FROZEN

Without opening, pack a can of pears in ice and salt, as for ice-cream. Let it remain for three or four hours. When taken out, cut the can open around the middle. If frozen very hard, wrap around with a towel dipped in hot water; the contents can then be clipped out in perfect rounds. Cut into slices and serve with a spoonful of whipped cream on each slice. This will serve six or eight persons.

Canned peaches may be used if desired.

PETER PAN DESSERT

Cut a banana in four strips, cross two over two in basket-shape, fill centre square with a tablespoon of ice-cream and sprinkle over all some chopped walnuts, pistachio nuts and marshmallows, cut in strips.

FRUIT SHERBETS

There is no form in which ices are more palatable or healthful than in the form of sherbet. This is made of fruit juice, sugar and water. The simplest sherbet is made by mixing the sugar, water and fruit juice together. A richer and smoother ice is obtained by boiling the sugar and water together, then adding the fruit juice, and when the mixture is cool, freezing it. It takes nearly twice as long to freeze the preparation made in this way as when made with the uncooked mixture.

Sherbets are usually served at the end of a dinner, but they are sometimes served before the roast.

APRICOT ICE

Pare and grate one dozen apricots, and blanch a few of the kernels. Then pound them and add to the grated fruit. Pour a pint of water over them, adding the juice of a lemon also. Let them stand for an hour and strain, adding one-half pound of sugar just before freezing.

LEMON ICE

Take six large, juicy lemons and grate peel of three lemons; two oranges, juice of both, and peel of one; squeeze out every drop of juice and steep the grated peel of lemon and orange in juice for an hour. Strain and mix in one pint of sugar. Stir until dissolved and freeze.

LEMON GINGER SHERBET

Shave very thin bits of the yellow peel from two lemons, being careful not to get any of the white. Cut eight lemons (using the first two) into halves, extract seeds and press out the juice. Cut one-fourth pound of ginger in strips. Boil until clear, four cups of sugar, two quarts of boiling water, ginger and shaved lemon peel. Add lemon juice and strain through a cheese-cloth. Freeze until thick and add the stiff-beaten whites of two eggs. Mix well; finish freezing, and pack.

ORANGE ICE

Make a syrup of two cups of sugar and four cups of water. Boil fifteen minutes and add two cups of orange juice, one-half cup of lemon juice and the grated rind of one orange and one lemon. Freeze and serve in glasses.

PINEAPPLE ICE

Make a syrup of four cups of water, two cups of sugar and boil fifteen minutes. Add one can grated pineapple and juice of six lemons. Cool and add four cups of ice-water. Freeze until mushy, using half ice and half salt.

PUNCH ICES

To the juice of two lemons take three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, two or three tablespoons of rum and one pint of water. Rub the rind of the lemons onto the sugar, then boil the sugar and water together for fifteen minutes, add the lemon juice and rum, mix well, strain, and set aside to cool. Then put the mixture into the freezing can and freeze till set.

RASPBERRY ICE

Make a strong lemonade, add raspberry juice to taste, and some grated pineapple. Put into freezer and turn like ice cream and pack, and let stand five hours.

WATERMELON SHERBET

Take good, pale sherry and boil down to quite a thick syrup, with loaf sugar; and then allow to cool. When cold mix with the chopped meat of a very fine, sweet melon, use only the heart of the soft red part, not any near the white rind. Freeze in a freezer as you would ice, but do not allow it to get too hard. Serve in glasses. You may use claret instead of the sherry. If you do, spice it while boiling with whole spices, such as cloves and cinnamon. Strain before adding to the melon.

CAFÉ À LA GLACÉ

Take five tablespoons of fresh-roasted and ground coffee. Pour four cups of boiling water over it; cover quickly and put on the back of the stove, and add one-half pound of sugar. When cold, press through a sieve, and fill in the can to be frozen. Let it remain in freezer five minutes longer before you begin to turn the freezer. Serve in glasses, and put sweetened whipped cream on the top.

*CANDIES AND SWEETS*

WHITE FONDANT

Used as a foundation for all cream candies.

Put two and one-half cups of granulated sugar in a saucepan, add three-fourths cup of hot water and one-half saltspoon of tartar. Stir until sugar is dissolved, but no longer. Boil without stirring until, when tried in cold water, it will form a soft ball. Wash down the edges of the pan with the finger first dipped in cold water, as the sugar boils up. Pour slowly on greased pan or marble slab. Cool slightly; beat with a wooden spoon until white and creamy. As soon as large lumps appear, it should be kneaded with the hands until smooth. Place in bowl and cover with waxed paper, let it stand overnight in a cool place. If covered and kept in a cool place this will keep for days. Form into bonbons, color and flavor any desired way; dip in melted chocolate, to which has been added a small piece of wax or paraffine. In fact the bonbons may be used in any desired way.

DIVINITY

Boil two cups of granulated sugar, one-half cup of corn syrup and one-half cup of water until it will thread. Beat into the stiff whites of two eggs; add one cup of nuts. Beat until cool and thick. Pour out, cool, and when set, cut into squares.

FUDGE

Boil together two cups of granulated sugar, one-eighth teaspoon of salt and one cup of milk or cream, until when tried in cold water, it will form a soft ball (about eight minutes). Add one-half a cake of Baker's chocolate, two tablespoons of butter and one teaspoon of vanilla. Beat until smooth and creamy; pour into greased pans; cool and cut in squares.

PINOCHE

Take one cup of (packed) medium brown sugar, one-quarter cup of cream, one-third cup of nut meats, one-quarter pound pecans, weighed in shell, and one-third pound hickory in shell. Cook sugar and cream to soft ball test. Cool until you can bear your hand on bottom of pan. Stir until it begins to thicken, add chopped nuts; and when it is too thick to pour easily, spread quickly on a buttered pan, cut in squares and cool.

FRUIT LOAF

Chop coarsely one-half cup of raisins, one-half cup of nuts, one-half cup figs or dates, add enough honey or corn syrup to make a stiff loaf, about two tablespoons. Place in ice-box for one hour, slice and serve in place of candy, rolling each slice in cornstarch.

GLACÉ FOR CANDIES

Boil one pound of sugar with one-half pint of water until it ropes; then add one-half cup of vinegar and boil until it hardens. Dip in fruit, orange slices, nuts or green grapes with stems on, and put aside on a buttered platter to set.

ORANGE CHIPS

Can be made after the fruit has been used. Halve, scoop out, then scrape inside; lay the peel in salt water overnight. Make syrup of two cups of sugar and one cup of water. When boiled thick, cut orange-peel in small strips and drop them into boiling liquid, letting them remain about ten minutes. Remove strips carefully, spreading them on waxed paper to dry.

Grape-fruit rind may be used as well as that of oranges.

CANDIED CHERRIES, PINEAPPLE AND OTHER FRUITS

Boil, but do not stir, one-half pound of loaf sugar in one breakfast cup of water. Pit some cherries, or prepare any desired fruit, and string them on a thread, then dip them in the syrup; suspend them by the thread. When pineapples are used, slice them crosswise and dry them on a sieve or in the open air; oranges should be separated into sections and dried like pineapple.

STUFFED DATES

Make a cut the entire length of dates and remove stones. Fill cavities with English walnuts, blanched almonds, pecans or with a mixture of chopped nuts, and shape in original form. Roll in granulated sugar or powdered sugar and serve on small plate or bonbon dish.

DATES STUFFED WITH GINGER AND NUTS

Remove the stones from choice dates, and chop together equal measures of preserved ginger and blanched nuts chopped, (hickory, pecan, or almond). Mix with fondant or a paste of confectioner's sugar and ginger syrup. Use only enough fondant or paste to hold the ingredients together. With this mixture fill the open space in the dates, cover securely, and roll in granulated sugar.

DATES STUFFED WITH FONDANT

Fill with fondant, letting it project slightly, and insert in it a pecan or half a walnut. Roll in granulated sugar.

STUFFED FIGS

Cut a slit in the side of dried figs, take out some of the pulp with the tip of a teaspoon. Mix with one-fourth cup of the pulp, one-fourth cup of finely-chopped crystallized ginger, a teaspoon of grated orange or lemon rind and a tablespoon of lemon juice. Fill the figs with the mixture, stuffing them so that they look plump.

STUFFED PRUNES

Take one pound of best prunes, stone and soak in sherry for about an hour (do not cover with the wine). Fill prunes with one large browned almond and one-half marshmallow or with another prune, roll in granulated sugar, and when all are finished, put in oven for two or three minutes.

FROSTED CURRANTS

Pick fine, even, large bunches of red currants (not too ripe) and dip each bunch, one at a time, into a mixture of frothed white of egg, then into a thick, boiled sugar syrup. Drain the bunches by laying on a sieve, and when partly dry dip again into the boiled syrup. Repeat the process a third time; then sprinkle powdered sugar over them and lay on a sheet of paper in a slightly warm oven to dry. Used on extra occasions for ornamenting charlottes, cakes, creams, etc.

*BEVERAGES*

All drinks contain a large proportion of water which is the beverage nature has provided for man. Water for hot drinks should be freshly boiled, freshly drawn water should be used for cold drinks.

COFFEE

Coffee should be bought in small quantities and kept in air-tight cans, and freshly ground as needed. To have perfect coffee, use an earthen or china pot, and have the water boiling when turned onto the coffee. Like tea, the results will not be right if the water is allowed to fall below the boiling point before it is used. Have the coffee ground to a fine powder in order to get its full flavor as well as strength.

BOILED COFFEE

Allow one tablespoon of coffee to each cup of boiling water. Mix coffee with two tablespoons of cold water. Clean egg shells and put in the pot. Allow this to come to a boil and add boiling water, bring to a boil and boil for one minute; add a tablespoon of cold water to assist the grounds in settling. Stand the pot where it will keep hot, but not boil, for five minutes; then serve at once, as coffee allowed to stand becomes flat and loses its aroma. Most cooks use a clean shell or a little of the white of an egg if they do not use the whole. Others beat the whole egg, with a little water, but use only a part of it, keeping the rest for further use in a covered glass in the ice-chest. Cream is usually served with coffee, but scalded milk renders the coffee more digestible than does cream. Fill the cup one-fourth full of hot scalded milk; pour on the freshly made coffee, adding sugar.

FILTERED COFFEE

Place one cup of finely ground coffee in the strainer of the percolator; place the strainer in the pot and place over the heat. Add gradually six cups of boiling water and allow it to filter. Serve at once.

TURKISH COFFEE

For making this the coffee must be pulverized, and it should be made over an alcohol lamp with a little brass Turkish pot. Measure into your pot as many after-dinner coffee cups of water as you wish cups of coffee. Bring the water to a boil and drop a heaping teaspoon of the powdered coffee to each cup on top of the water and allow it to settle. Add one, two or three coffeespoons of powdered sugar, as desired. Put the pot again over the flame; bring the coffee to a boil three times, and pour into the cups. The grounds of the coffee are of course thick in the liquid, so one lets the coffee stand a moment in the cup before drinking.

FRENCH COFFEE

Have your coffee ground very fine and use a French drip coffee-pot. Instead of pouring through water, pour milk through, brought just to the boiling point. The milk passes through slowly, and care must be taken not to let scum form on the milk.

COFFEE FOR TWENTY PEOPLE

Add and mix one pound of coffee finely ground, with one egg and enough cold water to thoroughly moisten it, cover and let stand several hours. Place in thin bag and drop in seven quarts of boiling water. Boil five minutes, let stand ten minutes. Add cream to coffee and serve.

After-dinner coffee is made double the strength of boiled coffee and is served without cream or milk.

BREAKFAST COCOA

Mix two tablespoons prepared cocoa with two tablespoons of sugar and a few grains of salt, dilute with one-half cup of boiling water to make a smooth paste, then add one-half cup of boiling water and boil five minutes, turn into three cups of scalded milk and beat two minutes, using Dover beater and serve.

RECEPTION COCOA

Stir one cup of boiling water gradually onto two tablespoons of cocoa, two tablespoons of sugar and one teaspoon of cornstarch, a few grains of salt (that have been well mixed) in a saucepan; let boil five minutes, stirring constantly. Heat three cups of milk in a double boiler, add the cocoa mixture and one-half teaspoon of vanilla; beat with egg-beater until foamy and serve hot in chocolate cups, with a tablespoon of whipped cream on top of each cup, or take the cheaper marshmallows, place two in each cup and fill cups two-thirds full of hot cocoa.

HOT CHOCOLATE

Scrape two ounces of unsweetened chocolate very fine, add three tablespoons of sugar, small piece of stick cinnamon and one cup of boiling water; stir over moderate heat until smooth, then add three cups of hot milk. Return to the fire for a minute, do not let it boil, remove, add one teaspoon of vanilla. Beat with an egg-beater and serve.

CHOCOLATE SYRUP

Dissolve two cups of sugar in one cup of water and boil five minutes.
Mix one cup of cocoa with one cup of water and add to the boiling syrup.
Boil slowly for ten minutes, add salt; cool and bottle for further use.
This syrup will keep a long time in the ice-chest in summer and may be
used for making delicious drinks.

CHOCOLATE NECTAR

Put into a glass two tablespoons of chocolate syrup, a little cream or milk and chopped ice, and fill up the glass with soda water, apollinaris, or milk. Drop a little whipped cream on top.

ICED CHOCOLATE

Follow recipe for boiled chocolate, but do not beat, add one egg, finely chopped ice and three-fourths cup of milk, put in a bowl and beat thoroughly with a Dover beater or pour into jar with cover and shake thoroughly. Serve in tall glasses.

ICED COFFEE

Take boiled coffee, strain, add sugar to taste and chill. When ready to serve, add one quart of coffee, one-half cup of cream and pour in pitcher. Serve in tall glasses. Have ready a small bowl of whipped cream and, if desired, place a tablespoon on top of each glass.

TEA

Scald the tea-pot. Allow one teaspoon of tea to each person, and one extra. When the water boils, pour off the water with which the pot was scalded, put in the tea, and pour boiling water over it. Let it draw three minutes. Tea should never be allowed to remain on the leaves. If not drunk as soon as it is drawn, it should be poured off into another hot tea-pot, or into a hot jug, which should stand in hot water.

TEA (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Use a small earthenware tea-pot, thoroughly clean. Put in two teaspoons of tea leaves, pour over it boiling water to one-fourth of the pot, and let it stand three minutes. Then fill the pot entirely with boiling water and let it stand five minutes. In serving dilute with warm water to suit taste, or serve cold, but always without milk. A thin slice of lemon or a few drops of lemon juice is allowed for each cup. Preserved strawberries, cherries or raspberries are considered an improvement.

RUSSIAN ICED TEA

Make tea for as many cups as desired, strain and cool. Place in ice-box, chill thoroughly and serve in tall glass with ice and flavor with loaf sugar, one teaspoon of rum or brandy, one slice of lemon or one teaspoon preserved strawberries, raspberries, cherries or pineapple, or loaf sugar may be flavored with lemon or orange and packed and stored in jars to be used later to flavor and sweeten the tea. Wash the rind of lemon or orange and wipe dry, then rub over all sides of the sugar.

HOT WINE (GLUEH)

Mix one quart claret, one pint water, two cups of sugar, one-half teaspoon of whole cloves, one teaspoon of whole cinnamon, lemon rind cut thin and in small pieces. Boil steadily for fifteen minutes and serve hot.

FRUIT DRINKS

The success of lemon-, orange- and pineapple-ades depends upon the way they are made. It is best to make a syrup, using one cup of granulated sugar to one cup of water. Put the sugar in cold water over the fire; stir until the sugar is dissolved; then cook until the syrup spins a fine thread. Take from the fire and add the fruit juices while the syrup is hot. If lemonade is desired, lemon should predominate, but orange or pineapple juice or both should be added to yield the best result. Small pieces of fresh pineapple, fresh strawberries and maraschino cherries added at time of serving will make the drink look pretty and will improve the flavor. Shaved or very finely cracked ice should be used.

PINEAPPLE LEMONADE

Pare and grate a ripe pineapple; add the juice of four lemons and a syrup made by boiling together for a few minutes two cups of sugar and the same quantity of water. Mix and add a quart of water. When quite cold strain and ice. A cherry, in each glass is an agreeable addition, as are a few strawberries or raspberries.

QUICK LEMONADE

Wash two lemons and squeeze the juice; mix thoroughly with four tablespoons of sugar, and when the sugar is dissolved add one quart of water, cracked ice, and a little fresh fruit or slices of lemon if convenient.

If the cracked ice is very finely chopped and put in the glasses just before serving it will make a better-looking lemonade. When wine is used take two-thirds water and one-third wine.

LEMONADE IN LARGE QUANTITIES

Take one dozen lemons, one pound of sugar and one gallon of water to make lemonade for twenty people.

FRUIT PUNCH FOR TWENTY PEOPLE

Take one pineapple, or one can of grated pineapple, one cup of boiling water, two cups of freshly made tea (one heaping tablespoon of Ceylon tea, steep for five minutes); one dozen lemons, three oranges sliced and quartered, one quart bottle apollinaris water, three cups of sugar boiled with one and one-half cups of water six to eight minutes, one quart of water, ice. Grate the pineapple, add the one cup of boiling water, and boil fifteen minutes. Strain through jelly-bag, pressing out all the juice; let cool, and add the lemon and orange juice, the tea and syrup. Add apollinaris water just before serving. Pieces of pineapple, strawberries, mint-leaves or slices of banana are sometimes added as a garnish.

MILK LEMONADE

Dissolve in one quart of boiling water two cups of granulated sugar, add three-fourths of a cup of lemon juice, and lastly, one and a half pints of milk. Drink hot or cold with pounded ice.

EGG LEMONADE

Break two eggs and beat the whites and yolks separately. Mix juice of two lemons, four tablespoons of sugar, four cups of water and ice as for lemonade; add the eggs; pour rapidly back and forth from one pitcher to another and serve before the froth disappears.

MARASCHINO LEMONADE

Take the juice of four lemons, twelve tablespoons of sugar, eight cups of water, one cup of maraschino liquor and a few cherries.

ORANGEADE

Take four large, juicy oranges and six tablespoons of sugar Squeeze the oranges upon the sugar, add a very little water and let them stand for fifteen minutes; strain and add shaved ice and water, and a little lemon juice.

CLABBERED MILK

One of the most healthful drinks in the world is clabbered milk; it is far better in a way for every one than buttermilk for it requires no artificial cult to bring it to perfection. The milk is simply allowed to stand in a warm place in the bottles just as it is bought, and when it reaches the consistency of a rich cream or is more like a jelly the same as is required for cheese, it is ready to drink. Pour it into a glass, seasoning it with a little salt, and drink it in the place of buttermilk.

COLD EGG WINE

To each glass of wine allow one egg, beat up, and add sugar to taste.
Add wine gradually and grated nutmeg. Beat whites separately and mix.

SODA CREAM

Take three pounds of granulated sugar and one and one-half ounces of tartaric acid, both dissolved in one quart of hot water. When cold add the well-beaten whites of three eggs, stirring well. Bottle for use. Put two large spoonfuls of this syrup in a glass of ice-water, and stir in it one-fourth of a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda. Any flavor can be put in this syrup.

MULLED WINE

Put cinnamon and allspice (to taste) in a cup of hot water to steep. Add three eggs well beaten with sugar. Heat to a boil a pint of wine, then add spice and eggs. Stir for three minutes and serve.

STRAWBERRY SHERBET

Crush a quart of ripe strawberries, pour a quart of water over them, and add the juice of two lemons. Let this stand about two hours, then strain over a pound of sugar, stir until the sugar is dissolved, and then set upon ice. You may add one tablespoon of rose-water. Serve with chopped ice.

DELICIOUS AND NOURISHING SUMMER DRINK

Pare thinly the rind of three large lemons, put it into a large jug with one pound of raisins stoned and finely chopped, one pound of sugar, and the juice of the lemons. Add one gallon of boiling water, leave to stand for five days, stirring well every day. Then strain and bottle for use.

SHERRY COBBLER

It is best to mix this in a large bowl and fill in glasses just before serving, and put a little of each kind of fruit in each goblet with pounded ice. To begin with, cut pineapple in slices and quarters, a few oranges and a lemon, sliced thin; one cup of powdered sugar and one tumbler of sherry wine. A few berries, such as black and red raspberries, and blackberries are a nice addition. Cover the fruit with the sugar, laid in layers at the bottom of your bowl with pounded ice; add the wine and twice as much water as wine; stir all up well before serving.

CLARET CUP

Squeeze into a glass pitcher the strained juice of one and one-half lemons, add two tablespoons of powdered sugar, one tablespoon of red curaçao; then pour in three cups of claret, and one cup of apollinaris water. Mix thoroughly, add a few slices of orange or pineapple, or both, and a few maraschino cherries. Cut the rinds from two cucumbers without breaking them, hang them on the inside of the pitcher from the top; drop in a good-sized lump of ice and serve at once in thin glasses. Place a bunch of mint at the top of the pitcher.

CORDIAL

Two quarts of water and two and three-quarter pounds of sugar. Boil thirty minutes. Take off stove and add one quart of alcohol. Color and flavor to taste.

EGG-NOG

Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs. To each yolk add one tablespoon of sugar and beat until very light. Beat whites to a stiff froth. One egg is required for each glass of egg-nog. Add two tablespoons of brandy or rum, then one-half cup of milk or cream to each glass, lastly the whites of the eggs. Pour in glass, put a spoon of whipped cream over and grated nutmeg on top.

UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE

Wash and stem ten pounds of Concord grapes, put them in a preserving kettle and crush slightly. Bring to the boiling point and cook gently for one-half hour. Strain through cheese-cloth or jelly bag, pressing out all the juice possible; return to fire and with two pounds of sugar conk for fifteen minutes; strain again, reheat and pour into sterilized bottles thoroughly heated. Put in sterilized corks and dip the necks of the bottles in hot sealing-wax. If you can get the self-sealing bottles, the work of putting up grape juice will be light. Sterilize bottles and corks.

OTHER FRUIT JUICES

Raspberry, blackberry and strawberry juice may be made by following the recipe for grape juice but doubling the quantity of sugar. For currant juice use four times as much sugar as for grape juice.

FRUIT SYRUPS

Fruit syrups may be made like fruit juices, only using more sugar—at least half as much sugar as fruit juice.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR

Put two quarts of raspberries in a bowl and cover them with two quarts of vinegar; cover and stand in a cool place for two days. Mash the berries; strain the vinegar through cheesecloth; pour it over two quarts of fresh raspberries; let stand for another two days; strain and put in a preserving kettle with sugar, allowing a pound of sugar to a pint of juice. Heat slowly, skimming when the vinegar begins to boil. Boil twenty minutes and put in sterilized bottles. Serve as a drink, using two tablespoons to a glass of water.

BLACKBERRY WINE

Measure your berries and bruise them; to every gallon add one quart of boiling water; let the mixture stand twenty-four hours (stirring occasionally), then strain off all the liquor into a cask; to every gallon add two pounds of sugar; cork tightly and let stand till the following October.

BLACKBERRY CORDIAL

Simmer the berries until they break, then strain and to each quart of juice add one pound of sugar. Let this dissolve by heating slowly, then add one tablespoon each of cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and if desired, allspice. Simmer altogether twenty minutes. Bottle and seal.

CHERRY SYRUP

Mash and pound the cherries until the stones are all broken, then press through a cloth. Use a pound of sugar to a quart of juice; boil, skim and bottle. When cold, seal.

CHERRY BRANDY

To one gallon of brandy allow two quarts of cherries. Mash and pound them until all the stones are broken, put in the brandy and add a pound of cut loaf sugar. Set in the sun for two or three weeks, shake daily, strain and bottle.

CHERRY BOUNCE

The little wild cherry is excellent for this purpose, as the stone kernels contain alcohol. Wash carefully, sugar plentifully, and add whole spice, cloves (with the heads removed) and stick cinnamon. Fewer cloves than the other spices. Get good whiskey and allow one-half as much cherries as whiskey. To a quart bottle allow scant half pint sugared cherries to one and one-half pints of whiskey. Bottle and seal. Let stand at least two months. Open, shake bottle well and taste, and if necessary add more sugar. Seal again, and let stand another month. Is not good under three months and the older it gets the finer it becomes.

CIDER EGG NOG

Break six eggs, put the yolks in one dish, the whites in another. To each yolk add a tablespoon of granulated sugar, beat the yolks and sugar to a foam; then flavor with a little grated nutmeg, stirring it well through the mixture; then add a half pint of hot sweet cider to each egg, beat it well through and pour into a hot punch bowl. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth with a little sugar and cover the surface of the punch. Serve in cups.

TOM AND JERRY (Non-Alcoholic)

Beat six eggs and six tablespoons of sugar to a stiff froth, add four cups of unfermented grape juice and the same amount of sweet cider. Have two porcelain pitchers as hot as possible, pour the mixture into one of them. Then pour the mixture back and forth from one pitcher to the other five or six times, and pour the foaming beverage into hot cups and serve.

HOT MILK PUNCH

Beat one egg to a stiff froth with two tablespoons of sugar; add to it two tablespoons of home-made grape wine; stir all well together, put in a large drinking glass and fill with hot milk. Grate a little nutmeg on the top and serve.

*CANNED FRUITS*

GENERAL RULES

All fruits should, if possible, be freshly picked for preserving, canning, and jelly making. No imperfect fruit should be canned or preserved. Gnarly fruit may be used for jellies or marmalades by cutting out defective portions. Bruised spots should be cut out of peaches and pears. In selecting small-seeded fruits, like berries, for canning, those having a small proportion of seed to pulp should be chosen. In dry seasons berries have a larger proportion of seeds to pulp than in a wet or normal season, and it is not wise to can or preserve such fruit unless the seeds are removed. The fruit should be rubbed through a sieve that is fine enough to keep back the seeds. The strained pulp can be preserved as a purée or marmalade.

When fruit is brought into the house put it where it will keep cool and crisp until you are ready to use it.

Begin by having the kitchen swept and dusted thoroughly, that there need not be a large number of mold spores floating about. Dust with a damp cloth. Have plenty of hot water and pans in which jars and utensils may be sterilized. Have at hand all necessary utensils, towels, sugar, etc.

Prepare only as much fruit as can be cooked while it still retains its color and crispness. Before beginning to pare fruit have some syrup ready, if that is to be used, or if sugar is to be added to the fruit have it weighed or measured.

Decide upon the amount of fruit you will cook at one time, then have two bowls—one for the sugar and one for the fruit—that will hold just the quantity of each. As the fruit is pared or hulled, as the case may be, drop it into its measuring bowl. When the measure is full put the fruit and sugar in the preserving kettle. While this is cooking another measure may be prepared and put in the second preserving kettle. In this way the fruit is cooked quickly and put in the jars and sealed at once, leaving the pans ready to sterilize another set of jars.

The preserving kettle should be porcelain-lined, and no iron or tin utensils should be used, as the fruit acids attack these metals and so give a bad color and metallic taste to the food.

STERILIZING JARS, ETC.

The success of canning depends upon absolute sterilization and not upon the amount of sugar or cooking. Any proportion of sugar may be used, or fruit may be canned without the addition of any sugar.

It is most important that the jars, covers, and rubber rings be in perfect condition. Examine each jar and cover to see that there is no defect in it. Use only fresh rubber rings, for if the rubber is not soft and elastic the sealing will not be perfect. Each year numbers of jars of fruit are lost because of the false economy in using an old ring that has lost its softness and elasticity.

Have two pans partially filled with cold water. Put some jars in one, laying them on their sides, and some covers in the other. Place the pans on the stove where the water will heat to the boiling point. The water should boil at least ten or fifteen minutes. Have on the stove a shallow milk pan in which there is about two inches of boiling water. Sterilize the cups, spoons, and funnel, if you use one, by immersing in boiling water for a few minutes. When ready to put the prepared fruit in the jars slip a broad skimmer under a jar and lift it and drain free of water.

There are several methods of canning; the housekeeper can use that method which is most convenient.

The three easiest and best methods are: Cooking the fruit in jars in an oven; cooking the fruit in jars in boiling water; and stewing the fruit before it is put in the jars.

CANNING FRUIT BAKED IN OVEN

In this method the work is easily and quickly done and the fruit retains its shape, color and flavor. Particularly nice for berries.

Sterilize jars and utensils. Make the syrup; prepare the fruit the same as for cooking. Fill the hot jars with the fruit, drained, and pour in enough hot syrup to fill the jar solidly. Run the handle of a silver spoon around the inside of the jar. Place the hot jars, uncovered, and the covers, in a moderate oven.

Cover the bottom of the oven with a sheet of asbestos, the kind plumbers employ in covering pipes, or put into the oven shallow pans in which there are about two inches of boiling water. Cook berries to the boiling point or until the bubbles in the syrup just rise to the top; cook larger fruits, eight to ten minutes or according to the fruit. Remove from the oven, slip on rubber, first dipped in boiling water; then fill the jar with boiling syrup. Cover and seal. Place the jars on a board and out of a draft of air. If the screw covers are used tighten them after the glass has cooled.

Large fruits, such as peaches, pears, quince, crab-apples, etc., will require about a pint of syrup to each quart jar of fruit. The small fruit will require a little over half a pint of syrup.

BAKED CRANBERRIES OR CHERRY PRESERVES

Pick over, wash and drain four quarts of large, perfect cranberries; or stem and then stone four pounds of large cherries, use a cherry pitter so cherries remain whole. Place a tablespoon of hot water in a jar, then alternately in layers cherries or cranberries and sugar (with sugar on top), cover closely. This amount will require four pounds of sugar. Bake in a very slow oven two hours. Let stand. Then keep in a cool, dry place. The cranberries will look and taste like candied cherries, and may be used for garnishing.

BAKED CRAB-APPLE PRESERVES

Wash, wipe and remove the blossom ends of one-half peck of perfect red Siberian crab-apples. Pour one tablespoon of water in bottom of one gallon stone jar, then place in alternate layers of apples and sugar, using four pounds altogether (with sugar on top). Cover with two thicknesses of Manila paper, tied down securely or with close fitting plate. Bake in a very slow oven (that would only turn the paper a light brown), two or three hours; let stand to cool, keep in cool, dry place.

BAKED SICKEL PEARS

May be prepared the same way. Flavor, if desired, with ginger or lemon juice.

BAKED QUINCES

Quinces may be wiped, cored, and quartered; sugar filled in the cavities, and baked same as crab-apples, in a very slow oven three or more hours until clear and glassy.

CANNING FRUIT IN A WATER BATH

Canned fruits may be cooked over the fire, but they are, on the whole, very much better if cooked in a water bath. Prepare fruit and syrup as for cooking in a preserving kettle and cook the syrup ten minutes. Sterilize the jars and utensils; fill the jars with fruit; then pour in enough syrup to fill the jars completely. Run the blade of a silver-plated knife around the inside of the jar and put the covers on loosely.

Have a wooden rack, slats, or straw in the bottom of a wash boiler; put in enough warm water to come to about four inches above the rack; place the filled jars in the boiler, being careful not to let them touch. Pack clean white rags or cotton rope between and around the jars to prevent their striking one another when the water begins to boil. Cover the boiler and let the fruit cook as directed, counting from the time the surrounding water begins to boil. (This cooking is called sterilizing.)

Draw the boiler aside and remove the cover. When the steam passes off, lift out one jar at a time and place it in a pan of boiling water beside the boiler; fill to overflowing with boiling syrup; wipe the rim of the jar with a cloth wrung from boiling water; put on rubbers and cover quickly; stand the jar upside down and protected from drafts, until cool; then tighten the covers if screw covers are used, and wipe off the jars with a wet cloth. Paste on labels and put the jars on shelves in a cool, dark closet.

The time given for sterilizing is for quart jars; pint jars require three minutes less.

BLUEBERRIES

To twelve quarts of berries take one quart of sugar and one pint of water. Put water, berries, and sugar in preserving kettle; heat slowly. Boil sixteen minutes, counting from the time the contents of the kettle begins to bubble.

CANNED RASPBERRIES

To six quarts of berries take one quart of sugar. Put one quart of the fruit in the preserving kettle; heat slowly, crushing with a wooden potato masher; strain and press through a fine sieve. Return the juice and pulp to the kettle; add the sugar; stir until dissolved; then add the remaining quarts of berries. Boil sixteen minutes, counting from the time they begin to boil. Skim well while boiling, and put into jars as directed.

BLACKBERRIES

The same as for raspberries.

CURRANTS

To twelve quarts of currants take four quarts of sugar. Treat the same as raspberries.

RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS

To ten quarts of raspberries and three quarts of currants take two and one-half quarts of sugar. Heat, crush and press the juice from the currants and proceed as directed for raspberries.

CANNED GOOSEBERRIES

To six quarts of berries take three pints of sugar and one pint of water.

Dissolve the sugar in the water, using three pints of sugar if the gooseberries are green and only half the quantity if they are ripe. Add the fruit and cook fifteen minutes.

Green gooseberries may also be canned like rhubarb without sugar and sweetened when used.

CANNED STRAWBERRIES

After washing and hulling berries, proceed as with raspberries.

CANNED PEACHES

Wash peaches, put them in a square of cheese-cloth or wire basket. Dip for two minutes in kettle of boiling water. Plunge immediately into cold water. Skin the peaches; leave whole or cut as preferred. Pack peaches in hot jars. Fill hot jars with hot syrup or boiling water. Put tops in position. Tighten tops but not airtight. Place jars on false bottom in wash-boiler. Let the water boil sixteen minutes. Seal as directed. To eight quarts of peaches take three quarts of sugar, two quarts of water.

Apricots, plums and ripe pears may be treated exactly as peaches.

QUINCES

To four quarts of pared, cored and quartered quinces take one and one-half quarts of sugar and two quarts of water.

Rub the fruit hard with a coarse, crash towel, blanch for six minutes. Pare, quarter, and core; drop the pieces into cold water. Put the fruit in the preserving kettle with cold water to cover it generously. Heat slowly and simmer gently until tender. The pieces will not all require the same time to cook. Take each piece up as soon as it is so tender that a silver fork will pierce it readily. Drain on a platter. Strain the water in which the fruit was cooked through cheese-cloth. Put two quarts of the strained liquid and the sugar into the preserving kettle; stir over the fire until the sugar is dissolved. When it boils skim well and put in the cooked fruit. Boil gently for about forty minutes.

PEARS

If the fruit is ripe it may be treated exactly the same as peaches. If, on the other hand, it is rather hard it must be cooked until so tender that a silver fork will pierce it readily.

CHERRIES

Prepare in the same manner as you would for preserving, allowing half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. After putting the cherries into the syrup do not let them boil more than five minutes; then fill your cans to overflowing, seal immediately and then screw tighter as they grow cold. Remove the little bag of stones which you have boiled with the syrup. The object in boiling the stones with the syrup is to impart the fine flavor to the fruit which cherries are robbed of in pitting.

CHERRIES FOR PIES

Stem the cherries—do not pit them,—pack tight in glass fruit jars, cover with syrup, made of two tablespoons of sugar to a quart of fruit, allowing one-half cup of water to each quart of cherries. Let them boil fifteen minutes from the time they begin to boil.

PINEAPPLE

Take off rind and trim. Cut into slices and divide into thirds. Fill into glass jars and dissolve sugar in water enough to cover the jars to overflowing, allowing half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and pour this sweetened water over the pineapples; proceed as in "Canning Fruit in a Water Bath" and let them boil steadily for at least twenty minutes. Draw the boiler aside or lift it off the coal range and allow the cans to cool in the water in which they were boiled even if it takes until the following day. Then remove each can carefully, screwing each can as tightly as possible. Wipe dry and put away in a cool place. All canned fruits should be examined carefully in one or two weeks' time after being put up. If any show signs of fermenting, just set them in a boiler of cold water and let them come to a boil slowly. Boil about ten minutes, remove boiler from the fire and allow the cans to cool in the boiler. When cold screw tight and put away.

CANNED RHUBARB READY TO USE

Strip the skins from the stalks, and cut into small pieces as you would for pies. Allow eight ounces of loaf sugar to every quart of rhubarb. Set the sugar over the fire with as little water as possible, throw in the rhubarb and boil ten minutes. Put in jars and seal.

CANNED RHUBARB

Wash the rhubarb thoroughly in pure water; cut it into pieces and pack it in sterilized jars. Cover with cold water; let it stand ten minutes; pour off the water; fill again to overflowing with fresh cold water; seal with sterilized rubber rings and covers, and set away in a cool, dark place.

CANNED PLUMS

To four quarts of plums take one quart of sugar and one cup of water.

Wash, drain and prick the plums. Make a syrup of the sugar and water; put part of the fruit in the boiling syrup; cook five minutes; fill and seal the jars. Put more fruit in the syrup; remove and continue the process until all the fruit has been cooked.

CANNING IN THE PRESERVING KETTLE

Canning in the preserving kettle is less satisfactory; but is sometimes considered easier, especially for small fruits. Cook the fruit according to the directions and see that all jars, covers and utensils are carefully sterilized. When ready to put the fruit in the jars, put a broad skimmer under one, lift it and drain off the water. Set it in a shallow pan of boiling water or wrap it well in a heavy towel wrung out of boiling water; fill to overflowing with the fruit and slip a silver-plated knife around the inside of the jar to make sure that fruit and juice are solidly packed. Wipe the rim of the jar; dip the rubber ring in boiling water, place it on the jar; cover and remove the jar, placing it upside down on a board, well out of drafts until cool. Then tighten the covers, if screw covers are used; wipe the jars with a wet cloth and stand on shelves in a cool, dark closet.

CANNED PEACHES

To eight quarts of peaches take one quart of sugar and three quarts of water. Make a syrup of the sugar and water; bring to a boil; skim it and draw the kettle aside where the syrup will keep hot but not boil. Pare the peaches, cutting them in halves or not as desired; if in half leave one or two whole peaches for every jar, as the kernel improves the flavor. Put a layer of fruit in the kettle; when it begins to boil skim carefully; boil gently, for ten minutes; put in jars and seal. Then cook more of the fruit in similar fashion. If the fruit is not ripe it will require a longer time to cook.

All fruit may be canned in this manner, if desired.

PINEAPPLE, No. 1

The large juicy pineapple is the best for this purpose. Have your scales at hand, also a sharp-pointed knife and an apple-corer, a slaw-cutter and a large, deep porcelain dish to receive the sliced pineapple. Pare, do this carefully, dig out all the eyes as you go along. Lay the pared pineapple on a porcelain platter and stick your apple-corer right through the centre of the apple, first at one end and then at the other; if it acts stubbornly put a towel around the handle of the corer and twist it, the whole core will come out at once. Now screw the slaw-cutter to the desired thickness you wish to have your pineapple sliced. Slice into receiving dish, weigh one pound of fine granulated sugar and sprinkle it all over the apple, and so on until all are pared and sliced, allowing one pound of sugar to each very large pineapple. Cover the dish until next day and then strain all the juice off the apples and boil in a porcelain or bell metal kettle, skimming it well; throw in the sliced pineapples, boil about five minutes and can. Fill the cans to overflowing and seal immediately, not losing a moment's time. As the cans grow cold screw tighter and examine daily, for three or four days, and screw tighter if possible.

PINEAPPLE, No. 2

Prepare the pineapples as above, allowing half a pound of sugar to two pounds of fruit. Steam the sliced pines in a porcelain steamer until tender. In the meantime make a syrup of the sugar, allowing a tumblerful of water to a pound of sugar. Skim the syrup carefully, put in your steamed pineapples and can as above.

*JELLIES AND PRESERVES*

In making preserves or jellies use none but porcelain-lined or bell-metal kettles, being very careful to have them perfectly clean. Scour with sapolio or sand before using. Take plenty of time to do your work, as you will find that too great hurry is unprofitable. Use glass jars and the best white sugar, and do not have any other cooking going on while preserving, as the steam or grease will be apt to injure your preserves.

When fruit is preserved with a large amount of sugar (a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit) it does not need to be sealed in airtight jars; because bacteria do not readily form in the thick, sugary syrup. It is, however, best kept in small sealed jars.

In damp weather jelly takes longer to form. Try to select a sunny, dry day for jelly making. You can prepare your juice even if it is cloudy, but wait for sunshine before adding the sugar and final boiling.

UTENSILS FOR JELLY MAKING

Large enamelled kettle, syrup gauge, two colanders, wooden masher, wooden spoon, jelly glasses, one-quart measure, two enamelled cups, one baking-pan, two earthen bowls, paraffin wax, enamelled dishpan for sterilizing glasses and two iron jelly stands with cheese-cloth bags.

HOW TO TEST JELLY MADE AT HOME

Much waste of sugar and spoilage of jellies can be avoided by using a simple alcohol test recommended by the Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture. To determine how much sugar should be used with each kind of juice put a spoon of juice in a glass and add to it one spoon of ninety-five per cent grain alcohol, mixed by shaking the glass gently.

Pour slowly from the glass, noting how the pectin—the substance in fruits which makes them jell—is precipitated. If the pectin is precipitated as one lump, a cup of sugar may be used for each cup of juice; if in several lumps the proportion of sugar must be reduced to approximately 3/4 the amount of the juice. If the pectin is not in lumps, the sugar should be one-half or less of the amount of juice.

The housewife will do well before making the test to taste the juice, as fruits having less acid than good tart apples probably will not make good jelly, unless mixed with other fruits which are acid.

TO COVER JELLY GLASSES

There are three common methods of covering jelly tumblers: (1) Dip a piece of paper in alcohol; place it on top of the tumbler as soon as the jelly is cold; put on the tin cover and force it down firmly. (2) Cut a piece of paper large enough to allow it to overlap the top of the tumbler at least one-half inch on all sides; dip the paper in slightly-beaten white of egg; cover the glass as soon as the jelly cools and press down the paper until it adheres firmly. (3) When the jelly has become cold, cover the top with melted paraffin to a thickness of one-third of an inch.

To mark jelly glasses sealed with paraffin, have the labels ready on narrow slips of paper not quite as long as the diameter of the top of a glass, and when the paraffin is partially set, but still soft, lay each label on and press gently.

*JELLIES*

CURRANT JELLY

Pick over half ripe currants, leaving stems on. Wash and place in preserving kettle. Pound vigorously with wooden masher until there is juice enough to boil. Boil slowly until fruit turns white and liquid drops slowly from the spoon. Stir to prevent scorching.

Remove from fire. Take an enamelled cup and dip this mixture into the jelly bags, under which large bowls have been placed to catch the drip. Drip overnight.

Next morning measure the juice. For every pint allow a pint of granulated sugar, which is put in a flat pan. Juice is put in kettle and allowed to come to boiling point. Sugar is placed in oven and heated. When juice boils add sugar and stir until dissolved.

When this boils remove from fire and skim. Do this three times. Now test liquid with syrup gauge to see if it registers twenty-five degrees. Without gauge let it drip from spoon, half cooled, to see if it jells. Strain into sterilized jelly glasses. Place glasses on a board in a sunny exposure until it hardens Cover with melted paraffin one-fourth inch thick.

RASPBERRY AND CURRANT JELLY

Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly, using half raspberries and half currants.

RASPBERRY JELLY

Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly.

BLACKBERRY JELLY

Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly.

STRAWBERRY JELLY

To five quarts of strawberries add one quart of currants and proceed as with Currant Jelly; but boil fifteen minutes.

GRAPE JELLY

The Concord is the best all-round grape for jelly, although the Catawba grape makes a delicious jelly. Make your jelly as soon as possible after the grapes are sent home from the market. Weigh the grapes on the stems and for every pound of grapes thus weighed allow three-quarters of a pound of the best quality of granulated sugar.

After weighing the grapes, place them in a big tub or receptacle of some kind nearly filled with cold water. Let them remain ten minutes, then lift them out with both hands and put them in a preserving kettle over a very low fire. Do not add any water. With a masher press the grapes so the juice comes out, and cook the grapes until they are rather soft, pressing them frequently with the masher. When they have cooked until the skins are all broken, pour them, juice and all; in a small-holed colander set in a big bowl, and press pulp and juice through, picking out the stems as they come to the surface.

When pulp and juice are pressed out, pour them into a cheese-cloth bag. Hang the bag over the preserving kettle and let the juice drip all night. In the morning put the kettle over the fire and let the grape juice boil gently for a half hour, skimming it frequently.

While the juice is cooking put the sugar in pans in a moderate oven and let heat. As soon as the juice is skimmed clear stir in the hot sugar, and as soon as it is dissolved pour the jelly in the glasses, first standing them in warm water. Place glasses after filling them in a cool dry place till jelly is well set, then pour a film of melted paraffin over the top and put on the covers. Label.

CRAB-APPLE JELLY

Take eight quarts of Siberian crab-apples, cut up in pieces, leaving in the seeds, and do not pare. Put into a stone jar, and set on the back of the stove to boil slowly, adding four quarts of water. Let them boil, closely covered all day, then put in a jelly-bag and let them drip all night. Boil a pint of juice at a time, with a pound of sugar to every pint of juice. Boil five minutes steadily, each pint exactly five minutes. Now weigh another pound of sugar and measure another pint of juice. Keep on in this way and you will be through before you realize it. There is no finer or firmer jelly than this. It should be a bright amber in color, and of fine flavor. You may press the pulp that remains in the jelly-bag through a coarse strainer, add the juice of two lemons and as much sugar as you have pulp, and cook to a jam.

APPLE JELLY

Take sour, juicy apples, not too ripe, cut up in pieces, leave the skins on and boil the seeds also. Put on enough water to just cover, boil on the back of the stove, closely covered, all day. Then put in jelly-bag of double cheese-cloth to drip all night. Next morning measure the juice. Allow a wineglass of white wine and juice of one lemon to every three pints of juice. Then boil a pint at a time, with a pound of sugar to every pint.

NEAPOLITAN JELLY

Take equal quantities of fully ripe strawberries, raspberries, currants and red cherries. The cherries must be stoned, taking care to preserve the juice and add to rest of juice. Mix and press through a jelly-press or bag. Measure the juice, boil a pint at a time, and to every pint allow a pound of sugar and proceed as with other fruit jellies.

QUINCE JELLY

Prepare the fruit and cook peels and cores as directed for preserving. Cut the quinces in small pieces and let them boil in the strained water for one hour with kettle uncovered. When cooked the desired length of time, pour the whole into a jelly-bag of white flannel or double cheese-cloth; hang over a big bowl or jar and let the liquor all drain through. This will take several hours. When all the liquor is drained, measure it and return to the kettle. To each pint of liquor weigh a pound of sugar. While the liquor is heating put the sugar in the oven, then add to the boiling hot liquor and stir it until sugar is melted. When the whole is thick, and drops from the spoon like jelly, pour it through a strainer into the jelly glasses; and when the jelly is cool, put on the covers—first pouring a film of melted paraffin over the surface.

A WINTER JELLY

One-half peck of tart apples, one quart of cranberries. Cover with cold water and cook an hour. Strain through a jelly-bag without squeezing. There should be about three pints of juice. Use a bowl of sugar for each bowl of juice. When the juice is boiling add sugar which has been heated in oven and boil twenty minutes. Skim and pour into glasses. Will fill about seven.

CRANBERRY JELLY

Wash and pick ripe cranberries and set on to boil in a porcelain-lined kettle closely covered. When soft strain the pulp through a fine wire sieve. Measure the juice and add an equal quantity of sugar. Set it on to boil again and let it boil very fast for about ten minutes—but it must boil steadily all the time. Wet a mold with cold water, turn the jelly into it and set it away to cool, when firm turn it into a glass salver.

*PRESERVED FRUIT*

PRESERVED FIGS

Lay fresh figs in water overnight. Then simmer in water enough to cover them until tender, and spread upon dishes to cool. Make a syrup of a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit. Allow a small teacup of water to a pound of sugar. Boil until a very clear syrup; remove every particle of scum; put in the figs and boil slowly for ten minutes. Take them out and spread upon dishes, and set them in the hot sun. Add the juice of as many lemons as you have pounds of sugar, and a few small pieces of ginger. Boil this syrup until thick. Boil the figs in this syrup for fifteen minutes longer. Then fill in glass jars three-quarters full, fill up with boiling syrup and cover. When cold, screw air-tight or seal.

PRESERVED CHERRIES

The sour red cherries, or "Morellas," are the best for preserves. Never use sweet ones for this purpose. Stone them, preserving every drop of juice, then weigh the cherries, and for every pound take three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Set the sugar and juice of the cherries on to boil, also a handful of the cherry stones pounded and tied in a thin muslin bag. Let this boil about fifteen minutes. Skim off the scum that rises. Now put in the cherries, and boil until the syrup begins to thicken like jelly. Remove from the fire, fill in pint jars, and when cold, cover with brandied paper and screw on the cover tight.

PRESERVED PEACHES

Weigh one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. After weighing them brush each peach with a stiff whiskbroom. This should be done in putting up peaches in any way. After brushing them peel the peaches very thin with a sharp silver knife. Do not use a knife with a steel blade, as it discolors the fruit. As fast as the peaches are peeled lay them on porcelain platters. Put the peelings in the preserving kettle with enough water to keep from sticking. Stand the kettle over rather a quick fire and let the peelings boil with the kettle covered until very soft. Then drain them through a colander and pour the juice strained back into the kettle. Add sugar to this and let it simmer gently until it is a thick syrup. During the time the syrup is cooking it must be frequently stirred and skimmed. As soon as the syrup is thick enough, drop in the peaches, twelve at a time if for quart jars, and six at a time if for pint jars. Let the peaches cook gently until each one may easily be pierced with a broom splint.

Then quickly skim them out and lay them on a platter to cool. Repeat this process until all the peaches are done, then let the syrup cook until thick as molasses. Skim it thoroughly. When cool put the peaches, one at a time, in the jars with a spoon. When the syrup is sufficiently thick, pour it through a strainer over the peaches in the jars until they are full, then seal down quickly and stand them upside down for several hours before putting them in the store-room.

STRAWBERRIES IN THE SUN

To two pounds of berries take two pounds of sugar and three-quarters cup of water. Put the syrup in the preserving kettle; bring it to a boil and cook for about ten minutes, or until it begins to thicken. Add the berries; cook for ten minutes and pour them out in shallow dishes or meat platters. Cover with sheets of glass, allowing a little air for ventilation; place in the sun until the juice is thick and syrupy. This will take two days or more, but the rich color and delicious flavor of the fruit will fully repay the effort expended. Put into small jars or tumblers and cover according to directions.

PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES

To one pint of strawberries take one pint of sugar and one-half cup of water. Unless strawberries are cooked in the sun they should be prepared only in small quantities or they will be dark and unpalatable. If the following directions are carefully observed the berries will be plump and of a rich red color.

Bring the sugar and water to a boil; add the strawberries and cook ten minutes. Remove the berries carefully with a skimmer and cook the syrup until it is of the consistency of jelly. Return the berries to the syrup; bring all to a boil and when cool put in glass tumblers.

STRAWBERRIES AND PINEAPPLE

Follow the recipe for Preserved Strawberries, using two-thirds pineapple and one-third strawberries.

PRESERVED PINEAPPLE

To one pineapple take three-quarters of its weight in sugar and one cup of water. Peel the pineapple and put it through the food-chopper. Weigh and add three-quarters of the weight in sugar. Bring slowly to a boil and simmer for about twenty minutes, or until the consistency of marmalade.

PRESERVED DAMSON PLUMS

Pick the plums over carefully, removing every one that has a decayed spot or blemish. Leave the stems on. After picking the fruit over, wash it carefully in cold water; then weigh it and allow one pound of sugar to each pound of fruit. Put a gill of water in the preserving kettle for each pound of sugar, stand the kettle over a moderate fire and add the sugar. Stir it almost constantly with a wooden spoon until the sugar melts; then turn on a little more heat and let the melted sugar boil gently until it is a thick syrup. Stir, and skim it frequently. When the required thickness (which should be like syrup used for griddle cakes) put the plums in the boiling syrup and let them cook gently for half an hour; then skim out the plums and put them in glass jars, filling each jar half full. Let the syrup boil till almost as thick as jelly, then pour it in the jars, filling them quite full. Fasten the tops on and stand the jars upside down until the preserves are cold; then put them where they are to be kept for the winter.

DAMSON JAM

Weigh 3/4 of a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. After washing the plums carefully, put them in a preserving kettle with just enough water to keep them from sticking to the bottom. Set them over a moderate fire and let them simmer for half an hour; then turn them, juice and all, into a colander, filling the colander not more than half full. Have the colander set over a large earthen bowl. With a potato masher, press juice and pulp through the colander into the bowl, leaving skins and pits as dry as possible. Remove these from the colander and repeat the process until all the pulp and juice is pressed out; then pour it into the kettle and, while it is heating slowly, heat the sugar in the oven. As soon as the juice and pulp begins to simmer stir in the hot sugar, and when it drops from the spoon like a thick jelly pour it into the glasses. This is one of the most delicious fruit preserves made and is always acceptable with meat and poultry or as a sweetmeat at afternoon teas.

RASPBERRY JAM

To five pounds of red raspberries (not too ripe) add five pounds of loaf sugar. Mash the whole well in a preserving kettle (to do this thoroughly use a potato masher). Add one quart of currant juice, and boil slowly until it jellies. Try a little on a plate; set it on ice, if it jellies remove from the fire, fill in small jars, cover with brandied paper and tie a thick white paper over them. Keep in a dark, dry, cool place. If you object to seeds, press the fruit through a sieve before boiling.

JELLIED QUINCES

Jellied quinces are made after the direction for preserved quinces, only the fruit is cut in tiny little pieces and when put in the syrup is allowed to cook twenty minutes longer, and is put in small glasses with the syrup and not skimmed out as for preserves. Leave the glasses open till the jelly sets, then cover.

QUINCE CHEESE

Wipe off each quince before paring, core and slice them, weigh your fruit and sugar, allowing 3/4 of a pound of sugar for every pound of fruit and set the sugar aside until wanted. Boil the skins, cores and seeds in a clean vessel by themselves, with just enough water to cover them. Boil until the parings are soft, so as to extract all the flavor, then strain through a jelly-bag. When this water is almost cold, put the quinces in the preserving kettle with the quince water and boil until soft, mash with a wooden spoon or beetle. Add the juice of an orange to every two pounds of fruit, being careful not to get any of the seeds into the preserves. Now add the sugar and boil slowly for fifteen minutes, stirring constantly; if not thick enough boil longer, being very careful not to let it burn. Take off the fire and pack in small jars with brandied paper over them.

PRESERVED QUINCES

The quince that comes first into the market is likely to be wormy and corky, and harder to cook than the better ones. It requires a good deal of skill to cook quince preserves just right. If you cook them too much they are red instead of a beautiful salmon shade, and they become shriveled, dry and tart, even in the sweetest syrup, instead of full and mealy, and sweet.

Weigh a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. Wipe each quince carefully with a coarse linen towel. Peel, quarter and core the quinces. Put peels and cores in the preserving kettle with just water enough to cover them, and let them simmer with the kettle covered for two hours. Then strain the liquor through a fine sieve and return it to the kettle.

Cut the quartered quinces in small pieces and put as many of them in the kettle as the liquor will cover. Let them boil gently, with the kettle uncovered, until so tender they may be easily pierced with a broom splint. Take them out with a skimmer and lay on flat dishes to cool. Repeat this process until all the fruit is properly cooked; then put the sugar in the liquor and let it boil gently to a thick syrup; put in as many of the cooked quinces as the syrup will cover and let them cook in the syrup for twenty minutes; skim them out and lay on flat dishes to cool. Repeat this process until all the quinces are cooked in the syrup.

When they are cool put the quinces in glass jars, filling each one half full. Let the syrup boil until very thick, stirring it frequently and skimming it clear. Then pour it through a fine strainer, while very hot, over the fruit; and as soon as a jar is full, fasten on the cover. It is tiresome work to preserve quinces, but the result pays for all the trouble.

CITRON PRESERVE

Pare and core the citron; cut it into strips and notch the edges; or cut it into fancy shapes. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and to six pounds of the fruit allow four lemons and a quarter of a pound of ginger root. Tie the ginger in a cloth, and boil it in a quart and a half of water until the flavor is extracted; then remove it, and add to the water the sugar and the juice of the lemons; stir until the sugar is dissolved and the syrup is clear; take off any scum; then add the citron and cook until it is clear, but not soft enough to fall apart. Can and seal while hot.

MARMALADES

Marmalades require great care while cooking because no moisture is added to the fruit and sugar. If the marmalade is made from berries the fruit should be rubbed through a sieve to remove the seeds. If large fruit is used have it washed, pared, cored, and quartered.

Measure the fruit and sugar, allowing one pint of sugar to each quart of fruit.

Rinse the preserving kettle with cold water that there may be a slight coat of moisture on the sides and bottom. Put alternate layers of fruit and sugar in the kettle, having the first layer fruit. Heat slowly, stirring frequently. While stirring, break up the fruit as much as possible. Cook about two hours, then put in small sterilized jars.

ORANGE MARMALADE

The white part between the yellow rind and the inner skin of the orange used to be most sedulously removed, but now we know that there is great economy in using it. By doing so we can use large quantities of water in proportion to fruit, for it has the property of converting this into jelly.

The Seville orange used to be the orange used in Scotland and England for marmalades because of its bitter flavor, but we can get the same effect by using the grapefruit. An all grapefruit marmalade is not nearly so attractive and pretty as one of combined fruits, nor does it have the zest that the grapefruit seems to give to a marmalade where it is only one of the constituents.

AMBER MARMALADE

Slice thin, skin and all, one grapefruit, one orange, one lemon. Add to this three times its measure of water and allow to stand overnight. Cook for ten minutes the next morning and then allow to stand until the next morning, when finish by adding as much sugar as there is liquid and boiling slowly until done, or until it jellies. The time commonly given is two hours, but a half hour less than this is ample.

RHUBARB AND ORANGE MARMALADE

Cut three pounds of pie plant into small pieces (unpeeled). Peel three oranges and cut into small pieces. Put with this two cups of sugar and the grated rind of one orange. Let stand overnight. Cook until clear, stirring often. Then add three pounds of granulated sugar heated in oven. Cook until clear; ten to twenty minutes. Pour into jelly glasses and cover with paraffin.

APPLE AND QUINCE CONSERVE

A novelty for the preserve closet and one that is very good is made from ripe apples and quinces. Use one peck of juicy cooking apples and two quarts of sugar. Pare the quinces and cut out the cores. Put the parings and cores into a preserving kettle with two quarts of water and boil gently for forty-five minutes. Meanwhile, cut the quinces into eighths, put them into a kettle with three pints of water and simmer until the fruit can be pierced with a straw; then lift the fruit from the water and lay them on a platter to drain. Strain the water in which the parings and cores have cooked into the water in which the quinces have cooked, and after adding the sugar boil for ten minutes. Pare, core and quarter the apples, and place in the syrup with the cooked quinces. Cook slowly for fifteen minutes and seal immediately in sterilized jars. The combined flavors of the quince and apple are very pleasing.

CHERRY CONSERVE

Take three and 1/2 pounds of large red cherries, stone them and cook for fifteen minutes. Heat two and 1/2 pounds of sugar in the oven; add it to the cherries; also 1/4 pound of seeded raisins and the juice and pulp of three oranges. Cook until the mixture is as thick as marmalade.

APPLE BUTTER

Boil down any desired quantity of sweet cider in your preserving kettle to 2/3 the original quantity. Pare, core and slice as many wine apples as you wish to use. Boil slowly, stirring often with a silver or wooden spoon. Spice with stick cinnamon and cloves, and sweeten to taste. Boil from four to five hours; take from the fire, pour all together into a large crock. Cover and let it stand overnight, then return it to the preserving kettle and boil down, stirring all the while until it is the consistency of mush, and of a dark brown color.

GRAPE PRESERVES

Squeeze the pulp into one bowl and put the skins into another. Press the pulp through a sieve, weigh the grapes before you squeeze them and allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Put the strained pulp and sugar on to boil, the skins also, and boil slowly until thick. It will be much easier for you to heat the pulp before straining.

GERMAN PRUNE BUTTER

Remove pits and wash prunes, take three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and enough water to keep from burning; do not stir but remove from the sides of the kettle occasionally. Let boil for hours; when done, place in glasses. Let cool; cover with paraffin.

CHERRY MARMALADE

To three pounds of sweet and one pound of sour cherries allow two pounds of sugar. Weigh the cherries when stemmed and pitted. Make a syrup of the sugar, add cinnamon bark and cloves. Put in the sweet cherries first, adding the sour ones half an hour later; boil down thick and cover the jars with brandied paper.

GRAPE CONSERVE

Remove the stems and skins from five pounds of grapes and boil the pulp until tender; then press it through a sieve. Boil the skins of three juicy oranges until tender, then chop fine. Put the grape skins and the pulp into a saucepan; add the orange juice, the boiled skins, five pounds of sugar, one pound of raisins—the muscat seeded—and one pound of shelled walnuts and boil until quite thick.

PLUM CONSERVE, No. 1

Wash five pounds of blue plums or German Prunes, cut them in halves and remove the stones. Peel four oranges, slice them fine and cut each slice in half. Cut the rind of two of the oranges into small squares, add one pound of seeded raisins. Take a measure of sugar and a measure of the mixture, place in preserving kettle on the stove and let come slowly to the boiling point and cook steadily for several hours until the fruit is clear and thick. Put in jelly glasses or jars.

PLUM CONSERVE, No. 2

Wash three pounds of German prunes, remove the stones and cut them into small pieces. Mix one pound of seeded raisins, two oranges cut in small pieces, the juice of two lemons, one pound English walnuts broken in chunks, and three pounds of sugar. Place all the ingredients in the preserving kettle on the stove and let come slowly to the boiling point and cook steadily until the fruit is clear and thick. Put in jelly glasses or jars.

PEACH SYRUP

This is very nice for all kinds of griddle cakes. Use the peelings of your peaches when you are through canning and preserving. Add 1/3 of the peach kernels and put all on to boil in a stone jar on the back of the stove with a little water. When soft, strain through a jelly-bag by letting it drip all night. In the morning add the juice of two or three lemons and boil as you would jelly. Set a pint of juice on to boil and boil for five minutes. Add a pound of sugar and boil five minutes more, but it must boil very hard. Bottle in wide-mouthed bottles or jars. Seal.

PEACH BUTTER

Weigh the peaches after they are pared and pitted. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cook the peaches alone until soft, then add 1/2 of the sugar and stir frequently. In half an hour put in the remaining sugar. Now watch carefully, stirring almost constantly for two hours. Boil slowly, and add 1/4 of the peach kernels. Spice with cinnamon and cloves, using whole spices.

RAISIN COMPOTE

Peel six oranges (California), cut the skin in very small narrow strips, or run through a food chopper. Slice the oranges very thin and quarter the slices. Let it stand overnight in three pints of cold water. Place this in a preserving kettle with three pounds of seeded raisins, three quarts of currants (picked and washed) and three pounds of granulated sugar. Boil all together for two hours and put in glass jars, closing them while hot.

If preferred, three pints of currant juice strained may be used instead of the whole fruit. This compote will keep perfectly well after the jar is opened.

PICKLED PEACHES

Brush but do not peel the peaches. Select medium-sized ones. When all are well brushed, stick each peach quite full of cloves.

Make a thick syrup of half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cook the peaches in the syrup until they may be easily pierced with a broom splint. Then carefully skim them from the syrup and after they have cooled on the platters put them in glass jars or stone crocks. To the syrup in the kettle add a few pieces of stick cinnamon and a few whole allspice. Add half a pint of good cider vinegar and a tablespoon of tarragon vinegar to each quart of syrup, and when the syrup just comes to a boil after adding the vinegar pour it over the peaches. Delicious with cold chicken.

SPICED GRAPES

Pulp seven pounds of Concord grapes; cook the pulp and skins until soft; put them through a fine sieve; then add four and one-half pounds of granulated sugar, one pint of cider vinegar, two tablespoons of ground cinnamon, and two tablespoons of ground cloves. Bring to a boil; then cook slowly for one and one-half hours. Put in an earthen crock when cool.

This recipe may also be used with currants; use five pounds of sugar instead of four and one-half pounds.

GREEN OR YELLOW PLUM TOMATO PRESERVES

Wash and dry four pounds of small yellow or green tomatoes and prick each one in five or six places. Stir three pounds of sugar in one-half cup boiling water until dissolved; add the tomatoes and cook until clear. When half done add the juice and the rind of two lemons sliced very thin. When the fruit is clear remove it with a skimmer; put in small jars, filling them two-thirds full. Boil the syrup fast for a few minutes longer or until thick and syrupy, fill up the jars; cover with a cloth until the next day; then cover closely and stand away in a cool place.

SPICED OR PICKLED APPLES

Pare the apples, "Pound Sweets" are best; crab-apples may be pickled the same way, but do not pare. Leave on the stems and put into a kettle with alternate layers of sugar; take four pounds of white sugar to nine pounds of fruit, and spice with an ounce of cinnamon bark and half an ounce of cloves, removing the heads. Heat slowly to a boil with a pint of water; add the vinegar and spices, and boil until tender. Take out the fruit with a perforated skimmer and spread upon dishes to cool. Boil the syrup thick; pack the apples in jars and pour the syrup over them boiling hot. Examine them in a week's time, and should they show signs of fermenting pour off the syrup and boil up for a few minutes, and pour over the fruit scalding, or set the jars (uncovered) in a kettle of cold water and heat until the contents are boiling, and then seal.

PRESERVED BLACKBERRIES

Weigh the fruit and allow a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit. Tie spices in a bag, such as cloves and cinnamon, and make a thick syrup of the sugar before you put in the berries. Boil half an hour and seal when cold.

PICKLED CRAB-APPLES

Select tart, firm, red or yellow crab-apples, three quarts; remove all decayed spots but leave the stems. Put three cups of cider vinegar, three cups of sugar, and one cup of water in preserving kettle; let boil two minutes, add two tablespoons of cloves and two sticks of cinnamon broken; these spices must be tied in a bag, and let cook ten minutes. Lift out carefully with perforated skimmer, put in glass jars. When all the apples have been cooked, pour over enough syrup to cover; set spice bag away in a cup. Cover jars and let stand twenty-four hours. Pour off syrup and boil again. Wait two days, then boil apples, sugar, with spice bag until apples are tender but firm. Place apples in jars; cover to keep hot. Boil down syrup a little and fill the jars to overflowing with the hot syrup and seal.

WATERMELON PICKLE

Do not throw away the rind of melons. It can be preserved and will make a delicious relish. Remove the green rind of watermelon and the inside pink portion that is left on after eating it. Cut it into two-inch pieces and pour over it a weak brine made in proportion of one cup of salt to a gallon of hot water. Let this stand overnight, then drain and add clear water and one level tablespoon of alum. Boil in this water until the rind has a clear appearance. Drain and pour ice water over the rind and allow it to stand a short time. In a bag put one teaspoon each of cloves, allspice, cinnamon and ginger and place this in the preserve kettle with the vinegar and sugar. Allow one cup of sugar and one cup of vinegar (dilute this with water if too strong) to every pound of rind. Thin slices of lemon will give it a pleasant flavor—allow one lemon to about four pounds of rind. Bring this syrup to the boiling point and skim. Add the melon and cook until tender. It is done when it becomes perfectly transparent and can be easily pierced with a broom straw. A peach kernel in the cooking syrup will improve the flavor. Housewives who object to the use of alum can omit this and merely wash the rind after removing from brine to free it from all salt and then cook it slowly as per directions given above. The alum keeps the rind firm and retains its color. In this case the rind will require long and steady cooking; say 3/4 of an hour or longer. As soon as rinds are cooked they should be put into the containers and covered with the syrup.

PICKLED PLUMS

Prick the plums with a large needle then weigh them, and to every seven pounds of fruit use four pounds of white sugar, two ounces of stick cinnamon, one ounce of cloves and a pint of best pickling vinegar. Boil the vinegar, sugar and spices, and pour boiling hot over the fruit, which must be packed in a large jar; repeat this three times. While the vinegar boils the third time, pack the plums in glass jars and pour the syrup over the plums. When cold seal.

PICKLED CANTALOUPE OR MUSKMELONS

Take fine, ripe melons, pare, take out the seeds and wash, cut into slices about three inches long and two inches wide, lay them in a stone jar and cover with vinegar for twenty-four hours or longer. Then lay the fruit on a clean board to drip; and throw away one quart of the vinegar to each quart remaining. Allow three pounds and 1/2 of white sugar to a dozen small cantaloupes, three ounces of stick cinnamon, one ounce of cloves (remove the soft heads) and two ounces of allspice (whole spices). Boil the spices, vinegar and sugar, adding a pint of fresh vinegar to the old. When well skimmed put in the melons, boil fifteen minutes, twenty is still better; take out the fruit, put it in jars and boil the syrup awhile longer. Skim it again and pour boiling hot upon the fruit. Seal when cold.

PICKLED HUSK TOMATOES

This tomato looks like an egg-shaped plum and makes a very nice sweet pickle. Prick each one with a needle, weigh, and to seven pounds of tomatoes take four pounds of sugar and spice with a very little mace, cinnamon and cloves. Put into the kettle with alternate layers of sugar. Heat slowly to a boil, skim and add vinegar, not more than a pint to seven pounds of tomatoes. Add spices and boil for about ten minutes, not longer. Take them out with a perforated skimmer and spread upon dishes to cool. Boil the syrup thick, and pack as you would other fruit.

SPICED OR PICKLED CHERRIES

Take the largest and freshest red cherries you can get, and pack them in glass fruit jars, stems and all. Put little splints of wood across the tops of the fruit to prevent rising to the top. To every quart of cherries allow a cup of best pickling vinegar, and to every three quarts of fruit one pound of sugar and three sticks of whole cinnamon bark and one-half ounce of cloves; this quantity of spices is for all of the fruit. Boil the vinegar and spices and sugar for five minutes steady; turn out into a covered stoneware vessel, cover, and let it get cold. Then pour over the fruit and repeat this process three days in succession. Remove the heads of the cloves, for they will turn the fruit black. You may strain the vinegar after the first boiling, so as to take out the spices, if you choose. Seal as you would other fruit. Be sure that the syrup is cold before you pour it over the cherries.

SPICED CUCUMBERS

Take nice firm cucumbers, slice thin and salt overnight. In the morning take vinegar sufficient for covering the quantity prepared, mixed spices and sugar according to taste. Put on to cook and when boiling put in the cucumbers and cook for thirty minutes. Delightful as a relish, and can be kept for a long time if put in airtight jars.

PICKLED PEARS

Pears should always be peeled for pickling. If large cut them in half and leave the stems on. The best pear for this purpose, also for canning, is a variety called the "Sickle Pear." It is a small, pulpy pear of delicious flavor. Throw each pear into cold water as you peel it. When all are peeled weigh them and allow four pounds and a half of white sugar to ten pounds of fruit. Put into the kettle with alternate layers of sugar and half a cup of water and one quart of strong vinegar. Add stick cinnamon and a few cloves (remove the soft heads). Heat slowly and boil until tender, then remove them with a perforated skimmer, and spread upon dishes to cool. Skim the boiling syrup and boil fifteen minutes longer. Put the pears in glass jars or a large earthen jar, the former being preferable, and pour the syrup and spices boiling hot over the fruit. When cold seal.

GINGERED PEARS

Pare, core and cut small, eight pounds hard pears (preferably the fresh green Bartlett variety), half as much sugar, quarter pound Canton ginger. Let these stand together overnight. In morning add one pint of water, four lemons, cut small. Cook slowly for three hours. Pour into small jars. Seal when cold. Keeps indefinitely.

SPICED GERMAN PLUMS

Wash the plums, remove the stones and in place of the stones put in almonds. Take the best wine vinegar, water and sugar to taste. Tie in a bag some whole cinnamon, cloves, and allspice; boil together with vinegar. After boiling, let it get lukewarm, then pour over the prunes. Let stand, and each day for nine days let vinegar come to a boil and pour over prunes. The last day cook the vinegar down some, then put in the prunes and let come to a boil; there should be sufficient liquid to cover them. Keep in a stone or glass jar. Grapes (Concord) may be spiced the same way.

GOOSEBERRY RELISH

Cut the brush part from the berry, but leave the stem on, wash thoroughly and let drip in colander overnight. For eight pounds of berries prepare a syrup of six pounds of sugar and three cups of water. When syrup has boiled till clear put in the berries and boil for three-quarters of an hour. Put in jars or glasses.

PICKLED FIGS

Boil the figs in water one and one-half hours, then drain and weigh. To seven pounds fruit use the following syrup: Three pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, two ounces of whole cinnamon, two ounces of whole peppers, one ounce of cloves, one orange, and two lemons sliced. Boil syrup one-half hour, add fruit and boil slowly two hours.

*BRANDIED FRUITS*

MÉLANGE

This French fruit preserve is truly delicious, and should be put up in the month of June. To every pound of fruit take one pound of sugar. It requires no cooking at all, and is therefore easily made. Get the largest and soundest berries in the market. Pick two quarts and lay them in a new and perfectly clean two-gallon stone jar and cover with two pounds of the finest granulated sugar. Stone as many pounds of red, black, and white cherries as you wish to use, and add the same quantity of sugar. You may also use bananas, pineapples or oranges. Seed the latter carefully. Be sure to weigh all the fruit, and allow one pound of sugar to every additional pound of fruit. Pour over the fruit a pint of pure alcohol. Tie up the jar with thick paper, and in season add peaches, apricots, raspberries, blackberries, large, red currants; in fact, all kinds of fruit. Green-gages and purple and red plums also add both to looks and taste. Be sure to add the same amount of sugar as you do fruit, but no more alcohol. In the fall of the year pack in glass jars; looks very pretty. Keep it in a dry, cool place. There is always a surplus of juice, which makes excellent pudding sauce. Add a little water and thicken.

FRENCH PRUNES IN COGNAC

Lay the prunes in white wine for two days; then put on a wire sieve to drip, but do not squeeze them. When they look dry, which will be in about half an hour, lay in glass jars with alternate layers of sugar and stick cinnamon and a few pieces of mace and a very few cloves. When the jars are full, fill up with cognac and seal. Set in the sunniest place you can find for three days.

BRANDIED PEACHES

Select only the largest and finest quality of clingstone peaches. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and a pint of the best brandy to every four pounds of peaches. Make a syrup of the sugar with enough water to just dissolve it, and boil about half a dozen blanched peach kernels with it. When the syrup boils put in the fruit and let it boil about five minutes. Remove the fruit carefully upon platters, and let the syrup boil fifteen or twenty minutes longer, skimming it well. Put the peaches in wide-mouthed glass jars. If the syrup has thickened pour in the brandy. Remove from the fire at once, pour over the fruit and seal.

BRANDIED CHERRIES

Select the largest sweet cherries for this purpose, leaving the stems on. Allow half a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit, and a pint of good brandy for every five pounds of fruit. Make a syrup of the sugar, using as little water as possible. Pour it over the cherries and let them remain in the syrup all night. Next day put them in a preserving kettle and heat slowly. Boil about eight minutes. Take up the cherries with a perforated skimmer and boil the syrup fifteen minutes. Add the brandy to the boiling syrup, remove from the fire and pour over the cherries hot, and seal.

BRANDIED QUINCES

Select large yellow, pear-shaped quinces, and peel and quarter them. Take out the cores and throw into cold water, until all are pared. Then boil until tender, so they can easily be pierced. Take them out with a perforated skimmer and weigh. Then take three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of quinces, and boil in a little over half the quince water. Add stick cinnamon and cloves (removing the soft heads). Boil until quite a thick syrup. Pack the quinces in jars, add a pint of good brandy to the syrup and pour boiling hot over the quinces and seal immediately.

BRANDIED PEARS

Pare the fruit, leaving the stems on. Weigh. Proceed as with peaches.

*CANNED VEGETABLES*

Only young, tender, fresh vegetables should be canned.

Time your work by the clock, not by guess.

Weigh and measure all material accurately.

Take no risks. Food is too valuable.

Most fruits and vegetables require blanching; that is, all vegetables and fruits, berries excepted, should be first plunged into boiling water or steam after being picked over, and then, in turn plunged at once into very cold water.

After blanching and packing in sterilized jars, add to all vegetables salt in the proportion of a level teaspoon to the contents of a quart jar. Carrots, parsnips and sweet potatoes require a teaspoon to the pint.

Then fill jars to within quarter inch of top with boiling water, and put in hot water bath—see "Canning Fruit in a Water Bath".

Cover boiler or kettle closely and sterilize or boil for the length of time given below:

Do not close jars tight during sterilizing, or there will be no room for the generated steam and it will burst the jars.

Asparagus, Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Peas, Sweet Potatoes, and Turnips require six minutes blanching, ninety minutes sterilizing. Asparagus requires one hundred and twenty minutes.

Corn requires five minutes blanching on the cob; three minutes sterilizing after being cut from the cob, or on the cob.

Lima or String Beans or Peas require five minutes blanching; two hours sterilizing.

Pumpkin and Squash require five minutes blanching; one and one-half hours sterilizing.

Tomatoes require two minutes blanching; twenty-two minutes sterilizing.

Tomatoes and Corn require separate blanching, time given above, then ninety minutes sterilizing together. The acid of the tomatoes aids in preserving the corn.

Corn and Beans (Succotash) require ten minutes blanching, ninety minutes sterilizing.

*VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE*

EARLY FALL VEGETABLES

Take new firkins or large stone jars, and scald them well with boiling water before using. Vegetables that are boiled before pickling in a brass kettle always keep their fresh, green color. In salt pickling cover your jars or kegs with a clean, white cloth, then a cover made of wood and last a heavy stone to weigh it down. The cloth must be removed every other day, washed and put back. In doing this, take hold of the cloth at each corner, so that none of the slimy substance can get into your pickle, and wash the top and sides of the jar also.

MOCK OLIVES

Take plums when just beginning to ripen, but still green. Make a brine out of sea salt or rock salt strong enough to hold up an egg. Pour the brine over the fruit, hot, cover and let stand twenty-four hours. Pour off and make a new brine, heat, add the fruit, heat one minute and seal in the hot brine.

STRING BEANS (RAW)

String the beans very carefully, and cut into fine short lengths; then sprinkle salt over and through them, mixing thoroughly, say to twenty-five pounds of beans, two pounds of salt. Let them remain in the salt overnight. Then pack the shredded beans as tightly as possible into jars or kegs, without any of their juice. In two weeks look them over, remove the cloth and wash it, etc., as already described. When cooking the beans, take out as many as may be required for a meal and soak them in cold water overnight. In the morning set on to boil in cold water. Boil for one hour. Pour off the water they were boiled in, add fresh water, and prepare as you would fresh beans.

BOILED BEANS

Select small, young string beans, string them carefully and boil in salt water, in a brass kettle, until tender, and throw them on a large, clean board to drip. Next morning press them into a jar, with alternate layers of salt and beans, and proceed as with string beans.

CORN

Boil the corn, cut it off the cobs, and pack in jars in alternate layers of salt and corn. Use plenty of salt in packing. When you wish to cook it soak in water overnight. Pack the corn in this way: First a layer of salt, half an inch deep; then about two inches of corn; then salt again, and so on. The top layer must be salt. Spread two inches of melted butter over the top layer and bind with strong perforated paper (perforate the paper with a pin). Keep in a cool cellar.

*PICKLES AND RELISHES*

Use none but the best vinegar, and whole spices for pickling. If you boil vinegar with pickles in bell metal do not let them stand in it one moment after taken from the fire, and be sure that your kettle is well scoured before using. Keep pickles in glass, stoneware, or wooden pails. Allow a cup of sugar to every gallon of vinegar; this will not sweeten the pickles, but helps to preserve them and mellows the sharpness of the vinegar. Always have your pickles well covered with vinegar or brine.

MOTHER'S DILL PICKLES

Examine the cucumbers carefully, discard all that are soft at the ends, and allow them to lay in water overnight. In the morning drain, and dry them with a clean towel. Then put them in a wooden pail or jar, along with the dill, putting first a layer of dill at the bottom then a layer of cucumbers, a few whole peppers, then a layer of dill again, and so on until all are used, and last lay a clean, white cloth on top, then a plate and a stone to give it weight, so that the pickles will be kept under the brine. To a peck of cucumbers use about a cup of salt. Dissolve the salt in enough cold water to cover them. You may add one or two tablespoons of vinegar to the brine. If the cucumbers are small, and if they are kept in a warm place, they will be ready for the table in five or six days. If salt pickles have turned out to be too salty, just pour off the old brine and wash the pickles and then examine them closely, and if they are spoiled throw them away. Lay those that are sound in a clean jar and pour over them a weak solution of salt water, into which put a dash of vinegar. Always examine the pickles weekly. Take off the cloth, wash it, and remove all the scum that adheres to the pail, and lay a clean cloth over the pickles again. Do not use more than a cup of salt in the new brine, which must be thoroughly dissolved. You will find among Salads a nice recipe wherein salt pickles are used. (See "Polish Salad," or "Salad Piquant.") It is a good way to make use of pickles in winter that have become too salty for ordinary use.

DILL PICKLES FOR WINTER USE

Take two or three dozen medium-sized cucumbers and lay them in salt water overnight. Wipe each one dry, discarding all that are soft and lay them in a wooden vessel (which is better than a stone one) along with grape leaves and green grapes, if you can get them, whole peppers, or one or two green peppers, a few bay leaves, a few pieces of whole ginger, a few cloves and a stick of horseradish sliced upon top of all. Use plenty of dill between each layer. Boil enough water to cover the pickles. Use about one pound of salt to six quarts of water, and one cup of vinegar. If you wish to keep them all winter, have your barrel closed by a cooper.

GREEN DILL TOMATOES

Select small firm green tomatoes, follow recipe for Dill Pickles, using the green tomatoes in place of the pickles.

SMALL DILL PICKLES

Select pickles of from two to three inches in length and scrub well with a small brush. Pack in layers in Mason jars, a layer of pickles, a layer of dill and a few mustard seeds, placing a bay leaf and a piece of alum the size of a pea on the top of each jar.

Let one cup of vinegar, two cups of water and one tablespoon of salt come to a boil. Pour boiling hot over the pickles and seal.

TEUFELSGURKEN (HOT PICKLES)

Pare large, green cucumbers, cut each one lengthwise, take out the seeds with a silver spoon and then cut each piece again so as to have four pieces out of one cucumber. When all are pared salt well and let them remain in the salt for twenty-four hours or more; then dry each piece, put in layers in a stone jar with whole white and black peppercorns, small pickling onions, which have been previously pared and salted overnight, pieces of horseradish, a few bay leaves, a little fennel, caraway seeds, a few cloves of garlic (use this sparingly) and also some Spanish pepper (use very little of the latter). Have a layer of the spices at the bottom of the jar. A handful of mustard seed put on the top layer will be an improvement. Boil enough pickling vinegar to cover well. Add a cup of sugar to a gallon of vinegar, boil and pour over hot. Boil again in three days and pour over the pickles after it gets cold, and in two days pour off the vinegar and boil again and pour over the pickles hot. Boil three times altogether.

MUSTARD PICKLES

Choose small cucumbers or gherkins for this purpose. Reject all that are specked or misshapen. Wash them thoroughly; drain off all the water, and allow them to lay in a tub overnight, thickly salted. In the morning; wipe the pickles carefully. Lay them in a stone jar or a wooden bucket, in this way: Put in a layer of pickles. Cut up a few green or red peppers; put a few pieces in each layer, also a few cloves (remove the soft heads) and a tablespoon of mustard seed, and one bay leaf, no more. Then proceed in this way until the pickles are used. Then take half a pound of the very best ground mustard, tie it in a cloth loosely (use double cheese-cloth for the purpose), and lay this mustard-bag on top of the pickles. Boil enough white wine vinegar in a bell metal kettle to just cover them; add a cup of sugar for every gallon of vinegar, this does not sweeten them, but tends to preserve them and cut the sharpness of the vinegar. If the vinegar is very strong, add a cup of water to it while boiling; it should not "draw" the mouth, but be rather mild. See that the pickles are well covered with the vinegar, and pour the vinegar hot over the pickles and mustard. If the vinegar does not completely cover the pickles, boil more and add. Lay a plate on top of all to keep the pickles under the vinegar, and when cold tie up. Look them over in a few weeks, if you find any soft ones among them, boil the vinegar over again, and pour it over them hot.

SALT PICKLES

(For immediate use.) Take nice, large cucumbers, wash and wipe them; lay them in a jar or wooden pail, sprinkle coarse salt over each layer, and add dill, whole peppers and grape leaves, if you have them, also a very few bay leaves. Cover with water up to the brim and lay a piece of rye bread in the jar; it will help to quicken the process of souring. Cover with a plate and put a clean, heavy stone on top of the plate, in order to keep them well covered with the brine. Set them in a warm place, say back of the kitchen stove, for the first three days. They will be ready to use in a week.

SALZGURKEN

Take half-grown cucumbers; lay them in water overnight, then wipe each one dry and reject all that are soft at the ends. Lay a layer of cucumbers in a new barrel or wine keg (a small vinegar barrel is best), then a layer of the following spices: Fennel, dill, bay leaves, a few whole peppers; then cover with grape and cherry leaves, and begin again with a layer of cucumbers and fill in alternate layers until all are used. Then boil enough salt and water to just cover them, test the strength of the water by laying an egg in it, if it rises the water has enough salt in it, if not, add more salt. Pour this over the cucumbers when cold. Get a cooper to tighten up the barrel, and roll it in the sun and allow it to stay there for two weeks, turning over the barrel once each day.

DELICIOUS MUSTARD PICKLES (SENFGURKEN)

Take about two dozen large, yellow pickles, pare them with a silver knife (to prevent them from turning dark), and cut lengthwise. Now take a silver spoon and remove all the seeds and soft inner pulp. Cut into strips about as long as your finger; sprinkle salt over them, and so on, until they are all cut up, then put in a wooden pail or large china bowl overnight. At the same time take about two quarts of small pickling onions, scald them with boiling water, remove the skins, also with a silver knife, and salt the same as you did the pickles. In the morning take a clean dish towel and dry each piece and lay them in a stone jar in the following manner: First a layer of pickles then a layer of onions, and then some horseradish, sliced, between the layers; a few whole peppers, a very few bay leaves, and sprinkle mustard seed, allspice and whole cloves between each layer. Remove the soft little heads of the cloves to prevent the pickles from turning dark; cover all with the best white wine vinegar; put a double cheese-cloth filled with mustard seed on top. In two weeks pour off the vinegar carefully and boil, and let it get perfectly cold before pouring over the pickles again. You may pack them in small glass jars if you prefer.

CHOW-CHOW

Take pickles, cauliflower, beans, little onions and a few green and red peppers. Cut all up fine, except the onions; salt well overnight, drain off next morning and put in a large jar. Now mix one gallon or more of best pickling vinegar with a pound of ground mustard (wet the mustard with cold water before using). Put in a bag the following spices: Cloves, whole peppers and mustard seed. Boil the vinegar and spices and then throw over pickles boiling. Add a tablespoon of curry powder, and when cold tie up, having previously put a cloth with mustard seed over all.

CUCUMBERS IN OIL

One hundred medium-sized cucumbers, sliced thin lengthwise, add one pint salt, let stand overnight, drain thoroughly in morning, add two pints of sliced onions, then add dressing, consisting of four tablespoons of black mustard seed, four of white mustard seed, two of celery seed, one-half pint of best olive oil, one-half pint of white vinegar. Put cucumbers and onions into this, add one teaspoon of powdered alum, dissolved in a little warm water, add enough vinegar to cover it well, let stand three weeks before using.

SWEET PICKLES

Soak five hundred tiny cucumbers in salt water for twenty-four hours, using one-half of a cup of salt to four quarts of water. Drain, pour hot water over them and drain very dry. Take two ounces of cloves, heads removed, four sticks cinnamon; tie these spices in a bag and heat with three pounds of brown sugar and one pint of cider vinegar slowly, nearly to the boiling-point, add the pickles and remove from the stove. Put in glass jars and cover with vinegar.

MIXED PICKLES

Wash one quart of large cucumbers, cut in cubes, one quart of small cucumbers left whole, one quart small silver-skinned onions, one quart small green tomatoes chopped coarse, two red peppers chopped fine, one large cauliflower broken in small pieces; pour over them a weak brine solution made of one quart of water and a cup of salt. Let stand twenty-four hours; bring to a boil in same solution, drain and make the dressing.

*Mixed Pickle Dressing.*—Mix six tablespoons of mustard, one tablespoon of turmeric, one cup of flour, two cups of sugar and two quarts of vinegar. These ingredients must be thoroughly mixed and then cooked until thick. Stir in the pickles; heat thoroughly; empty into glass jars and stand away until needed.

PICKLED CAULIFLOWER

Separate flowerettes of four heads of cauliflower, add one cup of salt, and let stand overnight. Place in colander, rinse with cold water and let drain. Tie one-quarter of a cup of mixed pickle spices in a thin bag and boil with two quarts of vinegar and two cups of sugar, throw in the cauliflower, boil a few minutes and pour to over flowing in wide-mouthed bottles or cans. Cork or cover and seal airtight.

PICKLED BEANS

Remove the strings and cut one pint of wax beans into one inch pieces; wash and cook in boiling salt water (one teaspoon of salt to one quart of water), until tender, but not soft. Drain beans and save the water in which they were cooked. Reserve enough of this bean liquor to fill cans, add one-half cup of sugar and one cup of vinegar, let just cook up add the drained beans, cook all together and pour boiling hot into the cans. Seal at once. Use as a salad or sweet sour vegetable.

PICKLED ONIONS

Pour hot salt water over the onions, which should be small and perfectly white. Peel them with a silver spoon (a knife would injure their color), and let them lay in a salt brine for two days. Then drain the onions and boil enough vinegar to cover them. Throw the onions in the boiling vinegar and let them boil only a few minutes. Take from the fire and lay them in glass jars, with alternate layers of whole white peppercorns and a few cloves (removing the soft heads, which would turn the onions black), a stick of horseradish sliced, and mustard seed and dill (used sparingly). When the jars are filled heat the vinegar and add a cup of sugar to a gallon of vinegar. Cover the jars to overflowing with the vinegar, and seal while hot.

GREEN TOMATO PICKLE (FRENCH PICKLE)

Wash thoroughly a peck of green tomatoes, eight large white onions and six green-bell peppers. Remove the seeds from the peppers. Slice all the vegetables very thin. Put them in a stone jar; sprinkle a pint of salt over them, add a pint of cold water. Cover them with a napkin and let stand overnight.

In the morning put as much of the pickle as it will hold in a colander; let cold water run over; drain the vegetables a moment, then turn them from the colander into a large preserving kettle. Repeat the process till all are in the kettle. Then add a quart of cider vinegar, a half pint of tarragon vinegar, a pound of granulated sugar, a half pound of yellow mustard seeds, four bay leaves, an ounce of stick cinnamon (broken in short lengths), six whole cloves and stand the kettle over a slow fire and let the whole simmer for an hour with the cover of the kettle drawn back two inches. Stir the mixture frequently. At the end of the hour put the pickle in a stone crock or in glass jars.

PEPPER MANGOES

Take large green peppers; extract the seeds and core with a penknife, being careful not to break the peppers. Chop up one head of cabbage after boiling it in salt water. When cold add one cup of mustard seed, two tablespoons of grated horseradish, one nutmeg grated, one clove of garlic grated, a pinch of ground ginger, one dozen whole peppercorns, half a tablespoon of prepared mustard, one teaspoon of sugar and half a teaspoon of best salad oil. Lay the peppers in strong salt brine for three days; then drain off the brine and lay them in fresh water for twenty-four hours. Fill the peppers with the above mixture, sew or tie them up with strong thread, pack them in a large stone jar and pour scalding vinegar over them. Repeat this process three times more, at intervals of three days. Then tie up the jar and set it away in a cool, dry place for three months.

PICCALILLI

Take one-half peck of green tomatoes, three red peppers, chopped; put in one cup of salt. Let stand overnight, then strain off the water. Five chopped onions, one pound of brown sugar, one-quarter ounce of allspice, and whole cloves put in a bag; one bunch of celery, one-half ounce of mustard seed. Cover with vinegar and boil three hours.

PREPARED MUSTARD

Rub together one teaspoon of sugar, saltspoon of fine salt and one tablespoon of best salad oil. Do this thoroughly. Mix two tablespoons of ground mustard with vinegar enough to thin it. Then add to the mixture of sugar, and if too thick, add a little boiling water.

BEET AND HORSERADISH RELISH

Take three cups of cold, boiled beets, grate and add one-half cup of grated horseradish; season with one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of salt and two tablespoons of sugar. Add all the vinegar the horseradish and beets will absorb, and place in covered jar or glass and it is ready for use. Will keep a long time.

CABBAGE, BEET AND HORSERADISH RELISH

Take two quarts of boiled beets chopped, two quarts of cabbage chopped, one cup of grated horseradish, mix with two cups of sugar and two teaspoons of salt, add cold vinegar to cover, and place in gallon jar.

PICKLED BEETS

Take two pounds of cold, boiled beets, slice, place in crock in layers, sprinkle with one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of brown sugar, one teaspoon of caraway seed, if you like, and cover with one pint of vinegar.

Cold, hard-boiled eggs may be placed in the vinegar, and sliced over the beets for decorations. The eggs will be red.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)

Select a medium-size, very hard head of red cabbage. Remove the outer leaves and cut the stalk off close to the head. Then cut the cabbage in quarters and take out the heart close to the leaves.

With a very sharp, thin-bladed knife cut the cabbage in shreds as fine as possible.

After the cabbage is all finely cut let cold water run over it through a colander; put the cabbage in a big kitchen bowl or a stone-crock in layers about two inches thick.

Over each layer place two or three thin slices of red onions, and sprinkle about four generous tablespoons of salt. Repeat this process till all the sliced cabbage is in the jar or bowl. Let the last layer be one of salt.

Pour a pint of cold water over this. Cover it with a plate that fits closely and lay a weight of some sort on the plate and stand the bowl in a cool place overnight.

In the morning pour the cabbage, brine and all, in a large colander to drain; let the cold water from the tap run over it for about five minutes; then return the cabbage to the receptacle in which it was salted.

A stone-crock is really the best, as the cabbage will keep in it all winter. In a kettle or saucepan over the fire add a pint of good cider vinegar, a gill of tarragon vinegar, a half pint of cold water, a half pound of granulated sugar, four bay leaves, a level tablespoon of allspice, a teaspoon of peppercorns and three ounces of stick cinnamon broken in half-inch pieces.

Let this all boil one minute and while boiling hot pour it over the cabbage in the jar; place the plate which should be of porcelain, over it; then put the cover of the jar on and let this stand for twenty-four hours. Then pour off the vinegar, heat it again till it just boils, pour it over the cabbage, cover it and put it in a cool place. It will keep in perfect condition all winter, and is one of the most delicious relishes known.

SAUERKRAUT

Line the bottom and sides of a clean barrel or keg with cabbage leaves. Cut into fine shreds one or two dozen large heads of white, crisp cabbage. Do this on a large slaw-cutter. Now begin to pack: First put in a layer of cabbage, say about four inches deep, and press down firmly and sprinkle with about four tablespoons of salt. Put one or two tart apples, cut up fine, between each layer, or some Malaga grapes (which will impart a fine flavor to the kraut). When four layers have been put in, pound with a wooden beetle until the cabbage is quite compact and then add more cabbage, and so on until all has been salted, always pounding down each layer. Last, cover with cabbage leaves, then a clean cloth, a well-fitting board, and a heavy stone, to act as weight on top of all. It is now ready to set away in a cool cellar to ferment. In two weeks examine, remove the scum, if any; wash the cloth, board and stone, wash also the sides of the keg or jar, and place all back again. This must be done weekly.

CORN RELISH

Boil nine ears of corn and cut from cob; chop fine large head of cabbage and salt it; chop six green peppers; two tablespoons of white mustard-seed, three pints of vinegar, one cup of granulated sugar, two tablespoons of turmeric, two tablespoons of cornstarch, and one tablespoon of dry mustard. Dissolve cornstarch and mustard in the vinegar; put on to thicken. Strain salt-water from the cabbage. Mix all the ingredients and stir in pot of vinegar. Let all get very hot and seal in pint jars. This is fine as a pickle with cold meats.

MUSHROOM CATSUP

Wash and look over one pint of mushrooms carefully, put them in an earthen jar with alternate layers of salt. Let stand for twenty-four hours in a comparatively warm place; put through a fruit press and add one-fourth ounce of green ginger root cut in small pieces. Measure the mushroom liquor; to one pint of liquor add one-half ounce of peppercorn and simmer for forty minutes; then add one-fourth ounce of allspice and of cloves and one blade of mace and boil for fifteen minutes. Take from fire and cool. Strain through a cloth, bottle and seal.

TOMATO CATSUP

Cut eight quarts of tomatoes in pieces and stew them until soft; press through a sieve to remove the skins and seeds; add one head of garlic or one-half onion, one-half tablespoon of black pepper, one-quarter teaspoon of red pepper, one-half ounce whole cloves, three-quarters of a cup of salt and one of cider vinegar; mix thoroughly and boil about three hours or until reduced one-half. Bottle without straining, then seal.

TOMATO SAUCE (CHILI)

Forty-five large tomatoes, skin and cut into pieces, twenty green peppers, twenty red peppers, six onions, all cut fine, two tablespoons of salt, six small cups of vinegar, two cups of sugar. Mix all together and boil two hours, then add one tablespoon each of ginger, cloves, cinnamon and allspice, and boil up once. Bottle and seal at once.

*PASSOVER DISHES*

CAKES, PUDDINGS, SAUCES, WINES, ETC.

How to set the table for the service of the "Seder" on the eve of Pesach or Passover.

Set the table as usual, have everything fresh and clean; a wineglass for each person, and an extra one placed near the platter of the man who conducts the seder. Then get a large napkin; fold it into four parts, set it on a plate, and in each fold put a perfect matzoth; that is, one that is not broken or unshapely; in short, one without a blemish. Then place the following articles on a platter: One hard-boiled egg, a lamb bone that has been roasted in ashes, the top of a nice stick of horse-radish (it must be fresh and green), a bunch of nice curly parsley and some bitter herb (the Germans call it lattig), and, also, a small vessel filled with salt water. Next to this platter place a small bowl filled with [Hebrew **] prepared as follows: Pare and chop up a few apples, add sugar, cinnamon, pounded almonds, some white wine and grated lemon peel, and mix thoroughly. Place these dishes in front of the one that conducts the seder, and to his left place two pillows, nicely covered, and a small table or chair, on which has been placed a wash-bowl with a pitcher of water and clean towel. In some families hard-boiled eggs are distributed after the seder.

PESACH BORSHT

About three weeks before Pesach take twenty pounds of beet-root, which must be thoroughly washed and scraped. Place the whole in a six-quart crock, cover with water. Place the cover on the crock and over this cover put a clean cloth.

When ready for use the liquor is boiled with any relishes and spices that are liked and may be used either hot or cold.

Boil as much as required for the meal, for twenty minutes or longer if desired, and thicken with beaten whole eggs that have been mixed with a little of the unboiled borsht, add the hot soup and serve. Do not boil after adding the eggs.

To two quarts of borsht take three eggs.

ROSEL, BEET VINEGAR

Place beets in a stone crock, removing greens. Cover with cold water and put in a warm place and let stand for three or four weeks or until the mixture becomes sour. This is used as a vinegar during Pesach and to make beet soup, Russian style.

RAISIN WINE, No. 1

To two pounds of raisins (cut in half if desired), add three quarts of cold water. Either place the mixture on a corner of the range and let it simmer for two or three days or boil it until one-third of the water has evaporated. A few tablespoons of sugar and a handful of stick cinnamon can be added if additional sweetness and flavoring are wished. When cold strain through a fine cloth. The strength of the wine depends largely upon the quality of the raisins.

RAISIN WINE, No. 2

Take two pounds of raisins, seeded and chopped, one pound of white loaf sugar, and one lemon. Put all into a stone jar, pour six quarts of boiling water over all and stir every day for a week. Then strain and bottle. Ready for use in ten or twelve days.

YOM-TOV SOUP

Take two pounds of ribs of beef and one chicken. Place in a large cooking-vessel with plenty of water and add a split carrot and onion, a head of celery, a little parsley root, pepper and salt to taste, and a pinch of saffron. Let the whole simmer for two hours. The meat is then removed and can be used as a separate dish.

MATZOTH MEAL KLEIS, No. 1

This is an accompaniment of the Yom-tov soup described above. To each tablespoon of matzoth meal take one egg. Beat the egg separately, adding a very little ground ginger, powdered cinnamon, ground almond, pepper and salt. Now stir in the matzoth meal and make into a paste with chicken fat or clarified dripping. Form this paste into small balls and boil them for twenty minutes in the Yom-tov soup.

PALESTINE SOUP

Three pounds of Jerusalem artichokes, two quarts of stock, one onion, one turnip, one head of celery, pepper and salt to taste. Peel and cut the vegetables into slices and boil them in stock until tender, then rub through a hair sieve. Beat the yolks of three eggs, add to the soup, and stir over the fire till just to the boiling point. The soup should be about the thickness of rich cream. If not thick enough, a little potato flour may be added.

POTATO FLOUR NOODLES

Take three eggs, beat until a light yellow and add one-half cup of potato flour and one-half cup of water, beat well. Heat a frying-pan, grease well and pour in the batter; fry in thin leaves or wafers. Cool, cut thin as noodles. Just before serving soup, strain, then let it come to a boil and add noodles and let soup again come to a boil and serve.

MATZOTH MEAL NOODLES

Add one-eighth teaspoon of salt to two eggs, beat slightly, stir in two tablespoons of matzoth meal. Heat a little fat in spider, pour in egg mixture; when cooked on one side turn on the other. Roll the pancake and cut into noodles one-eighth inch wide. Drop into boiling soup before serving.

MARROW DUMPLINGS

One tablespoon marrow creamed. Add a pinch of salt, little nutmeg and the yolk of one egg-mixed in gradually; some finely chopped parsley and then enough matzoth meal to hold; wet the hands and roll the mixture into small balls. Add to the boiling soup, and boil fifteen minutes.

ALMOND BALLS

One-eighth pound of almonds chopped fine. Yolk of one egg, well beaten. Add almonds to egg, pinch of salt, little grated rind of lemon. Beat white of egg stiff, then mix all together. Drop a little from end of teaspoon into boiling fat. Put in soup just before serving.

MATZOTH MEAL KLEIS, No. 2

Beat one tablespoon of chicken schmalz till quite white; pour one cup of boiling water over one egg. Add it to the dripping; stir these together, then add the flour, seasoning, a little chopped parsley, ginger, pepper and salt, and enough matzoth meal to form into small balls the size of a marble. Drop these into the boiling soup and cook about fifteen minutes. Test one in boiling water and if it boils apart add more meal.

MATZOTH KLEIS, No. 1

Soak four matzoth in cold water and press them after being thoroughly saturated. Add a little pepper, salt, sugar, parsley, and a half onion chopped fine, first browning the onion. Beat four eggs and add all together. Then pat in enough matzoth meal so that it may be rolled into balls. The less meal used the lighter will be the balls. They should boil for twenty minutes before serving.

Serve matzoth kleis in place of potatoes and garnish with minced onions browned in three tablespoons of fat. All matzoth meal and matzoth kleis are lighter if made a few hours before required and put in the ice-chest until ready to boil. When used as a vegetable make the balls considerably larger than for soup.

MATZOTH KLEIS, No. 2

Take six matzoth, three eggs, two cooking-spoons of chicken fat, parsley, onion, salt, pepper and ginger. Soak the matzoth in boiling water a minute, then drain every drop of water out of them. Press through sieve. Fry about three onions in the two tablespoons of chicken fat, and when a light brown, put the matzoth in the spider with the fat and onions to dry them. Add one teaspoon of salt, dash of pepper and ginger and one tablespoon of chopped parsley. Add the three yolks of eggs and beat all this together a few minutes; last, add the well-beaten whites. Form into balls by rolling into a little matzoth meal. Drop in boiling salt water and boil fifteen minutes; drain and pour over them hot fat with an onion, cut fine and browned.

FILLED MATZOTH KLEIS

Prepare a matzoth dough as for the soup kleis. Make round flat cakes of it with your hands, and fill with cooked prunes (having previously removed the kernels). Put one of the flat cakes over one that is filled, press the edges firmly together and roll until perfectly round. Boil them in salt water—the water must boil hard before you put them in. Heat some goose fat, cut up an onion in it and brown; pour this over the kleis and serve hot. The kleis may be filled with a cheese mixture. Use butter in that case.

ENGLISH LEMON STEWED FISH

Have washed and scraped clean the nape or head and shoulders of halibut, a shad, or any good firm fish; cut it up small and lay it in a stew-pan with one pint of water and three or four good sized onions, fried in oil a light brown; put them on top of the fish with a pinch of cayenne pepper, and a teaspoon of ground ginger, with two teaspoons of salt; let it all stew gently until it is done; if there should be too much gravy on it before adding the sauce, take some off. Prepare two eggs and six good sized lemons, squeezed and strained; then take some of the gravy from the fish while it is boiling, add it to the lemon, with the two eggs well beaten, and a tablespoon of potato flour; mix smoothly with some chopped parsley; when all is well mixed, add it to the fish, shake it gently for five minutes while it is boiling, taking care not to let it burn; when it is sufficiently cooked let it stand for an hour and serve it. Garnish with slices of lemon and parsley. To be eaten cold.

SOLE WITH WINE (FRENCH RECIPE)

Take a sole or fillets of any delicate fish. Lay on a fireproof dish, sprinkle with white pepper, salt and a little shalot, cover with claret or white wine, and let it cook in the oven till done. Draw off the liquor in a saucepan and let it boil up. Have ready the yolks of three eggs, well stirred (not beaten), the juice of a lemon, and two ounces of butter. Put all together in a bowl. Little by little add the hot sauce, stirring all the time. Pour it over the fish, and sprinkle with chopped parsley. Serve very hot. A few mushrooms are a palatable addition to this dish.

RED MULLET IN CASES

To four mullets allow one dozen button mushrooms, one tablespoon of finely chopped parsley, two shalots, the juice of a lemon, salt and pepper. Oil some pieces of foolscap paper, lay the fish on them and sprinkle over them the mushroom, parsley, shalot, lemon juice, pepper and salt. Fold them in the cases and cook on a well-greased baking-sheet in a moderate oven for about twenty or thirty minutes. Send to the table in cases very hot.

CHRIMSEL, No. 1

Sift one cup of matzoth meal in a bowl, stir into it one cup of boiling soup stock or wine. When mixed add one tablespoon of chopped almonds, one teaspoon of sugar, a pinch of salt and the yolks of four eggs well beaten; then add the stiffly-beaten whites of the four eggs and fry by tablespoonsfuls in boiling hot butter or goose grease. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve with wine sauce.

CHRIMSEL, No. 2

Soak about three matzoth. In the meantime seed a handful of raisins and pound as many almonds as you have raisins. Now press every drop of water out of the matzoth, put them in a bowl and stir them to a cream; add a pinch of salt, the peel of a lemon, yolks of four eggs and a cup of sugar, the raisins and almonds, and also a little cinnamon. Heat some oil in a spider; the more fat the lighter the chrimsel will be. Last add the stiffly-beaten whites to the dough. Then fry a light brown on both sides; use about a tablespoonful of batter for each chrimsel; serve with stewed prunes. Lay the chrimsel on a large platter and pour the prunes over all. Eat hot.

KENTUCKY CHRIMSEL

Two and one-half cups of meal, four eggs, two cups of sugar, one kitchen-spoon of goose fat, one of beef fat, four apples, and spices according to taste. One glass of wine also, if convenient. Put the meal in a bowl with salt, pepper, ground, clove, allspice, and cinnamon mixed into it; peel and grate the apples, melt the fat and mix, put in eggs and then stir in the sugar which has been boiled with water to a thin syrup and cooled off. Hollow out two pieces, put cranberries or any fruit between them; form into balls the size of a medium apple, and bake them on a well-greased pie-plate for about one hour.

MATZOTH WITH SCRAMBLED EGGS (UEBERSCHLAGENE MATZOTH)

Break six matzoth in small pieces in a colander. Pour boiling water through them, drain quickly. They should be moist but not soggy. Beat three whole eggs well, fold the matzoth in lightly. Heat four tablespoons of goose fat or oil in a spider, add the egg mixture; scrape and scramble carefully with spoon from the bottom of the pan and while scrambling add four tablespoons of sugar and cook gently until eggs are set. Serve at once. The sugar may be omitted if so desired.

SCRAMBLED MATZOTH

Soak six matzoth in water until soft. Squeeze out the water and mix with four beaten eggs. Add one-half teaspoon of salt and fry.

MATZOTH DIPPED IN EGGS, No. 1

Beat up as many eggs as are required; into these dip matzoth that have been soaked in milk. Fry quickly to a light brown on both sides, lay on a large platter, sprinkle with a mixture of sugar, cinnamon and grated peel of a lemon. The more eggs used the richer this will be. Fry in butter.

MATZOTH DIPPED IN EGGS, No. 2

Beat six eggs very light, add one-half tablespoon of salt. Heat two tablespoons of goose fat or olive oil in a spider. Break four matzoth into large, equal pieces. Dip each piece in the egg mixture and fry a light brown on both sides. Serve hot, sprinkled with sugar, cinnamon and a little grated lemon rind.

ZWIEBEL MATZOTH

As an appetizer nothing is better than a cake of unleavened bread rubbed with a raw onion, sprinkled lightly with salt and placed in the oven for a few minutes to dry. Buttered and eaten hot, it adds a relish to breakfast or tea.

MATZOTH EIRKUCHEN

Pour one-half cup of water on one-quarter cup of matzoth meal, add one teaspoon of salt and beat the yolks of four eggs very light, add to the meal mixture, let stand five minutes. Beat whites of eggs very stiffly, fold lightly into the yolk mixture. Drop mixture by spoonfuls in small cakes on hot greased spider. Turn when brown and brown on other side. Serve with sugar, jelly or preserves.

MATZOTH MEAL MACAROONS

Beat egg yolk separately. Add one teaspoon of matzoth meal and pinch of salt. Whip white to a snow, fold in the whites, and fry by tablespoonfuls in butter or fat and serve with prunes.

PIE CRUST

Soak one and a half matzoth and press dry; heat one tablespoon of fat and add the soaked matzoth. When dry add one-half cup of matzoth meal, two eggs, two tablespoons of sugar and one-eighth teaspoon of salt. Mix well and press into pie-plate with hands, as it is impossible to roll the dough. Have dough one-quarter inch thick.

MAMOURAS (TURKISH)

Dip in boiling salted water for one minute, one matzoth for each person to be served. Put the soaked matzoth in a dish, pour over it a little olive oil and grated cheese and repeat this until you have made as many layers as you have persons to serve; cut in slices and serve. Use Hashkeval—Greek Cheese.

GERMAN PUFFS

Into one-half pint of water put one-quarter pound of melted fat; when boiling add one-quarter pound of meal, finely sifted; it will form a thick paste. Beat up four eggs, remove the mixture from the fire and stir in the eggs. Grease some cups and put a spoonful in each; bake in a quick oven. When done sprinkle with cinnamon and cover with clarified sugar.

STEWED SWEETBREADS

Soak one pair of sweetbreads for two or three hours in sufficient warm water to cover them, then drain. Put them in a stew-pan, with boiling water to cover them, and then boil gently for seven or eight minutes. They are then ready for dressing. Lay the sweetbreads in a stew-pan, pour two cups of veal stock over them, add salt and cayenne pepper to taste, and simmer gently for one hour. Lift them out on to a very hot dish, add juice of one-half lemon and one teaspoon of potato flour to the gravy, stir smoothly, and boil up, pour over the sweetbreads and serve at once.

BEEFSTEAK PIE

Cut up two pounds of chuck steak; put it on to stew with salt, pepper and a little nutmeg and the juice of a lemon. Cook a few forcemeat balls, made very small, and a few potatoes cut in small pieces. Make ready a crust as follows: Boil four or five large floury potatoes; when done, strain and mash with salt and pepper, a little chopped parsley and a little melted fat; mix it with two well-beaten eggs; then put a layer of it around the bottom and sides of a deep pie-dish; lay in the stew, cover with the balance of the potato; brush it over with the yolk of an egg and bake in a quick oven till brown.

POTATO PLUM KNOEDEL (HUNGARIAN)

Peel and cook seven or eight large potatoes, place in a bowl, add salt, four whole eggs, one and one-half tablespoons of melted chicken fat and a little more than a cup of matzoth meal. Knead in bowl to smooth consistency. Take a handful at a time, pat smooth and flat, in the centre put a tablespoon of prune jam, form into a dumpling, place dumplings in boiling salt water, kettle half covered and allow to cook twelve to fifteen minutes. Take out with strainer and serve hot. Have ready a cup of hot melted chicken fat and sugar and cinnamon. Serve over knoedel to taste.

BIRMOILIS (TURKISH)

Take some mashed potatoes, grated cheese, well-beaten eggs; make a good paste, take tablespoonfuls of this mixture and drop in boiling oil; fry until brown. Serve with a syrup made of sugar and water.

POTATO MARBLES

Mix one-half pound of plain mashed potatoes smoothly with a generous teaspoon of finely chopped parsley, pepper and salt to taste; beat one egg, add it to the potato, mix well and make it into little balls the size of a cherry. Lay a tiny sprig of parsley on each, arrange the balls on a greased tin and bake till a light brown.

MINA (TURKISH)

Place some matzoth in cold water to soak. Take the matzoth out and dry them on a towel; grease a pan with olive oil and put in matzoth enough to cover bottom of pan. Take chopped meat, bind with an egg, season with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Cover this with the matzoth, add some olive oil, cover with mashed potatoes and one or two well-beaten eggs and bake until brown. If so desired the meat may be omitted. Grated cheese may be used, covered with mashed potatoes and eggs.

PRUNE BLINTZES

Take three cups of potato flour mixed with three eggs, add a little water and mix well. Heat a small frying-pan, grease with a little fat and pour into it enough batter to make thin pancakes. Chop prunes, add a little sugar and fill each cake with this mixture, fold into three-cornered pieces and fry. When done put in a pan, sprinkle with sugar and bake in oven. Do not let burn.

MEAT BLINTZES

The same pancakes can be used with meat taken from soup; fry two small onions with a little fat and chop with the meat. Add two eggs, salt and pepper to taste.

MATZOTH SPICE CAKE

To every egg add one-half tablespoon of matzoth meal and one tablespoon of sugar. Sift meal five times, mix with sugar, one-half tablespoon of ground ginger, one-half tablespoon of cinnamon, one-fourth tablespoon of cloves; mix with the well-beaten yolks and cut and fold in gently the stiffly-beaten whites.

MATZOTH MEAL CAKE

To the yolks of eight eggs add one and a half cups of pulverized sugar; stir until the consistency of batter, add the grated rind of a lemon, two teaspoons of ground cinnamon and two squares of chocolate grated, one teaspoon of allspice; add the juice of an orange, and one-half wine-glass of wine, and three-quarters of a cup of matzoth meal finely sifted, and one-quarter pound almonds finely pounded. Last, fold in the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour; try with a straw.

MATZOTH CHARLOTTE, No. 1

Soak one matzoth; beat and add to the beaten yolks of two eggs, add one-fourth teaspoon of salt, one-fourth cup of chopped almonds, one-fourth cup of raisins, one-fourth cup of currants, and mix thoroughly. Fold in the stiffly-beaten whites of two eggs and bake in a greased baking-dish.

MATZOTH CHARLOTTE, No. 2

Four eggs (yolks), one cup of sugar, pinch of salt, three matzoth (soaked in water and squeezed out), one grated apple, one lemon rind and juice, one-fourth cup of almonds, and one-fourth cup of raisins. Put the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs in last; before putting into oven. Bake in an even oven about one-half to three-quarters of an hour. To be eaten warm.

MATZOTH KUGEL

Soak three matzoth, heat two tablespoons of fat in a spider, press all the water out of the matzoth with your hands and dry them in the spider of heated fat; add about one-quarter pound of matzoth meal; stir the matzoth and matzoth meal well with a large spoon; add by degrees the yolks of five eggs and two ounces of pounded almonds, and the grated peel of one-half lemon. Add also one large sour apple, grated, a pinch of salt, and last the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Line a kugeltopf well with fat, and pour about a quarter pound of hot fat over the kugel. Bake immediately; serve with wine sauce.

MATZOTH SHALET

Four soaked matzoth; nine eggs, one cup of sugar, two grated apples, one and one-half cups of seeded raisins, one tablespoon of cinnamon, grated rind of an orange or a lemon and a few pounded almonds. Beat the sugar, eggs, and cinnamon until light; then add all the ingredients, except the matzoth, mixing well. Now drain the matzoth, gradually adding them to the mixture, beating until very light. Melt half a pound of rendered fat into the dish for baking, and then pour in the mixture. Bake in a moderately hot oven for one and one-fourth hours. Serve hot with wine, fruit, or prune sauce.

POTATO PUDDING

Stir the yolks of eight eggs with a cup of sugar, add four tablespoons of blanched and pounded almonds, and grate in the peel of a lemon. Add also its juice. Have ready half a pound of grated potatoes which have been cooked the day previous. Last add the stiffly-beaten whites. Add one teaspoon of salt. Grease your pudding form well, pour in the mixture and bake. Set in a pan of boiling water in the oven. The water in the pan must not reach higher than half way up the pudding form. Time required, half an hour. When done turn out on a platter. Serve with a wine or chocolate sauce. You may bake this pudding in an iron pudding form without setting it in the boiling water.

MATZOTH PLUM PUDDING

One-half pound of chopped suet, one-half pound of moist sugar, one-half pound of raisins (stoned and chopped), one-half pound of currants, one-half pound of mixed peel, two matzoth soaked in cold water and then well drained and beaten, one-quarter pound of sifted meal, the rind of half a lemon, one teaspoon of ground cinnamon, eight eggs and a wineglass of rum. Beat all these ingredients thoroughly together, and boil for eight hours in a pudding mold or basin. Serve with rum sauce.

BATTER PUDDING

One teacup of matzoth-meal, one pint of milk, two eggs, three ounces of brown sugar, two ounces of butter and the rind of a lemon. Mix the meal into a batter with the milk and eggs, add the sugar, butter (melted), grated rind of a lemon and a tablespoon of rum, if desired. Pour the mixture in a greased basin or mold, and boil for one hour or bake for one-half hour.

BEOLAS

Take six eggs. Beat them until very light. Add a little fine meal, just enough to give it consistency; Drop this from the point of a spoon into boiling olive oil or fat. When light brown, take out, and drain. Serve cold with a syrup made of water, cinnamon and sugar.

COCOANUT PUDDING

One grated cocoanut, six eggs, grated rind and juice of two lemons, one cup of granulated sugar and the milk of the cocoanut; beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar and the grated rind of lemon until light and creamy; add gradually the cocoanut and the beaten whites of the eggs, and lastly put in the milk of the cocoanut, to which has been added the juice of the lemons. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour and serve quite cold.

CARROT PUDDING

Beat one and a half cups of powdered sugar and the yolks of eight eggs; take one and a half cups peeled and grated raw carrots and stir all together. Add one cup of grated almonds, the rind of half a lemon chopped finely, one tablespoon of wine, and last the beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in a well-buttered and flour-sprinkled form at least one hour in a slow oven.

ALMOND PUDDING, No. 1

Take the whites of seven eggs with the yolks of ten, one-half pound of pulverized sweet almonds with one-half ounce of pounded bitter almonds, one-half pound of powdered sugar and one tablespoon of orange-flower water. Beat the eggs well with the orange water, then add the sugar and almonds gradually; beat all for one hour or until it bubbles; then grease deep pie-dishes with olive oil and pour in the mixture. They must be baked in a rather moderate oven. When the mixture is set and browned place over them a paper greased with olive oil to prevent them getting dark. Serve cold.

Powdered sugar should be sprinkled freely over the pudding before serving. If you wish to have them very rich boil one-half pound of sugar with one-half pint of water until it thickens; cool and pour over the pudding when you take it from the oven.

ALMOND PUDDING, No. 2

Take one pound blanched almonds pounded, eight eggs, cinnamon, and lemon rind. Beat the eggs for twenty minutes, then add one and one-half cups of sugar gently, and then the almonds; mix all together thoroughly. Bake in shallow pans and serve cold.

ALMOND HILLS

Roast one-quarter pound of sweet almonds, cut into strips lengthwise in a spider of heated sugar, not too brown. Beat one-half pound of sifted powdered sugar and the whites of five eggs to a very stiff froth. Mix all thoroughly and place teaspoonfuls of this mixture on waxed paper, and bake a light brown, in slow oven.

APPLE SPONGE PUDDING

Pare eight apples and cut off the tops carefully, so as to be able to use them as covers to the apples. Now scrape out the inside with a knife, being careful not to break the apple. Mix the scrapings with sugar, raisins, cinnamon, pounded almonds and a little white wine. Fill this mixture into the hollow of the apple and clap on a cover for each apple; then grease a pudding dish, lay in the apples and stew them for a few minutes, but not long enough to break them. Make a sponge cake batter of eight eggs and two scant cups of sugar and a pinch of salt and add the grated peel of a lemon and beat until thick, at least half an hour. Fold in a cup of matzoth flour, sifted very fine. Pour this batter over the apples and bake in a moderate oven. Serve with wine sauce. Half this quantity is sufficient for a small family.

GRATED APPLE PUDDING

Take six good-sized apples, six yolks of eggs, one-half cup of sugar (or to taste), one-half pound of grated almonds, or one-half cup of matzoth-meal, one-half teaspoon of salt, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon. Pare the apples and leave them whole. Then grate all the apple from the pulp. To this add the above, also about three tablespoons of chicken or goose grease. When all is well mixed, add the whites well beaten to a stiff froth. Mix very light. Bake in well-greased baking dish.

APPLE PUDDING

Soak three matzoth and squeeze the water out well; put them in a bowl with three good-sized apples cut in small thick pieces; add one-quarter pound of currants, one-quarter pound of raisins, a little cinnamon, some rind of lemon cut thin, one-quarter pound of brown sugar and two ounces of melted fat; mix all well together with six beaten eggs; pour in a greased dish and bake in a moderate oven. This pudding can be boiled if preferred. Serve with rum sauce.

FOAM TORTE

Four egg; whites, well beaten; add one tablespoon of vinegar drop by drop, one cup of sugar, one tablespoon of vanilla; beat for twenty minutes. Line spring form with this batter on all sides. Reserve a little of the mixture and drop by drops on top of torte. Let bake forty-five minutes in moderate oven; when baked remove. Serve with sliced bananas, peaches and cream or strawberries.

SPONGE CAKE, No. 1

Take eight eggs, one pound of granulated sugar, grated rind of a lemon, and six ounces of fine matzoth-meal. Beat the eggs, sugar and lemon rind together until very light, to about the thickness of a custard, then add the meal, stirring it in without much beating. Bake in a moderately quick oven one-half hour.

SPONGE CAKE, No. 2

Take eight eggs, one and one-half cups of granulated sugar, one cup of mixed matzoth-meal and potato flour and flavoring to taste.

Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together until very light. Then add the flavoring, matzoth-meal and potato flour and last of all the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Stir lightly and bake in a moderately quick oven.

POTATO FLOUR SPONGE CAKE

Separate the whites and yolks of nine eggs. Beat the whites of seven eggs very stiff. To the well-beaten yolks of nine eggs and the whites of two, add one and three-quarter cups of sugar and juice and rind of one lemon. Beat thoroughly, add one scant cup of potato flour, and beat again. Now fold in the beaten whites very carefully, and bake slowly in a moderate oven. Bake forty to fifty minutes. Nice for invalids.

STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE WITH MATZOTH-MEAL

Beat until very light the yolks of four eggs and three-quarters of a cup sugar; add rind of one-half lemon, a pinch of salt, one-half cup of sifted matzoth meal, and last the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in two shallow square pans in a moderate oven.

When cold lay a cake on a platter, spread thickly with strawberries that have been well sugared. Put the other cake on top. Spread over the top and sides with cream that has been sweetened, flavored and whipped very stiff.

HASTY PUDDING

Take any kind of old cake, cut up in slices, dip in wine or sprinkle some wine over all. Make a custard with one pint of milk and four eggs. Put one tablespoon of potato flour with the yolks, sweeten to taste, boil the custard, flavor and pour over cake in pudding dish. Beat whites to a stiff froth, add sugar and spread over all. Put in oven to brown slightly. Eat cold.

POTATO FLOUR PUDDING

Take one-quarter pound of goose-oil, stir it to a cream, and stir in gradually the yolks of ten eggs and three-quarters of a pound of sifted sugar, the grated peel of a lemon, also its juice and one-half teaspoon of salt. Add last one-half pound of potato flour and the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Have the pudding form well greased before putting in the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven. Serve with raspberry sauce, made of jelly. Take a glass of red raspberries, press them through a hair sieve, add a wineglass of red wine, add sugar to taste, and let it boil hard for about five minutes.

PESACH CAKE WITH WALNUTS

Cream together the yolks of nine eggs, and one-half pound of powdered sugar, weigh one pound of walnuts before shelling; when shelled, grind; to the creamed yolks and sugar add two tablespoons of well sifted matzoth flour, a pinch of salt, and one teaspoon of vanilla, then mix in the ground walnuts. Fold in gently the nine beaten whites. Bake three-quarters of an hour.

DATE CAKE

Eight eggs, one and one-quarter cups of pulverized sugar, two tablespoons of ground cinnamon and cloves mixed, one cup of matzoth-meal; one-half pound seeded dates, cut fine, and the juice of half a lemon.

Beat the yolks of the eggs and sugar together until very light, add the matzoth meal, spices, dates and lemon, and finally put in the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in a moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.

CHOCOLATE CAKE

Beat the yolks of four eggs with one-half cup of sifted sugar, add one-quarter pound of grated sweet almonds, one-quarter pound of finely-grated vanilla chocolate, and one-quarter pound of raisins, one-half cup of matzoth meal sifted fine, juice of an orange, one-quarter cup of wine, and lastly the stiffly-beaten whites. Bake one hour in a slow oven, in a form lined with greased paper.

COOKIES

Sift together one-half cup of matzoth meal and one-fourth cup of potato flour. Add one-half cup of sugar, one-fourth cup of chopped almonds and two eggs. Rollout in potato flour mixed with sugar. Cut and bake on greased tins in a hot oven.

ALMOND CAKE

One pound of almonds, pounded; one pound of sugar, one or two eggs and enough cinnamon to give a strong flavor. Bake in a shallow pan and cut into small sections.

ALMOND MACAROONS

One pound of almonds ground fine, one and one-half pounds of powdered sugar, the whites of five eggs and the grated rind of two lemons. Beat the whites of eggs to a snow, add the sugar and the grated lemon rind and almonds; mix it well together. Grease a very thin paper with olive oil, sprinkle some powdered sugar over it, place on a tin. Form the cakes and place them a little distance from each other and bake in a very moderate oven. When done let them cool before you touch them.

CINNAMON STICKS

Grate one-half pound of almonds, beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth, add gradually one pound of pulverized sugar and a tablespoon of cinnamon. Roll out this dough into half finger lengths and about as thick as your little finger. Bake, and when done ice each one with boiled frosting.

IMBERLACH

Take two cups of matzoth flour, one-quarter pound of powdered ginger, mix together with three eggs. Set this dough aside until it dries. Take one-half pound of honey and three-quarters pound of sugar and boil until it gets a reddish color. Beat in the ginger and matzoth dough, mix it with honey, set back on stove, stirring constantly; when the mixture is thick and a reddish color, place on the board so as to cool; roll and cut in two-inch lengths.

KREMSLEKH

To each tablespoon of matzoth-meal take one egg, a pinch of salt, half a teaspoon of sugar, a teaspoon of ground almonds, a few stoned and chopped raisins, a pinch of ground cinnamon, a spoon of oil, or its equivalent of beef dripping, and just enough water to make the whole into a stiff paste. Mix the ingredients very thoroughly.

Now take a large enamelled saucepan and about half fill it with oil or fat. Bring this to boiling point but do not let it burn. Shape the paste into small pieces and drop them into boiling fat, turning them continually until well browned and then take out and drain carefully on a strainer. May be eaten hot or cold.

EGG MARMALADE

Make a thick syrup by dissolving one pound of sugar in one-half pint of water over the fire, adding one ounce of pounded almonds while the syrup is clarifying. Take the saucepan off the fire and when the contents have become moderately cool stir in carefully the well-beaten yolks of twenty eggs. It will need rather prolonged stirring to blend the eggs with the syrup. Now flavor with vanilla or wine and cook over a slow fire, stirring constantly and taking great care that the mixture does not burn.

RADISH PRESERVES (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Take black radishes, clean and cut them in strips. Weigh, and to three pounds of radishes take one pound of honey and one and one-half pounds of sugar. Set the radishes on to boil with water, pour off this water, add fresh water and let cook awhile; pour off the second water, add the honey to radishes and let cook well. Then add the sugar and let cook again. When the radishes begin to get brown add one-quarter pound of white ginger, and some walnuts broken into quarters. Stir. When brown, remove from stove. Must come out of the pan dry; no syrup must remain.

BEET PRESERVES (RUSSIAN)

Cut beets in strips like noodles, wash, cook in water one-half hour. To three pounds of beets take one pound of honey and one pound of sugar. When the beets have cooked on slow fire until white, strain off and add the honey. Let cook well and add sugar; cook, add white ginger to taste, stirring continually, add one-quarter pound of almonds, cut in slices; one-quarter of an hour before being done, mix, and when the beets brown put in jars.

PRUNES

Wash the prunes well, first in warm water, then in cold. Cut up half a lemon, some stick cinnamon and sugar to taste. Cook them in the oven, covered tight, allowing a liberal quantity of water; stew slowly for two hours; thicken with a teaspoon of potato flour, and wet the potato flour with the juice of an orange before adding.

If the prunes are for chrimsel, leave out the thickening.

LEMON PRESERVES

Take seven lemons, slice thin and remove seeds. Draw string through slices, fasten ends, lay them in a pan with water; boil a short time, remove the lemon, pour off water; cook two pounds of sugar with two cups of water. When the sugar is syrupy add one-half pound of large raisins, put in the lemon and let cook until the syrup is thick.

CANDIED LEMON AND ORANGE PEEL

Lemon and orange peel if saved can be put to excellent use. Take out the greater portion of the white inside; throw the rinds into boiling water and simmer gently for twenty minutes. Drain, weigh, and take a pound of sugar to every pound of peel. Put a layer of sugar and a layer of fruit into the preserving kettle; stand it over a slow fire until the sugar melts. When melted, cook slowly until the rinds are transparent. Lift them out; drain them and when nearly dry roll in granulated sugar.

WINE SAUCE

One cup of white wine, half a cup of water, grated peel of lemon, teaspoon of potato flour wet with cold water, add the yolks of two eggs, stirring constantly; when thick, add the beaten whites and serve.

RUM SAUCE

Beat yolks of two eggs with a tablespoon of sugar, and a small cup of cold water, a wineglass of rum and the juice of a lemon, and bring to boiling point, stirring all the time. The two whites of eggs may be whipped very firm and spread over the pudding just before serving.

SUGAR SYRUP

Two cups of brown sugar, one cup of boiling water, and cinnamon to taste. Stir the ingredients together in a saucepan until the sugar is dissolved and then let the mixture simmer slowly until it thickens.

MOCK WHIPPED CREAM FILLING

Use between and on top of layer cakes, or as a filling for torten.

Peel and grate one large sour apple, three-quarters cup of white sugar, white of one egg; beat all together a long time, flavor with vanilla or grated rind of one-half lemon. Mix the apple with the sugar as soon as possible or it will turn dark.

LEMON CREAM FILLING

Put on to boil the yolks of five eggs, one-half cup of granulated sugar, the juice of three lemons and grated rind of one, and about a brandy glass of water. Stir constantly so as to prevent curdling. When it has thickened and comes to a boil take it from the range and add the beaten whites of eggs.

FILLING FOR CHRIMSEL

This is made of unblanched, pounded almonds, grated apples, chopped raisins, brown sugar, plenty of cinnamon and the grated rind of a lemon.

Mix the ingredients together and fill the hollowed out center of the chrimsel with them. Then place one chrimsel upon another, being careful not to let the filling escape from its hollow and fasten the edges securely together with the fingers, keeping the rounded shape uninjured. Fry them in boiling fat, turning them from one side to the other until a dark brown. Serve hot with sugar syrup.

STRAWBERRY DESSERT

Line a dish with macaroons, wet them with wine, put over this a box or quart of strawberries, and sugar them well. Beat the yolks of four eggs with one small cup of sugar, grated rind of lemon and half its juice. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, and half the yolks; pour over all in your pudding dish. When baked spread the other half of the whites on top, having previously sweetened the remaining whites with sugar. Bake a light brown. Eat cold with whipped or plain cream.

*INDEX*

APPETIZERS

Ambrosia
Anchovy Canapés
Anchovy Canapés with Tomatoes
Black Olives
Brain (Appetizer)
Canapés—How to Make
Caviar Canapés
Celery Relish
Cheese Balls
Chicken Liver Paste, No. 1
Chicken Liver Paste, No. 2
Chopped Herring
Chopped Onion and Chicken Fat
Delicious Appetizer, A
Deviled Eggs with Hot Sauce
Egg Appetizer
Filled Lemons
Grapefruit Cocktail
Imitation Pate de Foi Gras
Musk Melons
Nut and Cheese Relish
Peach Cocktail
Pineapple and Banana Cocktail
Raspberry Cocktail
Red Pepper Canapés
Salted Almonds
Salted Peanuts
Sardellen
Sardine Canapés
Strawberry Cocktail
Stuffed Eggs
Stuffed Yellow Tomatoes
White Caviar

SANDWICHES

Anchovy
Brown Bread
Celery
Cheese and Nut
Chestnut
Chicken
Chicken with Mayonnaise
Date and Fig
Deviled Tongue
Egg
Egg and Olive
Fig
Fish
Lettuce
Minced Goose
Mustard Sardine Paste
Nut and Raisin
Olive
Poached Egg
Ribbon
Russian
Salmon and Caviar
Salmon and Brown Bread
Sandwiches, How to make
Sardine
Surprise
Toasted Cheese
Tongue
Veal
White and Brown Bread

SOUPS

Artichoke
Barley
Barley and Vegetable
Beer
Beer (Parve)
Beet—Russian Style
Beet—Russian Style (Fleischig)
Black Bean
Borsht
Bouillon
Brown Flour
Brown Stock
Cherry
Chicken, No. 1
Chicken, No. 2
Chicken Broth
Cold Sour
Consommé
Cream Soup
Cream Soup—How to Make
Cream of Almond
Cream of Asparagus
Cream of Cauliflower
Cream of Celery
Cream of Corn
Cream of Herring (Russian Style)
Cream of Lettuce
Cream of Lentil
Cream of Tomato
Cream Wine
Dried Pea
Farina
Fish Chowder
Fruit
Green Kern
Green Pea
Green Pea Purée
Julienne
Leek
Lentil (Linzen) No. 1
Lentil (Linzen) No. 2
Milk
Milk and Cheese
Mock Fish Chowder
Mock Turtle
Mulligatawny
Mushroom and Barley
Mutton Broth
Noodle
Okra Gumbo (Southern)
Onion
Oxtail
Pigeon
Potato
Potato (Fleischig)
Red Wine
Rice Broth
Schalet or Tscholnt (Shabbas Soup)
Sour Milk
Sour Soup (for Purim)
Soup Stock, Directions
Spinach
Split Pea (Milchig)
Tchorba (Turkish)
Tomato
Tomato with Rice
Turkey
Turnip
Veal
Vegetable
Vegetable (Milchig)
White Stock

GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS

Baking Powder
Croutons
Drop
Dumplings for Cream Soups
Egg
Egg Custard
Egg Drop (Einlauf)
Farina
Flour Balls with Almonds
Force-meat for Kreplech
Fritter Beans
Grated Irish Potato
Kreplech or Butterflies
Liver Kloesse
Noodles
Pfärvel or Grated Egg
Plaetchen
Schwem Kloesse
Spatzen
Sponge

FISH

Baked—Directions
Baked Bass à la Wellington
Baked Black Bass
Baked Chopped Herring
Baked Fish—Turkish Style
Baked Flounders
Baked Mackerel
Baked Shad
Boiled—Directions
Boiled Salt Mackerel
Boiled Trout
Boned Smelts, Sautéd
Broiled—Directions
Broiled Salt Mackerel
Cod Fish Balls
Cream Salmon
Croquettes of Fish
Directions:
  How to Bone
  How to Clean
  How to Open
  How to Skin
Filled Fish—Turkish Style
Fillet of Sole à la Creole
Fillet of Sole à la Mouquin
Finnan Haddie
Finnan Haddie and Macaroni
Fish for Stock
Fish with Garlic
Fish with Horseradish Sauce
Fish with Sauerkraut
Fresh Cod or Striped Bass
Fritada
Frying Fish—Jewish Method
Frying Fish—Another Method
Gefillte Fisch
Gefillte Fisch with Egg Sauce
Hecht (Pickerel)
Kedgeree
Lemon Fish
Marinirte
Marinirte Herring (Pickled)
Paprika Carp
Pickle for Salmon
Pike with Egg Sauce
Piquant
Remarks and Directions
Redsnapper with Tomato Sauce
Russian Fish Cakes
Salmon Cutlet
Salmon Loaf
Salt Herring
Sautéd—Directions
Scalloped, No. 1
Scalloped, No. 2
Scalloped Fish Roe
Shad Roe
Soused Herring
Stuffed Herring
Sweet and Sour
Sweet Sour
Sweet Sour with Wine
Swiss Creamed Fish
Turkish Sauces for Fish
  Agristoga
  Ahilado
  Zuemimo

SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES

General Remarks
Anchovy
Bernaise
Cream Mustard
Cucumber
Curry
Drawn Butter
Hollandaise
Maître d'Hôtel Butter
Mustard
Pickle
Piquante
Quick Bernaise
Sardellen or Herring
Spanish
Tartare
Tomato
Vinaigrette
White (for Vegetables)

SAUCES FOR MEATS

Apple
Bordelaise
Brown
Caraway
Cranberry
Garlic
Horseradish, No. 1
Horseradish, No. 2
Kimmel
Knoblauch
Lemon
Maître d'Hôtel
Mint
Mushroom
Olive
Onion
Raisin
Stewed Cranberries
Wine

FRYING

Bread Crumbs, Prepared for Frying
Frying—Directions
To Render Goose, Duck or Beef Fat
To Make Hard White Soap

ENTRÉES

Aspic (Sulz)
Brains with Egg Sauce
Brains, Sweet and Sour
Boiled Tongue, Sweet and Sour
Calf's Brains, Sour
Calf's Brains, Fried
Calf's Feet, Prunes and Chestnuts
Calf's Feet, Scharf
Calf's Foot Jelly, No. 1
Calf's Foot Jelly, No. 2
Calf's Liver Smothered in Onions
Cauliflower Croquettes
Chicken Croquette, No. 1
Chicken Croquette, No. 2
Chicken Fricassee with Noodles
Chicken Livers
Chicken à la Sweetbread
Croquettes—Directions
Croquettes of Calf's Brains
Croquettes of Fish
Deviled Brains
Eggplant Croquettes (Roumanian)
Filled Tongue
Gansleber in Sulz
Gansleber Purée in Sulz
Gefillte Milz (Milt)
Goose Liver
Goose Liver Aspic
Goose Liver with Glacéd Chestnuts
Goose Liver with Mushroom Sauce
Hashed Calf's Lung and Heart
Home-made Chicken Tamales
Jellied Chicken
Kischkes
Kischkes—Russian Style
Meat Croquettes
Meat and Boiled Hominy Croquettes
Milt, Stewed
Peanut and Rice Croquettes
Pickled Beef Tongue
Potato Croquettes
Pressed Chicken
Rice Croquettes, No. 1
Rice Croquettes, No. 2
Smoked Tongue
Smothered Tongue
Spanish Liver
Sweetbreads
Sweetbread Croquettes
Sweetbread Glacé
Sweetbread Sauté with Mushrooms
Sweet Potato Croquettes
Tripe à la Creole
Tripe, Family Style
Veal Croquettes
Veal Sweetbread

MEATS

An Easy Pot Roast
Baked Hash
Beef Loaf
Beefsteak, Broiled
Beefsteak, Fried
Bitki (Russian Hamburger Steak)
Boiled Corned Beef
Braised Oxtails
Breast Flank (Short Ribs) and Yellow Turnips
Breast of Mutton, Stewed with Carrots
Breast of Veal, Roasted
Brisket of Beef (Brustdeckel)
Brisket of Beef with Sauerkraut
Brunswick Stew
Carnatzlich (Roumanian)
Calf's Hearts
Chopped Meat with Raisins (Roumanian)
Curried Mutton
Directions for Cooking Meats
Enchiladas
Fricasseed Veal with Cauliflower
Fried Steak with Onions
Gewetsh (Servian)
Goulash, Hungarian
Goulash, Russian
Hamburger Steak
Home-made Corned Beef
Irish Stew
Lamb Chops
Lamb and Macaroni
Lamb Stew—Tocane
Left-over Meats
Marrow Bones
Meat Olives
Meat Pie
Meat and Spaghetti
Mock Duck
Mutton Chops
Pan Roast Beef
Pickled Meat—Home-made Corned Beef
Pot Roast (Braised Beef)
Roast Beef, No. 1
Roast Beef, No. 2
Roast Beef—Russian Style
Roast Mutton with Potatoes
Roast Veal
Rolled Beef—Pot-Roasted
Sauerbraten
Short Ribs of Beef—Spanish
Shoulder or Neck of Veal—Hungarian Style
Smoked Beef
Soup Meat
Stewed Veal
Stuffed Shoulder of Mutton
Stuffed Shoulder of Veal
Sulze von Kalbsfuesen
To Broil Steak by Gas
Vienna Roast
Veal Loaf
Vienna Sausage
Wiener Braten (Vienna Roast)

POULTRY

Amastich
Boiled Chicken, Baked
Broiled Spring Chicken
Broiled Squab
Chicken en Casserole
Chicken Curry
Chicken Fricassee
Chicken à la Italienne
Chicken Paprika with Rice
Chicken with Rice
Chicken with Spaghetti en Casserole
Chicken—Turkish Style
Chili Con Carne
Duck
Duck à la Mode in Jelly
Fried Spring Chicken
Gaenseklein
Geschundene Gans
Giblets
Goose Grieben (Cracklings)
Goose Meat Preserved in Fat
Minced Goose—Hungarian Style
Pigeon Pie
Pilaf—Russian Style
Pilaf—Turkish Style
Poultry, to Dress and Clean
Roast Duck
Roast Chicken
Roast Goose
Roast Goose Breast
Roast Turkey
Smoked Goose
Smoked Goose Breast
Smothered Chicken
Spanish Pie
Squab or Nest Pigeons
Squab en Casserole
Stewed Goose, Piquante
Stuffed Chicken—Turkish Style
Stuffed Goose Neck
Stuffed Goose Neck—Russian Style
To Truss Chicken
Turkey Neck, Stuffed—Turkish Style

STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY

Bread Dressing for Fowl
Chestnut Stuffing
Crumb Dressing
Meat Dressing for Poultry
Potato Stuffing
Raisin Stuffing
To Stuff Poultry

VEGETABLES

Arday-Influs
Asparagus
Asparagus, Canned
Asparagus, Hungarian
Artichokes, French or Globe
Artichokes, French with Tomato Sauce
Artichokes, Jerusalem
Baked Beans with Brisket of Beef
Beans and Barley
Beet Greens
Beets, Baked
Beets, Boiled
Beets, Sour, Buttered
Belgian Red Cabbage
Boston Roast
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage, to Boil
Cabbage Boiled with Carrots
Cabbage, Creamed New
Cabbage, Filled
Cabbage, Fried
Cabbage, Red
Cabbage, Red, with Chestnuts and Prunes
Cabbage, Stewed
Carrots
Carrots Boiled with Cabbage
Carrots with Brisket of Beef
Carrots, Compote of—Russian Style
Carrots, Flemish
Carrots, Lemon
Carrots and Green Peas
Carrots, Simmered
Cauliflower
Cauliflower—Hungarian Style
Cauliflower with Brown Crumbs
Cauliflower (Roumanian)
Cauliflower, Scalloped
Cauliflower, Spanish
Celeriac
Celeriac, Purée of
Celery, Creamed
Celery with Chestnuts (Turkish)
Chestnuts, Boiled
Chestnuts with Celery (Turkish)
Chestnuts and Prunes
Chestnut Purée
Chestnuts and Raisins
Chestnuts, Roasted
Cold Slaw
Corn, Canned
Corn off the Cob
Corn on the Cob
Corn and Potatoes
Cucumbers, Fried
Cucumbers, Stuffed
Dandelions
Dried Beans—Directions
Dried Lima Beans, Baked
Dried Pea Purée
Eggplant, Baked
Eggplant and Baked Tomatoes
Eggplant, Broiled
Eggplant, Fried
Eggplant Fried in Oil—Turkish Style
Eggplant (Roumanian)
Farsole
Farsole Dulce
General Remarks
Green Peas
Green Peas with Pfärvel
Green Peas and Rice
Haricot Beans and Beef
Hot Slaw
Kal Dolmar
Kale
Kidney Beans with Brown Sauce
Kohl-rabi
Kohl-rabi with Breast of Lamb
Lentils, Baked
Lentil Sausages
Lettuce
Lettuce, Boiled
Lima Beans, Green
Linzen, Sweet Sour
Meat Substitutes
Mock Chili Con Carne
Mushrooms, Broiled
Mushrooms, Creamed
Mushrooms, Scalloped
Mushrooms, Sautéd
Nahit (Russian Peas)
Nut Loaf
Nut Roast
Okra, Boiled
Onions, Boiled
Onions, Scalloped
Oyster-plant—Salsify
Parsnips
Pea Purée
Peppers, Green
Peppers, Green, Broiled
Peppers, Stewed
Peppers, Green, Stuffed with Vegetables
Peppers, Stuffed
Peppers, Stuffed (Arday-influs)
Peppers Stuffed with Meat
Peppers Stuffed with Nuts
Potato Balls with Parsley
Potato Cakes
Potato Puff
Potato Puff, Bohemian
Potato Ribbon
Potato Surprise
Potatoes
Potatoes for Twenty People
Potatoes, Baked, No. 1
Potatoes, Baked, No. 2
Potatoes, Boiled
Potatoes Boiled in their Jackets
Potatoes with Caraway Seeds
Potatoes and Corn
Potatoes, Creamed
Potatoes, Curried
Potatoes, French Fried
Potatoes, German Fried
Potatoes au Gratin
Potatoes Hashed Brown, Lyonnaise
Potatoes—Hungarian Style
Potatoes, Imitation New
Potatoes, Mashed
Potatoes, New
Potatoes and Pears
Potatoes, Roast
Potatoes, Saratoga Chips
Potatoes, Scalloped, No. 1
Potatoes, Scalloped, No. 2
Potatoes, Stewed
Potatoes, Stewed with Onions
Potatoes, Stewed Sour
Potatoes, Stuffed
Radishes
Salsify
Salsify, Scalloped
Sauerkraut, Boiled
Savoy Cabbage
Savoy Cabbage with Rice
Slaitta (Roumanian)
Spanish Beans
Spanish Onion Rarebit
Spinach
Spinach with Cream Sauce
Spinach—Fleischig
Squash, Stewed
String or Green Snap Beans
String Beans with Lamb
String Beans, Sweet Sour
String Beans with Tomatoes
Succotash
Sugar Peas
Sweet Potatoes and Apples
Sweet Potatoes, Boiled
Sweet Potatoes, Candied
Sweet Potatoes, Fried
Sweet Potatoes, French Fried
Sweet Potatoes, Plums and Meat
Sweet Potatoes, Roast
Sweet Potatoes Roast with Meat
Sweet Sour Beans
Sweet Sour Beans and Linzen
Swiss Chard
Tomato Custards
Tomato Purée
Tomatoes, Baked, and Eggplant
Tomatoes, Canned, Stewed
Tomatoes, Creole
Tomatoes, Fried
Tomatoes, Green, Fried
Tomatoes with Rice
Tomatoes, Scalloped
Tomatoes, Stewed
Tomatoes, Stuffed
Tsimess
Turnips
Turnips, Boiled
Turnips, Hashed
Vegetables
Vegetable Hash
Vegetable Meat Pie
Wax Beans, Sweet and Sour

TIME TABLE FOR COOKING

Boiling Meats
Broiling Meats
Cooking Vegetables
Roasting Meats

SALAD DRESSINGS

Boiled
Boiled with Olive Oil (Parve)
Colored Mayonnaise
Dressing for Cold Slaw
Dressing for Lettuce
French
Mayonnaise
Mayonnaise Especially for Salmon
Mayonnaise, White
Mayonnaise with Whipped Cream
Mustard
Russian
Sour Cream

SALAD AND SALAD DRESSINGS

Directions for Making
To Marinate
Asparagus
Banana Dainty
Beet
Beet and Cauliflower
Bohemian
Brain
Cauliflower
Celery Root Baskets
Celery Root, Boiled
Chestnut
Chicken
Chicken for Twenty People
Chiffonade
Cold Slaw or Cabbage
Cottage Cheese
Cream Cheese
Cream Cheese with Pineapple
Cucumber
Eggplant—Roumanian Style
Eggplant—Turkish Style
Fish
Fish for Twenty People
Fruit
Fruit and Nut
Grape-fruit
Green
Green Pepper for Salad
Herring, No. 1
Herring, No. 2
Hungarian Fruit
Hungarian Vegetable
Lettuce
Lima Beans
Mackerel
Marshmallow
Mayonnaise of Flounder
Monterey
Neapolitan
Niagara
Nut
Pepper
Peppers and Cheese
Polish or Piquant
Potato, No. 1
Potato, No. 2
Potato, No. 3
Russian
Russian Fruit
Salmon
Squash—Turkish Style
String Bean
Sweetbread
Tomato (French Dressing)
Tomato, Mayonnaise of (whole)
Tomatoes, Stuffed
Tomatoes, Stuffed, Cheese
Veal
Waldorf
Water-Lily (Egg)

FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE

Apple Compote
Apple Delight
Apple Float
Apple Sauce, Victoria
Baked Apples
Baked Prunes
Baked Rhubarb
Bananas
Blueberries
Chilled Bananas
Compote of Pears
Compote of Raspberries
Dried Fruits
Fig Sauce
Fried Apples
Frosted Apples
Grape-fruit
Huckleberry Compote
Oranges
Peaches
Peach Compote
Pineapple
Pineapple Compote
Pineapple Soufflé
Prune Soufflé
Prunes without Sugar
Raspberry
Raspberry and Currants
Ripe Tomatoes
Rhubarb Sauce
Snowflakes
Steamed Prunes
Stewed Prunes
Strawberries
Sweet Apples, Steamed
Sweet Entrée of Ripe Peaches
Tutti-Frutti
Watermelons

MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS)

Almond Strudel
Apple Slump
Apple Kugel
Apple Schalet, No. 1
Apple Schalet, No. 2
Apple Strudel, No. 1
Apple Strudel, No. 2
Bairische Dampfnudeln, No. 1
Bairische Dampfnudeln, No. 2
Birne Kloesse
Boiled Apple Dumplings
Boiled Macaroni
Baked Macaroni with Cheese
Broad Noodles
Carrot Schalet
Cabbage Strudel
Cheese Kreplich
Cherry Roley Poley
Cherry Strudel
Dough for Schalet (Merber Deck)
Dumplings for Stew
Egg Barley or (Geroestete Fervelschen)
Farina Dumplings
Huckleberry Dumplings
Kaese Kracpfli
Kartoffel Kloesse
Kraut Kugel
Kugel
Leberknadel
Mandel Strudel
Merber Deck
Milk Noodles
Noodle Kugel
Noodle Schalet
Noodles
Noodles and Apples
Noodles and Mushrooms
Noodles with Butter
Noodles with Cheese
Pfärvel
Pfärvel—Fleischig
Peach Dumplings
Pear Dumplings
Pear Kugel
Plum Knoedel (Hungarian)
Potato Dumplings
Potato Noodles
Potato Pudding, Boiled
Potato Schalet
Quark Strudel (Dutch Cheese)
Rahm Strudel
Rice Strudel
Rice Kugel
Savory Macaroni
Scalloped Noodles and Prunes
Scharfe Kugel
Seven Layer Schalet
Shabbas Kugel
Sour Spatzen
Spaetzlen or Spatzen
Spaghetti
Strudel aus Kalbslunge
Sweet Potato Pudding
Wiener Kartoffel Kloesse

CEREALS

Apples with Rice
Baked Apple with Oatmeal
Baked Rice
Barley
Boiled Rice
Boiled Rice with Pineapple
Cold Oatmeal
Cornmeal Mush
Directions for Cooking
Eggs Baked in Rice
Farina
Hominy
Laws about Cereals
Left-over Cereals
Marmelitta
Oatmeal with Cheese
Oatmeal Porridge
Pilaf
Polenta
Rice and Nut Loaf
Rice in Milk
Rice with Grated Chocolate
Sago
Sautéd Cornmeal Mush
Spanish Rice
Steamed Rice
Sweet Rice
Tapioca
Wheat Cereals

EGGS

Baked
Baked with Cheese
Baked with Tomatoes
Boiled
Corn Omelet
Curried
Egg Piquant
Egg Rarebit
Eggs à la Mexicana
Eggs en Marinade
Eggs, Poached or Dropped
Eggs Poached in Tomato Sauce
Eggs with Cream Dressing
Eggs with Fresh Mushrooms
Fricasseed
Fried
Herb Omelet
Krosphada
Omelet for One
Plain Omelet
Poached with Fried Tomatoes
Remarks
Rum Omelet
Scalloped
Scalloped (Fleischig)
Scrambled
Scrambled with Brains
Scrambled with Sausage
Smoked Brisket of Beef and Eggs
Soufflé Omelet
Spanish
Spanish Omelet
Sweet Almond Omelet
Sweet Omelet
Sweet Omelet for One
To Keep Egg Yolks
To Preserve Eggs
Tomato with Egg
White Sauce Omelet

CHEESE

Cheese Balls, No. 1
Cheese Balls, No. 2
Cheese Bread
Cheese Fondue
Cheese Omelet
Cheese Soufflé
Cheese and Sweet Green Peppers
Cheese Timbals for Twelve People
Cottage Cheese (Pot Cheese)
Crackers and Cheese
Delicious Cream Cheese, A
Golden Buck
Green Corn, Tomatoes and Cheese
Koch Kaese (Boiled Cheese)
Macaroni Cheese
Ramekins of Eggs and Cheese
Rice and Cheese
Tomatoes, Eggs and Cheese—Hungarian Style
Welsh Rarebit

BREAD

Arme Ritter
Barches
Bread Sticks
Buns
Butterbarches
Buttered Toast
Cinnamon Toast for Tea
Crescent Rolls
Flour
French Rolls
Gluten
Graham
Home-made Yeast
Individual Loaves
Milk or Cream Toast
Potato
Potato-Rye
Raisin
Raisin or Currant Buns
Rolled Oats
Rolls
Rye (American), No. 1
Rye, No. 2
Tea Rolls
To Make Bread
Variety Bread
White Bread
Yeast
Zwiebel Platz

COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN)

Abgeruehrter Kugelhopf
Apple Cake or Kuchen
Baba à la Parisienne
Berliner Pfannkuchen
Bohemian Kolatchen
Bola
Bunt, Plain
Cheap Coffee Cake, A
Cherry Cake or Kuchen
Cheese Cake or Pie
Cinnamon Rolls
Coffee Cake or Kuchen Dough
Chocolate Coffee Cake
French Coffee Cake
Fresh Prune Kuchen
Huckleberry Cake
Huckleberry Pie
Kaffee Kuchen (Cinnamon)
Kindlech
Krapfen (Purim)
Mohntorts
Mohn Cakes, Small
Mohn (Poppy Seed) Roley Poley
Mohn Wachtel
Napf Kuchen
Peach Kuchen
Pocket Books
Prune Kuchen
Puffs (Purim)
Rendered Butter
Savarin
Schnecken
Sour Cream Kolatchen
Spice Roll
Stollen
Tea Cakes, Russian
Topfa Dalkeln (Cheese Cakes)
Wiener Kipfel
Wiener Studenten Kipfel
Yeast Krantz
Zwieback

MUFFINS AND BISCUITS

Baking-Powder
Baking-Powder Batters
Baking Powder Biscuits
Bran Bread
Bran Muffins
Brown Bread
Cinnamon Buns
Corn Bread
Corn Muffins, No. 1
Corn Muffins, No. 2
Crullers
Dough for Open Face Pies
Doughnuts
Doughnuts, French
Drop Biscuits
Fruit Wheels
Gingerbread
Gingerbread, Eggless with Cheese
Gingerbread Gems, Eggless
Gluten Gems
Graham Muffins
Johnnie Cake
Muffins
Popovers
Rice Muffins
Rye Flour Muffins
Sour Milk Biscuits
Strawberry Short Cake (Biscuit Dough)
Waffles, One Egg
Waffles, Three Egg
Wheat Muffins
White Nut Bread

PANCAKES, FRITTERS, ETC.

Apple Fritters
Bell Fritters
Blintzes
Bread Pancakes
Buckwheat Cakes
Cheese Blintzes
Corn Fritters
Dried Pea Fritters or (Erbsen Lievanzen)
French Pancakes
French Puffs
Fritter Batter
German Pancakes, No. 1
German Pancakes, No. 2
German Pancakes, No. 3
Griddle Cakes
Grimslich
Macrotes
Matrimonies
Noodle Puffs
Orange Fritters
Pineapple Fritters
Potato Cakes
Potato Pancakes
Queen Fritters
Rice Pancake or Griddle Cakes
Shavings (Kraus-Gebackenes)
Snip Noodles, Fried
Snowballs (Hesterliste)
Sour Milk Pancakes
Squash Fritters
Sweet Blintzes
Vegetable Fritters
Windbeutel

CAKES

General Directions
To Bake
Angel Food
Apple Jelly Cake
Apple Sauce Cake
Almond Cake or Mandel Torte, No. 1
Almond Cake or Mandel Torte, No. 2
Blitz Kuchen
Bremen Apple Torte
Brod Torte
Bunt Kuchen (Baking-Powder)
Burnt Almond Torte
Caramel Layer Cake
Chestnut Torte
Chocolate Brod Torte
Chocolate Eclairs
Chocolate Layer Cake
Chocolate Torte
Cinnamon Cake (Baking-Powder)
Cocoanut Layer Cake
Coffee Cake, German
Coffee Cake, Quick
Covered Cheese Cake
Cream Layer Cake
Cream Puffs
Cup Cake
Date Torte
Dobos Torte
Dominoes
Eggless, Butterless, Milkless Cake
Fruit or Wedding Cake
Gold Cake
Grafton Layer Cake
Grafton Small Cake
Green-tree Layer Cake and Icing
German Hazelnut Torte
Huckleberry Cake
Jelly Roll
Koenig Kuchen
Lady Fingers
Lemon Cake
Linzer Torte
Little French Cakes
Loaf Cocoanut Cake
Marble Cake
Mocha Torte
Nut Cake
Nut Honey Cake
One Egg Cake
Orange Cake
Peach Shortcake
Potato Cake
Pound Cake
Rye Bread Torte
Russian Punch Torte
Sand Torte
Spice Cake
Sponge Cake
Sponge Cakes, Small
Sunshine Cake
Time-table for Baking
Vienna Prater Cake
Walnut Torte, No. 1
Walnut Torte, No. 2
Wedding Cake
White Cake
Zwieback Torte

ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES

Almond Icing
Banana Filling
Boiled Icing
Chocolate Glazing
Chocolate Icing, Unboiled
Cocoanut Icing
Coffee Filling
Cream Filling
Fig Filling
Instantaneous Frosting
Lemon Extract
Lemon Jelly for Layer Cake
Lemon Peel
Maple Sugar Icing
Marshmallow Filling
Mocha Frosting
Nut Icing
Orange Icing
Plain Frosting
Unboiled Icing
Vanilla Extract
White Caramel Icing

PIES AND PASTRY

Apple Custard Pie
Apple Fladen (Hungarian)
Apple Pie, No. 1
Apple Pie, No. 2
Banbury Tarts
Blackberry and Currant Pie
Blaetter Teig
Cheese Straws
Cherry Pie, No. 1
Cherry Pie, No. 2
Cocoanut Pie
Cocoanut Lemon Pie
Cream Pie
Fleischig Pie Crust
Fruit Tartlets
Grape Pie
Grated Apple Pie
Huckleberry Pie
Individual Apple Dumplings
Lamplich
Lemon Pie, No. 1
Lemon Pie, No. 2
Lemon Tart (Fleischig)
Linser Tart
Macaroon Tarts
Meringue, To Make and Bake
Mince Pie
Mirlitious
Mock Cherry Pie
Mock Mince Pie
Mohntorte
Parve Cookie and Pie Dough
Peach Pie, No. 1
Peach Pie, No. 2
Peach Cream Pie
Peach Cream Tarts
Pie Crust (Merber Teig)
Pineapple Pie, No. 1
Pineapple Pie, No. 2
Plum Pie
Prune Pie
Prune and Raisin Pie
Puff Paste
Pumpkin Pie
Rhubarb Pie
Snowballs
Strawberry Pie
Sweet Potato Pie
Tartlets
Vienna Pastry for Kipfel
Vinegar Pie
Whipped Cream Pie

COOKIES

General Directions
Almond Macaroons, No. 1
Almond Macaroons, No. 2
Almond Macaroons with Figs
Almond Sticks
Almond Sticks—Fleischig
Anise Seed Cookies
Anise Zwieback
Baseler Loekerlein (Honey Cakes)
Caraway Seed Cookies
Cardamom Cookies
Chocolate Cookies
Citron Cookies
Cocoanut Kisses
Cornflake Cocoanut Kisses
Croquante Cakes
Date Macaroons
Dutch Stuffed Monkeys
Filled Butter Cakes
Ginger Wafers
Hamburger Cookies—Old Fashioned
Honey Cake, No. 1 and 2
Honey Corn Cakes
Hungarian Almond Cookies
Hurry Ups (Oatmeal)
Kindel
Lebkuchen
Lebkuchen, Old-Fashioned
Lekach
Mandelchen
Merber Kuchen
Molasses Cookies, Old-Fashioned
Mother's Delicious Cookies (Merber Kuchen)
Nutmeg Cakes—Pfeffernuesse
Parve Cookies
Pecan, Walnut or Hickory Nut Macaroons
Plain Wafers
Poppy Seed Cookies
Purim Cakes
Sour Milk Cookies
Springele
Sugar Cookies
Teiglech
Vanilla Cookies

DESSERTS

Ambrosia
Apple and Honey Pudding
Apple and Lady Finger Pudding
Apple Slump
Apple Snow
Apple Tapioca Pudding
Auflauf
Bird's Nest Pudding
Black Bread Pudding
Blanc Mange
Bohemian Cream
Boiled Custard
Bread Pudding
Brown Betty
Caramel Custard
Cherry Pudding
Chestnut Pudding
Chocolate Cornstarch Pudding
Chocolate Custard
Corn Pudding
Cornmeal Pudding
Cup Custard for Six
Dessert with Whipped Cream
Dimpes Dampes
Farina Pudding with Peaches
Fig Dessert
Floating Island
Huckleberry Pudding
Ice-box Cake
Leaf Puffs
Lemon Puffs
Lemon Sauce
Macaroon Island
Pistachio Cream
Prune Custard
Prune Pudding
Prune Whip
Pudding à la Grande Belle
Queen Bread Pudding
Queen of Trifles
Red Raspberry or Currant Float
Rhubarb Pudding
Rice Custard
Rice Pudding
Rothe Gritze
Sago Pudding with Strawberry Juice
Scalloped Peaches
Strawberries à la Bridge
Suet Pudding with Pears
Tipsy Padding
Tapioca Custard
Whipped Cream

STEAMED PUDDINGS

Almond Pudding
Carrot Pudding
Cherry Pudding
Date Pudding
Directions for Steaming
Honey Pudding
Napkin Pudding
Noodle Pudding
Peach Pudding
Plum Pudding for Thanksgiving Day
Plum Pudding, No. 2
Prince Albert Pudding
Prune Pudding
Rye Bread Pudding
Steamed Berry Pudding

PUDDING SAUCES

Brandy Sauce
Caramel Sauce
Chocolate Sauce, Nos. 1 and 2
Cream Sauce
Foam Sauce
Fruit Sauce
Hard Sauce
Jelly Sauce
Kirsch Sauce
Lemon Sauce, Nos. 1 and 2
Prune Sauce
Vanilla Sauce or Cream
Wine Sauce, Nos. 1 and 2

FROZEN DESSERTS

Apricot Ice
Apricot Ice Cream
Banana Ice Cream
Biscuit Tortoni, Nos. 1 and 2
Café à la Glacé
Canned Fruit, Frozen
Cherry Diplomate
Chocolate Ice Cream, Nos. 1 & 2
Coffee Ice Cream
Freezing Creams and Water Ices
Frozen Cream Cheese with Preserved Figs
Frozen Custard
Frozen Puddings, Directions
Fruit Sherbets
Lemon Ginger Sherbet
Lemon Ice
Maple Bisque
Maple Mousse
Mocha Mousse
Nesselrode Pudding
Orange Ice
Peach Ice Cream
Peter Pan Dessert
Pineapple Ice
Pineapple Ice Cream
Preparing Salt
Punch Ices
Raspberry Ice
Rum Pudding
Strawberry Ice Cream
Tutti-Frutti Ice Cream
Vanilla Ice Cream, No. 1
Vanilla Ice Cream, No. 2
Watermelon Sherbet

CANDIES AND SWEETS

Candied Cherries, Pineapple and other Fruits
Dates, Stuffed with Fondant
Dates, Stuffed with Ginger and Nuts
Divinity
Frosted Currants
Fruit Loaf
Fudge
Glacé for Candies
Orange Chips
Pinoche
Stuffed Dates
Stuffed Figs
Stuffed Prunes
White Fondant

BEVERAGES

Blackberry Cordial
Blackberry Wine
Breakfast Cocoa
Cherry Bounce
Cherry Brandy
Cherry Syrup
Chocolate Nectar
Chocolate Syrup
Clabbered Milk
Claret Cup
Coffee
Coffee
Coffee for Twenty People
Cold Egg Wine
Cordial
Delicious and Nourishing Summer Drink
Egg Lemonade
Egg Nog
Filtered Coffee
French Coffee
Fruit Drinks
Fruit Syrups
Fruit Punch for Twenty People
Fruit Juices—Other
Glueh (Hot Wine)
Hot Chocolate
Iced Chocolate
Iced Coffee
Lemonade in Large Quantities
Maraschino Lemonade
Milk Lemonade
Mulled Wine
Orangeade
Pineapple Lemonade
Quick Lemonade
Raspberry Vinegar
Reception Cocoa
Russian Iced Tea
Sherry Cobbler
Soda Cream
Strawberry Sherbet
Tea
Tea, Russian Style
Turkish Coffee
Unfermented Grape Juice

CANNED FRUITS

General Rules
Baked Crab-apple Preserves
Baked Cranberry or Cherry Preserves
Baked Quinces
Baked Sickel Pears
Canning Fruit, Baked in Oven
Canning Fruit, in a Water Bath
Canning in the Preserving Kettle
Canned
  Blackberries
  Blueberries
  Cherries
  Cherries for Pie
  Currants
  Gooseberries
  Pears
  Peaches
  Peaches
  Pineapple
  Pineapple
  Plums
Quinces
  Raspberries
  Raspberries and Currants
  Rhubarb
  Rhubarb Ready for Use
  Strawberries
Sterilizing Jars, etc.

JELLIES AND PRESERVES

General Remarks
Jelly Glasses—To Cover
Apple Jelly
Blackberry Jelly
Crab-apple Jelly
Cranberry Jelly
Currant Jelly
Grape Jelly
Neapolitan Jelly
Quince Jelly
Raspberry Jelly
Raspberry and Currant Jelly
Strawberry Jelly
To Test Jelly Made at Home
Utensils for Jelly Making
Winter Jelly, A

PRESERVED FRUIT

Amber Marmalade
Apple Butter
Apple and Quince Conserve
Cherry Conserve
Cherry Marmalade
Citron Preserve
Damson Jam
German Prune Butter
Gingered Pears
Gooseberry Relish
Grape Conserve
Grape Preserves
Jellied Quinces
Marmalade—Directions
Orange Marmalade
Peach Butter
Peach Syrup
Pickled
  Cantaloupe or Muskmelons
  Crab-apples
  Figs
  Husk Tomatoes
  Peaches
  Pears
  Plums
Plum Conserve, No. 1
Plum Conserve, No. 2
Preserved
  Blackberries
  Cherries
  Damson Plums
  Figs
  Peaches
  Pineapple
  Quinces
  Strawberries
Quince Cheese
Raisin Compote
Raspberry Jam
Rhubarb and Orange Marmalade
Spiced or Pickled Apples
Spiced or Pickled Cherries
Spiced Cucumbers
Spiced German Plums
Spiced Grapes
Strawberries and Pineapple
Strawberries in the Sun
Tomatoes
Watermelon Pickle

BRANDIED FRUITS

Brandied Cherries
Brandied Peaches
Brandied Pears
Brandied Quinces
French Prunes in Cognac
Melange

CANNED VEGETABLES

Directions for Canning

VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE

Boiled Beans
Corn
Early Fall Vegetables
Mock Olives (Plums)
String Beans (Raw)

PICKLES AND RELISHES

Beet and Horseradish Relish
Cabbage Beet and Horseradish Relish
Chow Chow
Corn Relish
Cucumbers in Oil
Delicious Mustard Pickles (Senfgurken)
Dill Pickles for Winter Use
Directions for Making Pickles
Green Dill Tomatoes
Green Tomato Pickle (French Pickle)
Mixed Pickle Dressing
Mother's Dill Pickles
Mushroom Catsup
Mustard Pickle
Pepper Mangoes
Piccalilli
Pickled Beans
Pickled Beets
Pickled Cauliflower
Pickled Onions
Pickled Red Cabbage (Hungarian Style)
Prepared Mustard
Salt Pickles
Salzgurken
Sauerkraut
Small Dill Pickles
Sweet Pickles
Teufelsgurken (Hot Pickles)
Tomato Catsup
Tomato Sauce (Chili)

PASSOVER DISHES

Almond Balls for Soup
Almond Cake
Almond Hills
Almond Macaroons
Almond Pudding, No. 1 and 2
Apple Pudding
Apple Sponge Pudding
Batter Pudding
Beefsteak Pie
Beet Preserves (Russian)
Beolas
Birmoilis (Turkish)
Candied Lemon and Orange Peel
Carrot Pudding
Chrimsel, Nos. 1 and 2
Chocolate Cake
Cinnamon Sticks
Cocoanut Pudding
Cookies
Date Cake
Egg Marmalade
English Lemon Stewed Fish
Filled Matzoth Kleis
Filling for Chrimsel
Foam Torte
German Puffs
Grated Apple Pudding
Hasty Pudding
How to Set the Table for the Seder Service
Imberlach
Kentucky Chrimsel
Kremslekh
Lemon Cream Filling
Lemon Preserves
Mamouras (Turkish)
Marrow Dumplings
Matzoth
  Charlotte, Nos. 1 and 2
  Dipped in Eggs, No. 1
  Dipped in Eggs, No. 2
  Eirkuchen
  Kleis, No. 1
  Kleis, No. 2
  Kugel
  Meal Cake
  Meal Kleis, No. 1
  Meal Kids, No. 2
  Meal Macaroons
  Meal Noodles
  Plum Pudding
  with Scrambled Eggs (Ueberschlagene Matzoth)
  Shalet
  Spice Cake
Meat Blintzes
Mina (Turkish)
Mock Whipped Cream
Palestine Soup
Pesach Borsht
Pesach Cake with Walnuts
Pie Crust
Potato Flour Noodles
Potato Flour Pudding
Potato Flour Sponge Cake
Potato Marbles
Potato Plum Knoedel (Hungarian)
Potato Pudding
Prunes
Prune Blintzes
Radish Preserves (Russian Style)
Raisin Wine, Nos. 1 and 2
Red Mullet in Cases
Rosel, Beet Vinegar
Rum Sauce
Scrambled Matzoth
Sole with Wine (French Recipe)
Sponge Cake, Nos. 1 and 2
Stewed Sweetbreads
Strawberry Dessert
Strawberry Shortcake with Matzoth Meal
Sugar Syrup
Wine Sauce
Yom-Tov Soup
Zwiebel Matzoth

*ALPHABETICAL INDEX*

*A*

Abgeruehrter Kugelhopf
Agristoga Sauce for Fish
Ahilado (Sauce for Fish)
Almond
  Balls
  Burnt, Torte
  Cake
  Cake
  Cream of
  Hills
  Icing
  Macaroons
  Macaroons
  Macaroons with Figs
  Pudding
  Sticks
  Sticks—Fleischig
Amastich
Amber Marmalade
Ambrosia
Anchovy Canapés
Anchovy Canapés with Tomatoes
Anchovy Sandwiches
Anchovy Sauce
Angel Food
Anise Seed Cookies
Appetizers
Apple
  and Honey Pudding
  and Lady Finger Pudding
  and Quince Conserve
  Baked
  Baked with Oatmeal
  Butter
  Cake
  Compote
  Custard Pie
  Delight
  Fladen
  Float
  Fried
  Fritters
  Frosted
  Jelly
  Jelly Cake
  Kuchen
  Pickled
  Pie
  Pudding
  Sauce
  Sauce Cake
  Sauce, Victoria
  Slump
  Snow
  Spiced
  Sponge Pudding
  Sweet, Steamed
  Tapioca Pudding
  with Rice
Apricot Ice
Apricot Ice Cream
Arday-influs
Arme Ritter
Artichoke, Jerusalem
Artichoke Soup
Artichokes, French or Globe
Artichokes, French, with Tomatoes
Asparagus
  Canned
  Cream of
  (Hungarian)
  Salad
Aspic
Auflauf

*B*

Baba à la Parisienne
Bairische Dampfnudeln
Baked
  Cherry Preserves
  Crab-apple Preserve
  Cranberry Preserves
  Quince Preserves
  Sickel Pear Preserves
Baking-Powder
  Batters
Biscuits
  Bunt Kuchen
  Cinnamon Cake
  Dumplings
  German Coffee Cake
Banana Dainty
Banana Filling
Banana Ice Cream
Bananas
Bananas, Chilled
Banbury Tarts
Barches
Barley
Barley and Vegetable Soup
Barley Soup
Baseler Loekerlein
Bass, Black, Baked
Bass, Baked, à la Wellington
Batter Pudding
Bean, Black, Soup
Beans and Barley
  Baked with Brisket of Beef
  Dried
  Dried Lima, Baked
  Green Lima
  Green Snap
  Haricot and Beef
  Kidney, with Brown Sauce
  Pickled
  Spanish
  String
  String, Boiled, Preserved in Brine
  String, Raw, Preserved in Brine
  String, Sweet and Sour
  String, with Lamb
  String, with Tomatoes
  Sweet Sour
  Sweet Sour and Linzen
  Wax, Sweet and Sour
Beef, An Easy Pot Roast of
  Boiled, Corned
  Braised, Pot Roast
  Breast, Flank with Yellow Turnips
  Brisket of, Brustdeckel
  Brisket of, with Sauerkraut
  Corned (Home-made)
  Fat, to render
  Loaf
  Pan Roast
  Pickled
  Pot Roast
  Roast
  Roast, Russian Style
  Roast, Vienna
  Rolled, Pot Roasted
  Short Ribs of, Spanish
  Smoked
  Smoked Brisket of, with Eggs
  Tongue, Pickled
Beefsteak, Broiled
Beefsteak, Fried
Beefsteak, Fried with Onions
Beefsteak Pie
Beefsteak to Broil by Gas
Beer Soup
Beer Soup (Parve)
Beet Greens
  and Cauliflower Salad
  and Horseradish Relish
  Preserves (Russian)
  Salad
  Soup (Russian)
  Soup (Russian) Fleischig
Beets, Baked
  Boiled
  Pickled
  Sour Buttered
Bell Fritters
Beolas
Berliner Pfannkuchen
Bernaise, Sauce
Beverages
Bird's Nest Pudding
Birmoilis (Turkish)
Birne Kloesse
Biscuit Tortoni
Bitki (Russian)
Blackberry and Currant Pie
Blackberry Cordial
Blackberry Jelly
Blackberry Wine
Blackberries, Canned
Blackberries, Preserved
Black Bread Pudding
Black Olives
Blaetter Teig
Blanc Mange
Blintzes
  Cheese
  Meat
  Prune
  Sweet
Blitz Kuchen
Blueberries
Blueberries, Canned
Bohemian Cream
Bohemian Salad
Bola
Bordelaise Sauce
Borsht
Boston Roast
Bouillon
Brain (Appetizer)
Brain Salad
Brains with Egg Sauce
Brains, Sweet and Sour
Bran Muffins
Brandied Fruits
Brandy Sauce
Braune Mehlsuppe
Bread
  Bran
  Brown
  Brown, Sandwiches
  Corn
  Crumbs, Prepared for Frying
  Dressing for Fowl
  Graham
  Gluten
  Individual Loaves
  Pancakes
  Potato
  Potato, Rye
  Pudding, Rye
  Raisin
  Rolled Oats
  Rye (American)
  Rye
  Sticks
  To make
  Variety
  White
  White and Brown, Sandwiches
  White Nut
Bremen Apple Torte
Brod Torte
Brown Betty
Brown Sauce
Brown Stock
Brunswick Stew
Brussels Sprouts
Bütterbarches
Buns
  Cinnamon
  Currant
  Raisin
Bunt Kuchen

*C*

Cabbage, Beet and Horseradish Relish
  Belgian Red
  Boiled with Carrots
  Creamed, New
  Filled
  Fried
  Red
  Red, with Chestnuts and Prunes
  Red, Pickled, Hungarian Style
  Salad
  Savoy
  Savoy, with Rice
  Stewed
  To Boil
Café à la Glacé
Cakes
Cakes—General Directions for Making
Cakes, To Bake
Calf's Brains, Fried
Calf's Brains, Sour
Calf's Feet, Prunes and Chestnuts
Calf's Feet, Scharf
Calf's Foot Jelly
Calfs' Hearts
Calf's Liver, Smothered in Onions
Calf's Lung and Heart, Hashed
Canapés
Candied Fruits
Candied Lemon and Orange Peel
Candies and Sweets
Canned Fruit, Frozen
Canned Fruits
  General Rules
  Sterilizing Jars, etc.
Canned Vegetables
Canning Fruit Baked in Oven
Canning Fruit in a Water Bath
Canning in the Preserving Kettle
Cantaloupes, Pickled
Caramel Custard
Caramel Layer Cake
Caramel Sauce
Caramel White Icing
Caraway Seed Cookies
Caraway Sauce
Cardamom Cookies
Carnatzlich (Roumanian)
Carp, Paprika
Carrot Pudding
Carrots
  and Peas
  Boiled with Cabbage
  Compote of, Russian Style
  Flemish
  Lemon
  Simmered
  with Brisket of Beef
Cauliflower
  Cream of
  (Hungarian)
  Pickled
  Roumanian
  Salad
  Scalloped
  Spanish
  with Brown Crumbs
Caviar Canapés
Cereals
Cereals—Directions
Cereals, Laws about
Celeriac
Celeriac, Purée of
Celery,
  Creamed
  Cream of
  Relish
  Root Baskets
  Root (Boiled) Salad
  Sandwiches
  with Chestnuts (Turkish)
Cheese
  and Nut Sandwiches
  Balls
  Bread
  Cake
  Cake, Covered
  Cake, Hungarian
  Cottage
  Fondue
  Pie
  Pot
  Salads
  Soufflé
  Straws
  Timbals
  with Macaroni
Cherries
  Brandied
  Candied
  for Pies
  Pickled
  Preserved
  Spiced
Cherry Bounce
  Brandy
  Cake
  Conserve
  Diplomate
  Marmalade
  Pie
  Pudding
  Roley Poley
  Soup
  Syrup
Chestnut Pudding
  Purée
  Salad
  Sandwiches
  Stuffing
  Torte
Chestnuts and Prunes
  and Raisins
  Boiled
  Roasted
  with Celery (Turkish)
Chicken à la Italienne
  à la Sweetbread
  Boiled, Baked
  Broiled Spring
  Broth
  Casserole
  Curry
  Fricassee
  Fricassee, with Noodles
  Fried Spring
  Jellied
  Liver Paste
  Livers
  Paprika with Rice
  Pressed
  Roast
  Salad
  Salad for Twenty People
  Sandwiches
  Sandwiches with Mayonnaise
  Smothered
  Soup
  Stuffed (Turkish Style)
  Tamales, Home-made
  To Truss
  Turkish Style
  with Rice
  with Spaghetti en Casserole
Chiffonade Salad
Chilli Con Carne
Chilli Sauce
Chocolate Brod Torte
  Cake
  Coffee Cake
  Cookies
  Cornstarch Pudding
  Custard
  Eclairs
  Glazing
  Hot
  Ice Cream
  Iced
  Icing, Unboiled
  Layer Cake
  Nectar
  Sauce
  Syrup
  Torte
Chow-Chow
Chrimsel
Cinnamon Cake
Cinnamon Sticks
Citron Cookies
Citron Preserves
Claret Cup
Cocoa, Breakfast
Cocoa, Reception
Cocoanut, Cornflake Kisses
  Icing
  Kisses
  Layer Cake
  Lemon Pie
  Pie
  Pudding
Cod, Fish Balls
Cod, Fresh, or Striped Bass
Coffee
  Boiled
  Cake, a Cheap
  Cake, French
  Cake, German
  Cake, Quick
  Cakes (Kuchen)
  Filling
  Filtered
  for Twenty People
  French
  Ice Cream
  Iced
  Turkish
Cold Sour Soup
Compotes and Fresh Fruits
Consommé
Cookies
Cordial
Corn, Canned
  Cream of, Soup
  and Potatoes
  Fritters
  Green, Tomatoes and Cheese
  Muffins
  off the Cob
  on the Cob
  Preserved in Brine
  Pudding
  Relish
Cornmeal Mush
Cornmeal Pudding
Crab-apple Jelly
Crab-apples, Pickled
Crackers and Cheese
Cranberry Jelly
Cranberry Sauce
Cranberries, Stewed
Cream Filling
  Layer Cake
  Mustard Sauce
  Pie
  Puffs
  Sauce
  Soup
  Soups, How to Make
  Wine Soup
Croquante Cakes
Croquettes, Directions
  Calf's Brains
  Cauliflower
  Chicken
  Eggplant (Roumanian)
  Meat and Boiled Hominy
  of Fish
  Peanut and Rice
  Potato
  Rice
  Sweetbread
  Sweet Potato
  Veal
Croutons
Crullers
Crumb, Dressing
Cucumber Salad
  Fried
  in Oil
  Sauce
  Spiced
  Stuffed
Cup Cake
Currant Float
Currant Jelly
Currants
Currants, Frosted
Curry Sauce
Custard, Boiled
  Cup, for Six
  Egg
  Pie

*D*

Damson Jam
Damson Plums, Preserved
Dandelions
Date
  and Fig Sandwiches
  Cake
  Macaroons
  Pudding
  Stuffed
  Stuffed with Fondant
Torte
Dates, Stuffed with Ginger and Nuts
Delicious and Nourishing Summer Drink
Delicious Appetizer
Delicious Cream Cheese
Delicious Mustard Pickle
Dessert with Whipped Cream
Desserts
Deviled Brains
Deviled Eggs with Hot Sauce
Deviled Tongue Sandwiches
Dill Pickles for Winter Use
Dill Pickles, Small
Dimpes Dampes
Divinity
Dobos Torte
Dominoes
Dough for Coffee Cake
Dough for Open-face Pies
Dough for Schalet
Doughnuts
Doughnuts, French
Drawn Butter, Sauce
Dressing, Boiled
Dressings for Salads
Dried Fruits
Drop Biscuits
Duck
Duck Fat, to Render
Duck Roast
Duck à la Mode in Jelly
Dumplings and Garnishes for Soups
Dumplings,
  Apple
  Boiled Apple
  Calf's Liver
  Drop
  Farina
  for Cream Soups
  for Stew
  Huckleberry
  Peach
  Pear
  Potato
Dutch Stuffed Monkeys

*E*

Early Fall Vegetables, Preserved in Brine
Egg and Olive Sandwiches
Egg
  Appetizer
  Barley
  Custard
  Drop (Einlauf)
  Dumplings for Soup
Eggless, Butterless, Milkless Cake
Eggless Ginger Gems
Eggless Gingerbread with Cheese
Egg
  Marmalade
  Nog
  Rarebit
  Sandwiches
  Wine, Cold
  with Tomato
  Yolks, to Keep
Eggplant
  and Baked Tomato
  Baked
  Broiled
  Fried
  Fried in Oil, Turkish Style
  Roumanian
  Salad (Roumanian)
  Salad, Turkish Style
Eggs
  à la Mexicana
  Baked
  Baked in Rice
  Baked with Cheese
  Baked with Tomatoes
  Boiled
  Curried
  en Marinade
  Fricasseed
  Fried
  Piquant
  Poached or Dropped
  Poached in Tomato Sauce
  Poached with Fried Tomatoes
  Scalloped
Scalloped Fleischig
  Scrambled
  Scrambled, with Brains
  Scrambled with Sausage
  Spanish
  Stuffed
  To Preserve
  with Cream Dressing
Einlauf, Egg Drop
Enchiladas
Entrées
Erbsen Lievanzen

*F*

Farina
  Pudding, with Peaches
  Soup
Farsole
Farsole Dulce
Fat, to Render
Fig and Date Sandwiches
  Dessert
  Filling
  Sandwiches
  Sauce
Figs,
  Pickled
  Preserved
  Stuffed
Filled Butter Cakes
Filled Lemons
Filling for Chrimsel
Finnan Haddie
Finnan Haddie and Macaroni
Fish
  Baked
  Baked, Turkish Style
  Boiled
  Broiled
  Chowder
  English Lemon Stewed
  Filled, Turkish Style
  Frying
  Frying, Jewish Method
  Lemon
  Marinirte
  Piquant
  Roe, Scalloped
  Salad
  Salad for Twenty People
  Sandwiches
  Sautéd
  Scalloped
  Stock
  Sweet and Sour
  Sweet Sour
  Sweet Sour, with Wine
  to Bone
  to Clean
  to Open
  to Skin
  with Garlic
  with Horseradish Sauce
  with Sauerkraut
Floating Island
Flour
  Balls, Boiled with Almonds for Soup
  Brown, Soup
  Foods
Flounders, Baked
Foam Sauce
Foam Torte
Freezing Creams and Water Ices
French Dressing
French Pancakes
French Puffs
French Prunes in Cognac
Fritada
Fritter Batter
Fritter Beans
Frosting, Instantaneous
Frosting, Plain
Frozen Cream Cheese, with Preserved Figs
  Custard
  Desserts
  Puddings, Directions
Fruit and Nut Salad
  Cake
  Drinks
  Juices
  Loaf
  Punch for Twenty People
Salad
  Sauces
  Sherbets
  Soup
  Syrups
  Tartlets
  Wheels
Fruits, Fresh
Frying, Directions for
Fudge

*G*

Gaenseklein
Gansleber in Sulz
Gansleber Purée in Sulz
Garlic, Sauce
Garnishes and Dumplings for Soups
Gefillte Fisch
Gefillte Fisch with Egg Sauce
Gefillte Milz (Milt)
German Hazelnut Torte
German Pancakes
German Puffs
Geroestete Fervelehen
Geschundene Gans
Gewetsh (Servian)
Giblets
Gingerbread
Ginger Wafers
Glacé for Candies
Glueh
Gluten Gems
Gold Cake
Golden Buck
Goose Cracklings (Grieben)
  Breast, Roast
  Fat, to Render
  Liver
  Liver Aspic
  Liver with Glacéd Chestnuts
  Liver with Mushroom Sauce
  Meat Preserved in Fat
  Minced, Sandwiches
  Minced, Hungarian Style
  Neck, Stuffed
  Neck, Stuffed, Russian Style
  Roast
  Smoked
  Stewed Piquant
Gooseberries, Canned
Gooseberry Relish
Goulash, Hungarian
  Russian
Grafton Cake, Layers and Small Cakes
Graham Muffins
Grape Conserve
  Jelly
  Pie
  Preserves
Grapefruit
  Cocktail
  Salad
Grapes, Spiced
Grated Apple Pie
Grated Apple Pudding
Green Kern Soup
Green-tree Layer Cakes and Icing
Griddle Cakes
Grieben
Grimslich

*H*

Hamburger Steak
Hard Sauce
Hash, Baked
Hasty Pudding
Hecht (Pickerel)
Herring, Chopped
  Chopped, Baked
  Cream of, Soup, Russian style
  Marinirte
  Salad
  Salt
  Soused
  Stuffed
Hesterliste
Hickory Nut Macaroons
Hollandaise Sauce
Hominy
Honey Cakes
Honey Corn Cakes
Honey Pudding
Horseradish and Beet Relish
Horseradish Sauce
How to Set the Talk for the Seder Service
Huckleberry Cake
  Compote
  Pie
  Pudding
Hungarian Almond Cookies
Hungarian Fruit Salad
Hungarian Goulash
Hungarian Vegetable Salad
Hurry Ups (Oatmeal Cookies)
Husk Tomatoes, Pickled

*I*

Ice-box Cake
Icing, Boiled
Icing, Unboiled
Icings and Fillings for Cakes
Imberlach
Imitation Pate de Foi Gras
Irish Stew

*J*

Jellies and Preserves
  To Cover Jelly Glasses
  To Test Jelly Made at Home
Jelly Roll
Jelly Sauce
Johnnie Cake
Julienne Soup

*K*

Kaffee Kuchen (Cinnamon)
Kal Dolmar
Kale
Kartoffel Kloesse
Kedgeree
Kentucky Chrimsel
Kimmel Sauce
Kindel
Kindlech
Kirsch Sauce
Kischkes
Kischkes, Russian Style
Knoblauch, Sauce
Koch Kaese (Boiled Cheese)
Koenig Kuchen
Kohl-rabi
Kohl-rabi with Breast of Lamb
Kolatchen
Kraus-gebackenes
Kremslekh
Kreplech, Cheese
Kreplech, Force-meat for
Kreplech or Butterflies
Krosphada
Kugel
  Apple
  Kraut
  Matzoth
  Noodle
  Pear
  Rice
  Scharfe
  Shabbas

*L*

Lady Fingers
Lamb and Macaroni
Lamb, Breast of, with Kohl-rabi
Lamb Chops
Lamb Stew (Tocane)
Lamplich
Leaf Puffs
Leberknadel
Lebkuchen
Lebkuchen, Old-fashioned
Leek Soup
Left-over Meat
Left-over Cereals
Lekach
Lemon Cake
  Cream Filling
  Extract
  Ginger Sherbet
Ice
  Jelly for Layer Cake
  Peel
  Pie
  Preserves
  Puffs
  Sauce for Puffs
  Sauce
  Tart (Fleischig)
Lemonade, Egg
  in Large Quantities
  Maraschino
  Milk
  Pineapple
  Quick
Lentil, Cream of Soup
  Sausages
  Soup
Lentils, Baked
Lettuce
  Boiled
  Cream of Soup
  Dressing for
  Salad
  Sandwiches
Lima Bean Salad
Lima Beans, Green
Linser Tart
Linzen (Lentil) Soup
Linzen, Sweet Sour
Linzer Torte
Little French Cakes
Liver, Kloesse
Loaf, Cocoanut Cake

*M*

Macaroni, Baked with Cheese
  Boiled
  Savory
  with cheese
Macaroon Island
  Tarts
Mackerel, Baked
  Boiled, Salt
  Broiled, Salt
  Salad
  Salt, Broiled
Macrotes
Maître d'Hôtel Butter
Maître d'Hôtel Sauce
Mamouras (Turkish)
Mandel Torte
Mandelchen
Maple Bisque
  Mousse
  Sugar Icing
Maraschino Lemonade
Marble Cake
Marinirte Fish
Marmalades—Directions
Marmelitta
Marrow Bones
Marrow Dumplings
Marshmallow Filling
Marshmallow Salad
Matrimonies
Matzoth Charlotte
  Dipped in Eggs
  Eirkuchen
  Kleis
  Kleis, Filled
  Meal Cake
  Meal Kleis
  Meal Macaroons
  Meal Noodles
  Plum Pudding
  Scrambled
  Shalet
  Spice Cake
  with Scrambled Eggs
Mayonnaise Colored
  Dressing
  Especially for Salmon
  of Flounder
  of Whole Tomatoes
  White
  with Whipped Cream
Meat Chopped, with Raisins (Roumanian)
  Dressing for Poultry
  Olives
Pie
  Substitutes
Meats
Mehlspeise (Flour Foods)
Melange
Merber Deck
Merber Kuchen
Merber Teig
Meringue, to Make and Bake
Milk and Cheese, Soup
Milk or Cream Soup
Milk, Clabbered
Milt, Stewed
Mina, Turkish
Mince Pie
Mint Sauce
Mirlitious
Mixed Pickles and Dressing
Mocha Frosting
Mocha Mousse
Mocha Torte
Mock Cherry Pie
  Chilli Con Carne
  Duck
  Fish Chowder
  Mince Pie
  Olives
  Turtle Soup
  Whipped Cream Filling
Mohn Cakes, Small
  Plaetzchen
  (Poppy Seed) Roley Poly
  Wachtel
Mohntorte
Mohntorts
Monterey Salad
Mother's Delicious Cookies
Mother's Dill Pickles
Muffins
Muffins and Biscuits
Mulled Wine
Mulligatawny Soup
Mushroom and Barley Soup
Mushroom Catsup
Mushroom Sauce
Mushrooms Broiled
  Creamed
  Fresh, with Eggs
  Sautéd
  Scalloped
Muskmelons
Muskmelons, Pickled
Mustard Dressing
  Pickles
  Sardine Paste for Sandwiches
  Sauce
Mutton Broth
  Breast of, Stewed with Carrots
  Chops
  Curried
  Roast with Potatoes
  Stuffed Shoulder

*N*

Nahit (Russian Peas)
Napf Kuchen (Bunt)
Napkin Pudding
Neapolitan Jelly
  Salad
Nesselrode Pudding
Niagara Salad
Noodle Puffs
  Pudding
  Soup
Noodles
  and Apples
  and Mushrooms
  Broad
  for Soup
  Milk
  Scalloped, and Prunes
  with Butter
  with Cheese
Nut Cake
  Honey Cake
Nutmeg Cakes (Pfeffermiesse)
  and Cheese Relish
  and Raisin Sandwiches
  Icing
  Loaf
Roast
  Salad

*O*

Oatmeal, Cold
  Cookies
  Porridge
  with Cheese
Okra, Boiled
  Gumbo (Southern) Soup
Old-fashioned Hamburger Cookies
Old-fashioned Molasses Cookies
Olive Sandwiches
  Sauce
Omelet
  Corn
  Cheese
  Herb
  Rum
  Soufflé
  Spanish
  Sweet
  Sweet Almond
  Sweet, for One
  White Sauce
One-Egg Cake
Onion, Boiled
  Chopped, and Chicken Fat
  Pickled
  Sauce
  Scalloped
  Soup
Orangeade
Orange Cake
  Chips
  Fritters
  Ice
  Icing
  Marmalade
Oranges
Oxtail Soup
Oxtails, Braised
Oyster Plant—Salsify

*P*

Palestine Soup
Pancakes, Fritters, etc.
Paprika Carp
Parsnips
Parve Cookie and Pie Dough
Parve Cookies
Passover Dishes
Pea, Dried, Fritters
  Dried, Soup
  Green, Purée
  Green, Soup
  Purée
  Split, Soup (Milchig)
Peas and Carrots
  Green
  Green and Pfärvel
  Green, and Rice
  Sugar
Peach Butter
  Cocktail
  Compote
  Cream Pie
  Cream Tarts
  Ice Cream
  Kuchen
  Pie
  Pudding
  Short Cake
  Syrup
Peaches
  Brandied
  Canned
  Pickled
  Preserved
  Scalloped
Pears, Canned
  Brandied
  Compote of
  Gingered
  Pickled
Pecan Nut Macaroons
Pepper and Cheese Salad
  Mangoes
  Salad
Peppers, Green
  Green, Broiled
Green, for Salad
  Green, Stuffed with Vegetables
  Stewed
  Stuffed
  Stuffed with Meat
  Stuffed with Nuts
  Sweet Green, and Cheese
Pesach Borsht
Pesach Cake with Walnuts
Peter Pan Dessert
Pfärvel
  and Green Peas
  Grated Egg for Soup
  Fleischig
Piccalilli
Pickerel
Pickle for Salmon
  Sauce
Pickles and Relishes
Pie Crust
  Fleischig
  Merber Teig
Pies and Pastry
Pigeon Pie
  Soup
Pigeons, Nest or Squabs
Pike with Egg Sauce
Pilaf
  (Turkish Style)
  (Russian Style)
Pineapple
  and Banana Cocktail
  Candied
  Canned
  Compote
  Fritters
  Ice
  Ice Cream
  Pie
  Preserved
  Soufflé
Pinoche
Piquante Fish
Piquante Sauce
Pistachio Cream
Plaetchen
Plain Bunt
Plain Wafers
Plum Conserve
  Knoedel (Hungarian)
  Pie
  Pudding
  Pudding for Thanksgiving Day
Plums, Canned
  Pickled
  Spiced German
  Sweet Potatoes and Meat
Poached Egg Sandwiches
Pocket Books
Polenta
Polish Salad
Popovers
Poppy Seed Cookies
Potato Balls with Parsley
  Boiled, Pudding
  Cake
  Cakes
  Croquettes
  Flour Noodles
  Flour Pudding
  Flour Sponge Cake
  Grated Irish, for Soup
  Marbles
  Noodles
  Pancakes
  Plum Knoedel (Hungarian)
  Pudding
  Puff
  Puff, Bohemian
  Ribbon
  Salad
  Soup
  Stuffing
  Surprise
Potatoes
  and Corn
  and Pears
  au Gratin
  Baked
Boiled
  Boiled in their Jackets
  Creamed
  Curried
  for Twenty People
  French Fried
  German Fried
  Hashed Brown, Lyonnaise
  (Hungarian Style)
  Imitation New
  Mashed
  New
  Roast
  Saratoga Chips
  Scalloped
  Stewed
  Stewed with Onions
  Stewed, Sour
  Stuffed
  with Caraway Seeds
Poultry
  to Clean
  to Dress
  to Stuff
Pound Cake
Prepared Mustard
Preparing Salt for Freezing Creams
Preserved Fruit
Prince Albert Pudding
Prune and Raisin Pie
  Custard
  Fresh, Cake
  German, Butter
  Kuchen
  Pie
  Pudding
  Sauce
  Soufflé
  Whip
Prunes
  and Chestnuts
  Baked
  Steamed
  Stewed
  Stuffed
  without Sugar
Pudding à la Grande Belle
  Sauces
Puff Paste
Pumpkin Pie
Punch Ices
Purim Cakes
  Krapfen
  Puffs

*Q*

Queen Bread Pudding
Queen Fritters
Queen of Trifles
Quick Bernaise Sauce
Quince Cheese
  Jelly
Quinces, Canned
  Brandied
  Jellied
  Preserved

*R*

Radish Preserves, Russian Style
Radishes
Raisin Compote
  Sauce
  Stuffing
  Wine, No. 1
        No. 2
Raisins and Chestnuts
Ramekins of Egg and Cheese
Raspberry and Currant Jelly
  Cocktail
  Ice
  Jam
  Jelly
  Vinegar
Raspberries
  and Currants
  and Currants, Canned
  Canned
  Compote of
Red Mullet in Cases
Red Pepper Canapés
Red Raspberry Float
Redsnapper with Tomato Sauce
Red Wine Soup
Rendered Butter
Rhubarb and Orange Marmalade
  Baked
  Canned
  Canned, Ready for
  Use
  Pie
  Pudding
  Sauce
Rice and Cheese
  and Green Peas
  and Nut Loaf
  Baked
  Boiled
  Boiled, with Pineapple
  Broth
  Custard
  in Milk
  Muffins
  Pancakes or Griddle Cakes
  Pudding
  Steamed
  Sweet
  with Grated Chocolate
  with Tomatoes
Rolls
  Cinnamon
  Crescent
  French
Rosel, Beet Vinegar
Rothe Gritze
Rum Pudding
Rum Sauce
Russian Dressing
  Fish Cakes
  Fruit Salad
  Goulash
  Iced Tea
  Punch Torte
  Salad
  Tea Cakes
Rye Bread Pudding
Rye Bread Torte
Rye Flour Muffins

*S*

Sago
  Pudding with Strawberry Juice
Salad Dressings
Salads, Directions for Making
  Green
  to Marinate
Salmon and Brown Bread and Caviar Sandwiches
  Creamed
  Cutlet
  Loaf
  Salad
  Sandwiches
Salsify, Scalloped
  Oyster Plant
Salt Pickles
Salted Almonds
Salted Peanuts
Salzgurken
Sand Torte
Sandwiches
Saratoga Chips
Sardellen
Sardellen, or Herring Sauce
Sardine Canapés
Sardine Sandwiches
Sauces for Fish and Vegetables
Sauces for Meats
Sauerbraten
Sauerkraut
  and Brisket of Beef
  Boiled
Sautéd Corn Meal Mush
Savarin
Schalet (Shabbas Soup)
  Apple, No. 1
  Apple, No. 2
  Carrot
  Noodle
Potato
  Seven Layer
Schnecken
Schwem Kloesse
Senfgurken
Shad, Baked
Shad Roe
Shavings
Sherry Cobbler
Slaitta (Roumanian)
Slaw, Cold
  Cold, Dressing for
  Hot
Smelts, Boned, Sautéd
Snip Noodles, Fried
Snowballs
Snowflakes
Soap, to Make
Soda Cream
Sole, Fillet of
Sole with Wine (French Recipe)
Soup Meats
Soup Stock, Directions
  White
Soups
Sour Cream Dressing
  Cream Kolatchen
  Milk Biscuits
  Milk Cookies
  Milk Pancakes
  Milk Soup
  Soup (for Purim)
  Spatzen
Spaghetti
Spaghetti and Meat
Spanish Onion Rarebit
  Liver
  Pie
  Rice
  Sauce
Spaetzlen or Spatzen
Spatzen
Spice Cake
Spice Roll
Spinach
  Fleischig
  Soup
  with Cream Sauce
Springele
Sponge Cake
  Cakes, Small
  Dumplings
Squab en Casserole
Squabs or Nest Pigeons
  Broiled
Squash Fritters
  Stewed
  Salad (Turkish Style)
Steamed Berry Pudding
Steamed Puddings
Stollen
Strawberries
  à la Bridge
  and Pineapple Preserves
  Canned
  in the Sun
  Preserved
Strawberry Cocktail
  Dessert
  Ice Cream
  Jelly
  Pie
  Sherbet
  Shortcake with Matzoth Meal
  Shortcake, Biscuit Dough
String Bean Salad
Striped Bass
Strudel aus Kalbslunge
  Almond
  Apple
  Cabbage
  Cherry
  Mandel
  Quark (Dutch Cheese)
  Rahm
  Rice
Succotash
Suet Pudding with Pears
Sugar Cookies
Sugar Syrup
Sulz
Sulze von Kalbsfuessen
Sunshine Cake
Sweetbread Salad
  Sauté with Mushrooms
Sweetbreads
  Glacé; Sauce Jardinière with Spaghetti
  Stewed
Sweet Entrée of Ripe Peaches
Sweet Pickles
Sweet Potato Pie
Sweet Potato Pudding
Sweet Potatoes and Apples
  Boiled
  Candied
  Fried
  French Fried
  Plums and Meat
  Roast
  Roast with Meat
Swiss Chard
Swiss Creamed Fish

*T*

Tapioca
Tapioca Custard
Tartare Sauce
Tartlets
Tea
Tea Cakes, Russian
Tea Rolls
Tea, Russian Style
Teiglech
Teufelsgurken
Time Table for Baking Cakes
  for Boiling Meats
  for Boiling Vegetables
  for Broiling Meats
  for Canning Vegetables
  for Roasting Meats
Tipsy Pudding
Toast, Buttered
  Cinnamon, for Tea
  Milk or Cream
Toasted Cheese Sandwiches
Tocane, Lamb Stew
Tomato, Baked with Eggplant
  Catsup
  Cream of
  Custards
  Green, Pickle
  Green or Yellow Plum, Preserves
  Purée
  Salad (French Dressing)
  Sauce
  Sauce (Chilli)
  Soup
  Soup with Rice
Tomatoes,
  Canned, Stewed
  Creole
  Eggs and Cheese, Hungarian Style
  Green Dill
  Fried
  Fried Green
  Ripe
  Scalloped
  Stewed
  Stuffed
  Stuffed, Cheese Salad
  Stuffed, Salad
  with Rice
  Yellow, Stuffed
Tongue,
  Boiled (Sweet and Sour)
  Filled
  Pickled Beef
  Sandwiches
  Smoked
  Smothered
Topfa Dalkeln (Cheese Cakes)
Tripe à la Creole
Tripe, Family Style
Trout, Boiled
Tscholnt (Shabbas Soup)
Tchorba (Turkish Scrap)
Tsimess
Turkey, Roast
  Neck, Stuffed Turkish
  Style
  Soup
Turnip Soup
Turnips
  Boiled
  Hashed
Tutti-Frutti
Tutti-Frutti Ice Cream

*U*

Ueberschlagene Matzoth
Unfermented Grape Juice
Utensils for Jelly Making

*V*

Vanilla Cookies
  Extract
  Ice Cream
  Sauce
Veal, Breast of, Roasted
  Fricasseed, with Cauliflower
  Loaf
  Roast
  Salad
  Sandwiches
  Shoulder or Neck, Hungarian Style
  Soup
  Stewed
  Stuffed Shoulder of
  Sweetbreads, Fried
Vegetable Fritters
  Hash
  Meat Pie
  Soup
  Soup (Milchig)
Vegetables
  Directions for Canning
  General Remarks
Vienna Pastry for Kipfel
Vienna Prater Cake
Vienna Sausage
Vinegar Pie
Vinaigrette Sauce

*W*

Waffles, One-Egg
Waffles, Three-Egg
Waldorf Salad
Walnut Macaroons
Walnut Torte
Water-Lily Salad
Watermelon Pickle
  Sherbet
Watermelons
Wedding Cake
Welsh Rarebit
Wheat Cereals
Wheat Muffins
Whipped Cream
Whipped Cream Pie
White Cake
  Caviar
  Fondant
  Sauce (for Vegetables)
Wiener Braten (Vienna Roast)
  Kartoffel Kloesse
  Kipfel
  Studenten Kipfel
Windbeutel
Wine Sauce
Winter Jelly

*Y*

Yeast
  Home-made
  Kranz
Yom-Tov Soup

*Z*

Zuemimo Sauce
Zwieback
  Anise
  Torte
Zwiebel Matzoth
Zwiebel Platz

*TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES*

All measurements should be made level.

 2 gills = 1 cup
 2 cups = 1 pint
 2 pints = 1 quart
 4 quarts = 1 gallon
16 ounces = 1 pound
 8 quarts = 1 peck
 4 pecks = 1 bushel
60 drops = 1 teaspoon
 4 saltspoons = 1 teaspoon
 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
 4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup
 4 tablespoons = 1 wine-glass
 2 tablespoons of butter,
    sugar, salt = 1 ounce
 4 tablespoons of flour = 1 ounce
16 tablespoons = 1 cup
 4 cups of flour = 1 pound
 2 cups of solid butter = 1 pound
 2 cups of granulated sugar = 1 pound
 3 cups of corn meal = 1 pound
 2-2/3 cups of powdered sugar = 1 pound
 2-2/3 cups of brown sugar = 1 pound
 2 cups of solid meat = 1 pound
 1 cup of shelled almonds = 1/4 pound
 1 cup of raisins or currants = 6 ounces
 1 cup of cornstarch = 1/4 pound
10 unbroken hen's eggs = 1 pound
Butter, size of an egg = 2 ounces

*MEASUREMENT OF FOOD MATERIALS*

The success of a recipe is often due to exactness in measuring ingredients, as well as to the care with which directions are followed.

The recipes in this book have been compiled in accordance with the Table of Standard Measurements, which is generally followed by expert cooks. Experienced cooks can measure by sight, but those less expert need definite guides. The Table of Weights and Measures will be found on the inside front cover.

Dry ingredients, such as flour, sugar, spices and soda, should be sifted before measuring. Sift lightly into the bowl, dip the spoon into it, lift it slightly heaped, and then level it by sliding the edge of a knife across the top of the spoon. Do not level by pressing it.

To measure one-half spoonful, fill and level the spoon, then divide in halves, lengthwise; for quarter-spoonfuls, cut the halves crosswise.

A cupful is an even cup, leveled off, not shaken down. Accurate portions of the cup may be found by using the special measuring cups, with thirds and fourths indicated.

The tablespoons, dessert and teaspoons used in measuring, should be of the regulation sizes, made of silver. The cup should be the regulation half-pint cup. These cups can be had in glass, tin, granite and aluminum ware; the measuring spoons (all sizes) in aluminum ware.

A spoonful of liquid is a spoon filled to the brim.

A tablespoon of melted butter should be measured after melting.

A spoonful of butter, melted, should be measured before melting.

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