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Eighth Edition, Revised








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Title: Anglo-Saxon Primer

With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary; Eighth Edition Revised

Author: Henry Sweet

Release Date: November 14, 2010 [eBook #34316]

Language: English

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The want of an introduction to the study of Old-English has long been felt. Vernon's Anglo-Saxon Guide was an admirable book for its time, but has long been completely antiquated. I was therefore obliged to make my Anglo-Saxon Reader a somewhat unsatisfactory compromise between an elementary primer and a manual for advanced students, but I always looked forward to producing a strictly elementary book like the present one, which would enable me to give the larger one a more scientific character, and would at the same time serve as an introduction to it. Meanwhile, however, Professor Earle has brought out his Book for the beginner in Anglo-Saxon. But this work is quite unsuited to serve as an introduction to my Reader, and will be found to differ so totally in plan and execution from the present one as to preclude all idea of rivalry on my part. We work on lines which instead of clashing can only diverge more and more.

My main principle has been to make the book the easiest possible introduction to the study of Old-English.

Poetry has been excluded, and a selection made from the easiest prose pieces I could find. Old-English original prose is unfortunately limited in extent, and the most suitable pieces (such as the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan) are already given in the Reader; these I could not give over {vi}again. But I hope the short extracts from the Chronicle and the Martyrdom of King Edmund will be found not wanting in interest. For the rest of the selections I have had to fall back on scriptural extracts, which have the great advantages of simplicity and familiarity of subject. The Gospel extracts have been transferred here from the Reader, where they will be omitted in the next edition. The sentences which head the selections have been gathered mainly from the Gospels, Ŭfric's Homilies, and the Chronicle. They are all of the simplest possible character, only those having been taken which would bear isolation from their context. They are intended to serve both as an introduction and as a supplement to the longer pieces. They are grouped roughly into paragraphs, according to the grammatical forms they illustrate. Thus the first paragraph consists mainly of examples of the nominative singular of nouns and adjectives, the second of accusative singulars, and so on.

The spelling has been made rigorously uniform throughout on an early West-Saxon basis. Injurious as normalizing is to the advanced student, it is an absolute necessity for the beginner, who wants to have the definite results of scholarship laid before him, not the confused and fluctuating spellings which he cannot yet interpret intelligently. Even for purely scientific purposes we require a standard of comparison and classification, as in the arrangement of words in a dictionary, where we have to decide, for instance, whether to put the original of hear under ē, īe, ī or ȳ. The spelling I here adopt is, in fact, the one I should recommend for dictionary purposes. From early West-Saxon it is an easy step both to late W. S. and to the Mercian forms from which Modern English is derived. That I give Ŭfric in a spelling slightly earlier than his date is no more {vii}unreasonable than it is for a classical scholar to print Ausonius (who doubtless spoke Latin with an almost Italian pronunciation) in the same spelling as Virgil.

It is impossible to go into details, but in doubtful or optional cases I have preferred those forms which seemed most instructive to the student. Thus I have preferred keeping up the distinction between the indic. bundon and the subj. bunden, although the latter is often levelled under the former even in early MS. In the accentuation I have for the present retained the conventional quantities, which are really 'prehistoric' quantities, as I have shown elsewhere (Phil. Soc. Proc. 1880, 1881). It is no use trying to disguise the fact that Old English philology (owing mainly to its neglect in its native land) is still in an unsettled state.

In the Grammar I have cut down the phonology to the narrowest limits, giving only what is necessary to enable the beginner to trace the connection of forms within the language itself. Derivation and syntax have been treated with the same fulness as the inflections. In my opinion, to give inflections without explaining their use is as absurd as it would be to teach the names of the different parts of a machine without explaining their use, and derivation is as much a fundamental element of a language as inflection. The grammar has been based throughout on the texts, from which all words and sentences given as examples have, as far as possible, been taken. This I consider absolutely essential in an elementary book. What is the use of a grammar which gives a number of forms and rules which the learner has no occasion to apply practically in his reading? Simply to cut down an ordinary grammar and prefix it to a selection of elementary texts, without any attempt to adapt them to one another, is a most unjustifiable proceeding. {viii}

In the Glossary cognate and root words are given only when they occur in the texts, or else are easily recognizable by the ordinary English reader.

All reference to cognate languages has been avoided. Of course, if the beginner knows German, the labour of learning Old English will be lightened for him by one half, but he does not require to have the analogies pointed out to him. The same applies to the relation between Old and Modern English. To trace the history of the sounds would be quite out of place in this book, and postulates a knowledge of the intermediate stages which the beginner cannot have.

The Notes consist chiefly of references to the Grammar, and are intended mainly for those who study without a teacher. As a general rule, no such references are given where the passage itself is quoted in the Grammar.

On the whole I do not think the book could be made much easier without defeating its object. Thus, instead of simply referring the student from stęnt to standan, and thence to the Grammar, I might have saved him all this trouble by putting 'stęnt, 3 sg. pres. of standan, stand,' but the result would be in many cases that he would not look at the Grammar at all—surely a most undesirable result.

Although I have given everything that I believe to be necessary, every teacher may, of course, at his own discretion add such further illustrations, linguistic, historical, antiquarian, or otherwise, as he thinks likely to instruct or interest his pupils.

My thanks are due to Professor Skeat, not only for constant advice and encouragement in planning and carrying out this work, but also for help in correcting the proofs.

In conclusion I may be allowed to express a hope that this little book may prove useful not only to young beginners, but also to some of our Professors of and {ix}Examiners in the English language, most of whom are now beginning to see the importance of a sound elementary knowledge of 'Anglo-Saxon'—a knowledge which I believe this book to be capable of imparting, if studied diligently, and not hurriedly cast aside for a more ambitious one.


Heath Street, Hampstead,

March 31, 1882.


In the present edition I have put this book into what must be (for some time at least) its permanent form, making such additions and alterations as seemed necessary.

If I had any opportunity of teaching the language, I should no doubt have been able to introduce many other improvements; as it is, I have had to rely mainly on the suggestions and corrections kindly sent to me by various teachers and students who have used this book, among whom my especial thanks are due to the Rev. W. F. Moulton, of Cambridge, and Mr. C. Stoffel, of Amsterdam.



October 15, 1884.



Grammar 1
Texts 55
Notes 91
Glossary                                        97



The oldest stage of English before the Norman Conquest is called 'Old English,' which name will be used throughout in this Book, although the name 'Anglo-Saxon' is still often used.

There were several dialects of Old English. This book deals only with the West-Saxon dialect in its earliest form.



The vowel-letters in Old English had nearly the same values as in Latin. Long vowels were occasionally marked by (´), short vowels being left unmarked. In this book long vowels are marked by (ˉ). The following are the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):—

a as in mann (G.)          nama (name).
ā ,, father stān (stone).
䞼/td> ,, man gl墠(glad).
ǣ ,, dǣd (deed)[1].
e ,, 赩 (F.) ic ete[2] (I eat).
ē ,, see (G.) hē (he).
ę ,, men męnn (men).
{2} i ,, fini (F.) cwic (alive).
ī ,, sieh (G.) wīn (wine).
ie ,, fin ieldran (ancestors).
īe ,, hīeran (hear).
o ,, beau (F.) god (god).
ō ,, so (G.) gōd (good).
u ,, sou (F.) sunu (son).
ū ,, gut (G.) nū (now).
y ,, v衼i>u (F.) synn (sin).
ȳ ,, gr�) brȳd (bride).
ea = 䞫 a eall (all).
ēa = ǣ + a ēast (east).
eo = e + o weorc (work).
ēo = ē + o dēop (deep).
e and ę are both written e in the MSS.

The diphthongs are pronounced with the stress on the first element.

Those who find a difficulty in learning strange vowel-sounds may adopt the following approximate pronunciation:—

a as in ask (short) nama (năhmăh).
ā ,, father stān (stahn).
䞼/td> ,, man gl墠(glad).
ǣ ,, there ǣr (air).
e, ę ,, men ete (etty), męnn (men).
ē ,, they hē (hay).
i, ie ,, fin cwic (quick), ieldran (ildrăhn).
ī, īe ,, see wīn (ween), hīeran (heerăhn).
o ,, not god (god).
ō ,, note gōd (goad).
u ,, full full (full).
ū ,, fool nū (noo).
y ,, fin synn (zin).
ȳ ,, see brȳd (breed).
ea = ĕ-ăh eall (ĕ-ăhl).
ēa = ai-ăh ēast (ai-ăhst).
{3} eo = ĕ-o weorc (wĕ-ork).
ēo = ai-o dēop (dai-op).

The pronunciation given in parentheses is the nearest that can be expressed in English letters as pronounced in Southern English.


Double consonants must be pronounced double, or long, as in Italian. Thus sunu (son) must be distinguished from sunne (sun) in the same way as penny is distinguished from penknife. So also in (in) must be distinguished from inn (house); noting that in modern English final consonants in accented monosyllables after a short vowel are long, our in and inn both having the pronunciation of Old English inn, not of O.E. in.

c and g had each a back (guttural) and a front (palatal) pron., which latter is in this book written ċ, ġ.

c = k, as in cēne (bold), cnāwan (know).

ċ = kj, a k formed in the j (English y) position, nearly as in the old-fashioned pron. of sky: ċiriċe (church), styċċe (piece), �;nċan (think).

g initially and in the combination ng was pron. as in 'get': gōd (good), lang (long); otherwise (that is, medially and finally after vowels and l, r) as in German sagen: dagas (days), burg (city), hālga (saint).

ġ initially and in the combination was pronounced gj (corresponding to kj): ġē (ye), ġeorn (willing), spręnġan (scatter); otherwise = j (as in 'you'): d䤣289; (day), wrēġan (accuse), hęrġian (ravage). It is possible that ġ in ġe-boren (born) and other unaccented syllables was already pronounced j. ċġ = ġġ: sęċġan (say), hryċġ (back).

f had the sound of v everywhere where it was possible:—faran (go), of (of), ofer (over); not, of course, in oft (often), or when doubled, as in offrian (offer). {4}

h initially, as in (he), had the same sound as now. Everywhere else it had that of Scotch and German ch in lochhēah (high), Wealh (Welshman), riht (right). hw, as in hw岼/i> (what), hwīl (while), had the sound of our wh; and hl, hn, hr differed from l, n, r respectively precisely as wh differs from w, that is, they were these consonants devocalized, hl being nearly the same as Welsh ll:—hlāford (lord), hlūd (loud); hnappian (doze), hnutu (nut); hra� (quickly), hrēod (reed).

r was always a strong trill, as in Scotch:—rǣran (to raise), hēr (here), word (word).

s had the sound of zsēċan (seek), swā (so), wīs (wise), ā·rīsan (rise); not, of course, in combination with hard consonants, as in stān (stone), f岴 (firm), rīċsian (rule), or when double, as in cyssan (kiss).

�had the sound of our th (= dh) in then:—�; (thou), �i> (thing), sō�(true), hǣ�> (heathen); except when in combination with hard consonants, where it had that of our th in thin, as in sēċ�(seeks). Note h姾 (has) = h嵤h.

w was fully pronounced wherever written:—wrītan (write), nīwe (new), sēow (sowed pret.).


The stress or accent is marked throughout in this book, whenever it is not on the first syllable of a word, by (·) preceding the letter on which the stress begins. Thus for·ġiefan is pronounced with the same stress as that of forgive, andswaru with that of answer.



Different vowels are related to one another in various ways in O.E., the most important of which are mutation (German umlaut) and gradation (G. ablaut). {5}

The following changes are mutations

a .. ę:—mann, pl. męnn; wand (wound prt.), węndan (to turn).

ea (= a) .. ie (= ę):—eald (old), ieldra (older); feallan (fall), fiel�ls).

ā .. ǣ:—blāwan (to blow), blǣw�loweth); hāl (sound), hǣlan (heal).

u .. y:—burg (city), pl. byriġ; trum (strong), trymman (to strengthen).

o .. y:—gold, gylden (golden); coss (a kiss), cyssan (to kiss).

e .. i:—beran (to bear), bire�reth); cwe�peak), cwide (speech).

eo (= e) .. ie (= i):—heord (herd), hierde (shepherd); ċeorfan (cut), ċierf�s).

u .. o:—curon (they chose), ġe·coren (chosen).

ū .. ȳ:—cū�wn), cȳ�o make known); fūl (foul), ā·fȳlan (defile).

ō .. ē:—sōhte (sought prt.), sēċan (to seek); fōda (food), fēdan (to feed).

ēa .. īe:—hēawan (to hew), hīew�ews); tēam (progeny), tīeman (teem).

ēo .. īe:—stēor (rudder), stīeran (steer); ġe·strēon (possession), ġes·trīenan (gain).

Before proceeding to gradation, it will be desirable to describe the other most important vowel-relations.

a, 䪠ea. In O.E. original a is preserved before nasals, as in mann, lang, nama (name), and before a single consonant followed by a, u, or o, as in dagas (days), dagum (to days), faran (go), gafol (profit), and in some words when e follows, as in ic fare (I go), faren (gone). Before r, l, h followed by another consonant, and before x it becomes ea, as in heard (hard), eall (all), eald (old), eahta (eight), weaxan (to grow). Not in b屳t (p. 7). In most other cases it becomes 亯i>:—d䤣289;, (day), d䤣289;es (of a day), f岴 (firm), w尼/i> (wary). {6}

e before nasals always becomes i: compare bindan (to bind), pret. band, with beran (to bear), pret. b尼/i>.

e before r (generally followed by a consonant) becomes eo:—eor� (earth), heorte (heart). Not in berstan (p. 7). Also in other cases:—seolfor (silver), heofon (heaven).

i before r + cons. becomes ie:—bier� (beareth) contr. from bire�rde (shepherd) from heord (herd), wiersa (worse).

ę before r, or l + cons. often becomes ie:—fierd (army) from faran, bieldo (boldness) from beald, ieldra (elder) from eald.

By gradation the vowels are related as follows:—

e (i, eo) .. a (䪠ea) .. u (o):—

bindan (inf.), band (pret.), bundon (they bound). beran (inf.), b尼/i> (pret.), boren (past partic.). ċeorfan (cut), ċearf (pret.), curfon (they cut), corfen (past partic.). bęnd (bond) = mutation of band, byr-�> (burden) of bor-en.

a (䪠ea) .. ǣspr塼/i> (spoke), sprǣcon (they spoke), sprǣċ (speech).

a .. ōfaran (to go), fōr (pret.), fōr (journey). ġe·fēra (companion) mutation of fōr.

ī .. ā .. iwrītan, wrāt, writon, ġe·writ (writing, subst.). (be)·līfan (remain), lāf (remains), whence by mutation lǣfan (leave).

ēo (ū) .. ēa .. u (o):—ċēosan (choose), ċēas, curon, coren. cys-t (choice). (for)·lēosan (lose), lēas (loose), ā·līesan (release), losian (to be lost). būgan (bend), boga (bow).

We see that the laws of gradation are most clearly shown in the conjugation of the strong verbs. But they run through the whole language, and a knowledge of the laws of gradation and mutation is the main key to O.E. etymology.

It is often necessary to supply intermediate stages in connecting two words. Thus lęċġan (lay) cannot be directly referred to liċġan (lie), but only to a form *lag-, preserved in the preterite l䤣289;. So also blęndan (to blind) can be referred only indirectly to the adjective blind through an intermediate *bland-. Again, the root-vowel of byr�> {7}(burden) cannot be explained by the infinitive beran (bear), but only by the past participle ġe·boren. In the same way hryre (fall sb.) must be referred, not to the infinitive hrēosan, but to the preterite plural hruron.

The vowel-changes in the preterites of verbs of the 'fall'-conjugation (1) feallan, fēoll, &c., are due not to gradation, but to other causes.


s becomes r in the preterite plurals and past participles of strong verbs, as in curon, ġe·coren from ċēosan, wǣron pl. of w屼/i> (was), and in other formations, such as hryre (fall) from hrēosan.

�becomes d under the same conditions, as in wurdon, ġe·worden from weor�> (become), cw缼/i> (quoth), pl. cwǣdon, cwide (speech) from cwe�> (infin.).

r is often transposed, as in iernan (run) from original *rinnan (cp. the subst. ryne), berstan (burst) from *brestan, b屳t (burst pret.) from br岴, hors (horse) from *hross.

The combinations c䫼/b>, g亯b>- become ċea-, ġea-, as in ċeaf (chaff) from *c夼/i>, sċeal (shall) from *sc媼/i>, ġeaf (gave) = *g夼/i> from ġiefan (cp. cw缼/i> from cwe�>), ġeat (gate)—cp. f岼/i> (vessel).

gǣ- often becomes ġēa-, as in ġēafon (they gave), with which compare cwǣdon (they said).

ge- becomes ġie, as in ġiefan, ġieldan (pay) from *gefan, *geldan—cp. cwe�>, delfan. Not in the prefix ġe- and ġē (ye).

When g comes before a consonant in inflection, it often becomes h, as in hē līeh�(he lies) from lēogan (mentiri).

h after a consonant is dropt when a vowel follows, the preceding vowel being lengthened, thus Wealh (Welshman) has plural Wēalas.



Gender. There are three genders in O.E.—masculine, neuter, and feminine. The gender is partly natural, partly {8}grammatical. By the natural gender names of male beings, such as se mann (the man), are masculine; of female beings, such as sēo dohtor (the daughter), are feminine; and of young creatures, such as �ċild (the child), neuter. Note, however, that �wīf (woman) is neuter.

Grammatical gender is known only by the gender of the article and other words connected with the noun, and, to some extent, by its form. Thus all nouns ending in -a, such as se mōna (moon), are masculine, sēo sunne (sun) being feminine. Those ending in -dōm, -hād, and -sċipe are also masculine:—se wīsdōm (wisdom), se ċildhād (childhood), se frēondsċipe (friendship). Those in -nes, -o (from adjectives) -rǣden, and -ung are feminine:—sēo rihtwīsnes (righteousness), sēo bieldo (boldness) from beald, sēo mann-rǣden (allegiance), sēo scotung (shooting).

Compounds follow the gender of their last element, as in �burg-ġeat (city-gate), from sēo burg and �ġeat. Hence also se wīf-mann (woman) is masculine.

The gender of most words can be learnt only by practice, and the student should learn each noun with its proper definite article.

Strong and Weak. Weak nouns are those which form their inflections with n, such as se mōna, plural mōnan; sēo sunne, genitive sing. �;re sunnan. All the others, such as se d䤣289;, pl. dagas, �#363;s (house), gen. sing. �hūses, are strong.

Cases. There are four cases, nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive. The acc. is the same as the nom. in all plurals, in the sing. of all neuter nouns, and of all strong masculines. Masculine and neuter nouns never differ in the plural except in the nom. and acc., and in the singular they differ only in the acc. of weak nouns, which in neuters is the same as the nom. The dative plural of nearly all nouns ends in -um. {9}


(1) as-plurals.

Nom[3]. stān (stone). Nom. stān-as.
Dat. stān-e. Dat. stān-um.
Gen. stān-es. Gen. stān-a.

So also dǣl (part), cyning (king), ċildhād (childhood).

d䤣289; (day) changes its vowel in the pl. (p. 5):—d䤣289;, d䤣289;e, d䤣289;es; dagas, dagum, daga.

Nouns in -e have nom. and dat. sing. the same:—ęnde, (end), ęnde, ęndes; ęndas, ęndum, ęnda.

Nouns in -el, -ol, -um, -en, -on, -er, -or often contract:—ęnġel (angel), ęnġle, ęnġles; ęnġlas, ęnġlum, ęnġla. So also n䤣289;el (nail), �9;en (thane), ealdor (prince). Others, such as 墥r (field), do not contract.

h after a consonant is dropped in inflection (p. 7), as in feorh (life), fēore, fēores. So also in Wealh (Welshman), plur. Wēalas.

There are other classes which are represented only by a few nouns each.

(2) e-plurals.

A few nouns which occur only in the plur.:—lēode (people), lēodum, lēoda. So also several names of nations:—Ęnġle (English), Dęne (Danes); Seaxe (Saxons), Mierċe (Mercians), have gen. plur. Seaxna, Mierċna.

(3) Mutation-plurals.

Nom. fōt (foot). Nom. fēt.
Dat. fēt. Dat. fōt-um.
Gen. fōt-es. Gen. fōt-a.

So also tō�(tooth). Mann (man), męnn, mannes; męnn, mannum, manna.


(4) u-nouns.

Nom. sun-u (son). Nom. sun-a.
Dat. sun-a. Dat. sun-um.
Gen. sun-a. Gen. sun-a.

So also wudu (wood).

(5) r-nouns (including feminines).

Nom. mōdor (mother). Nom. mōdor.
Dat. mēder. Dat. mōdr-um.
Gen. mōdor. Gen. mōdr-a.

So also brō�> (brother); f壥r (father), dohtor (daughter), have dat. sing. f壥r, dehter.

(6) nd-nouns.

Formed from the present participle of verbs.

Nom. frēond (friend). Nom. frīend.
Dat. frīend. Dat. frēond-um.
Gen. frēond-es. Gen. frēond-a.

So also fēond (enemy).

Those in -end inflect thus:—būend (dweller), būend, būendes; būend, būendum, būendra. So also Hǣlend (saviour). The -ra is an adjectival inflection.


(1) u-plurals.

Nom. sċip (ship). Nom. sċip-u.
Dat. sċip-e. Dat. sċip-um.
Gen. sċip-es. Gen. sċip-a.

So all neuters with short final syllable, such as ġe·bed (prayer), ġe·writ (writing), ġeat (gate). {11}

F岼/i> (vessel), f峥, f峥s; fatu, fatum, fata (p. 5).

Rīċe (kingdom), rīċe, rīċes; rīċu, rīċum, rīċa. So also all neuters in e, except ēage and ēare (p. 13): ġe·�;ode (language), styċċe (piece).

Those in -ol, -en, -or, &c. are generally contracted:—dēofol (devil), dēofles, dēoflu. So also wǣpen (weapon), mynster (monastery), wundor (wonder).

(2) Unchanged plurals.

Nom. hūs (house). Nom. hūs.
Dat. hūs-e. Dat. hūs-um.
Gen. hūs-es. Gen. hūs-a.

So all others with long final syllables (that is, containing a long vowel, or a short vowel followed by more than one consonant), such as bearn (child), folc (nation), wīf (woman).

Feoh (money) drops its h in inflection and lengthens the eofeoh, fēo, fēos. So also bleoh (colour).


(1) a-plurals.

(a) Nom. ġief-u (gift). Nom. ġief-a.
Acc. ġief-e. Acc. ġief-a.
Dat. ġief-e. Dat. ġief-um.
Gen. ġief-e. Gen. ġief-ena.

So also lufu (love), scamu (shame). Duru (door) is an u-noun: it has acc. duru, d., g. dura, g. pl. dura. Observe that all these nouns have a short syllable before the final vowel. When it is long, the u is dropped, and the noun falls under (b). {12}

(b) Nom. sprǣċ (speech). Nom. sprǣċ-a.
Acc. sprǣċ-e. Acc. sprǣċ-a.
Dat. sprǣċ-e. Dat. sprǣċ-um.
Gen. sprǣċ-e. Gen. sprǣċ-a.

So also strǣt (street), sorg (sorrow). Some have the acc. sing. the same as the nom., such as dǣd, hand, miht.

Those in -ol, -er, -or, &c. contract:—sāwol (soul), sāwle, sāwla, sāwlum. So also ċeaster (city), hlǣdder (ladder).

Some in -en double the n in inflection:—byr�> (burden), byr�/i>. So also those in -rǣden, such as hierdrǣden (guardianship). Those in -nes also double the s in inflection: gōdnes (goodness), gōdnesse.

(2) Mutation-plurals.

Nom. bōc (book). Nom. bēċ.
Dat. bēċ. Dat. bōc-um.
Gen. bēċ. Gen. bōc-a.

Burg (city), byriġ, burge; byriġ, burgum, burga.

(3) Indeclinable.

Nom. bieldo (boldness).
Dat. bieldo.
Gen. bieldo.

So also ieldo (age).

For r-nouns, see under Masculines.


Nom. nam-a (name). Nom. nam-an.
Acc. nam-an. Acc. nam-an.
Dat. nam-an. Dat. nam-um.
Gen. nam-an. Gen. nam-ena.


So also all nouns in -aġe·fēra (companion), guma (man), ġe·lēafa (belief). Ieldran (elders) occurs only in the plural.

Ġe·fēa (joy) is contracted throughout:—ġefēa, ġefēan.


Nom. ēag-e (eye). Nom. ēag-an.
Acc. ēag-e. Acc. ēag-an.
Dat. ēag-an. Dat. ēag-um.
Gen. ēag-an. Gen. ēag-ena.

So also ēare 'ear.'


Nom. sunn-e (sun). Nom. sunn-an.
Acc. sunn-an. Acc. sunn-an.
Dat. sunn-an. Dat. sunn-um.
Gen. sunn-an. Gen. sunn-ena.

So also ċiriċe (church), fǣmne (virgin), heorte (heart).

Lēo (lion) has acc., &c. lēon.


Native names of persons are declined like other nouns:—Ŭfred, gen. Ŭfredes, dat. Ŭfrede; Ēad-burg (fem.), gen. Ēadburge, &c.

Foreign names of persons sometimes follow the analogy of native names, thus Crīst, Salomon have gen. Crīstes, Salomones, dat. Crīste, Salomone. Sometimes they are declined as in Latin, especially those in -us, but often with a mixture of English endings, and the Latin endings are used {14}somewhat loosely, the accus. ending being often extended to the other oblique cases; thus we find nom. Cȳrus, gen. Cȳres, acc. Cȳrum, dat. Cȳrum (�;m cyninge Cȳrum).

Almost the only names of countries and districts in Old English are those taken from Latin, such as Breten (Britain), Cęnt (Kent), Ġermānia (Germany), and those formed by composition, generally with land, such as Ęnġla-land (land of the English, England), Isr·ahēla-�;od (Israel). In both of these cases the first element is in the gen. pl., but ordinary compounds, such as Scot-land, also occur. In other cases the name of the inhabitants of a country is used for the country itself:—on Ēast-ęnġlum = in East-anglia, lit. 'among the East-anglians.' So also on Angel-cynne = in England, lit. 'among the English race,' more accurately expressed by Angelcynnes land.

Uncompounded names of countries are sometimes undeclined. Thus we find on Cęnt, tō Hierusalēm.

Ġermānia, Asia, and other foreign names in -a take -e in the oblique cases, thus gen. Ġermānie.


Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with partly different endings, together with strong and weak inflection. In the masc. and neut. sing. they have an instrumental case, for which in the fem. and plur., and in the weak inflection the dative is used.


Adjectives with a short syllable before the endings take -u in the fem. sing. nom. and neut. pl. nom., those with a long one drop it. {15}

Masc. Neut. Fem.
(a) Nom. cwic (alive), cwic, cwic-u.
Acc. cwic-ne, cwic, cwic-e.
Dat. cwic-um, cwic-um, cwic-re.
Gen. cwic-es, cwic-es, cwic-re.
Instr. cwic-e, cwic-e. (cwicre).
Nom. cwic-e, cwic-u, cwic-e.
Dat. cwic-um.
Gen. cwic-ra.

So also sum (some), fǣrlic (dangerous).

Those with 亯i>, such as gl墼/i> (glad), change it to a in dat. gladum, &c.

Those in -e, such as blī� (glad), drop it in all inflections:—blī�>, blī�, blī�>.

Those in -ig, -el, -ol, -en, -er, -or often contract before inflections beginning with a vowel, as in hāliġ (holy), hālges, hālgum; miċel (great), miċlu, miċle. Not, of course, before consonants:—hāliġne, miċelne, miċelra.

Those in -u, such as ġearu (ready), change the u into a w before vowels:—ġearwes, ġearwe.

Adjectives with long syllable before the endings drop the u of the fem. and neuter:—

Masc. Neut. Fem.
(b) Nom. Sing. gōd (good), gōd, gōd.
Plur. gōde, gōd, gōde.

Fēa (few) has only the plural inflections, dat. fēam, gen. fēara.

Hēah (high) drops its second h in inflection and contracts:—hēare, nom. pl. hēa, dat. hēam, acc. sing. masc. hēanne.

Fela (many) is indeclinable. {16}


The weak inflections of adjectives agree exactly with the noun ones:-

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. gōd-a, gōd-e, gōd-e.
Acc. gōd-an, gōd-e, gōd-an.
Dat. gōd-an, gōd-an, gōd-an.
Gen. gōd-an, gōd-an, gōd-an.
Nom. gōd-an.
Dat. gōd-um.
Gen. gōd-ra.

The vowel- and consonant-changes are as in the strong declension.


The comparative is formed by adding -ra, and is declined like a weak adjective:—lēof (dear), lēofra masc., lēofre fem., lēofran plur., etc.; mǣre (famous), mǣrra. The superlative is formed by adding -ost, and may be either weak or strong:—lēofost (dearest).

The following form their comparisons with mutation, with superlative in -est (the forms in parentheses are adverbs):—

eald (old), ieldra, ieldest.
lang (long), lęnġra, lęnġest.
nēah (near), (nēar), nīehst.
hēah (high), hīerra, hīehst.

The following show different roots:—

gōd (good), bętera, bętst.
yfel (evil), wiersa, wierrest.
miċel (great), māra (mā), mǣst.
lȳtel (little), lǣssa (lǣs), lǣst.


The following are defective as well as irregular, being formed from adverbs:—

ǣr (formerly), ǣrra (ǣror), ǣrest.
fore (before), . . . forma, fyrmest.
ūt (out), ȳterra, ȳtemest.


ān, one. forma (first).
twā, two. ō�td>
�5;o, three. �.
fēower, four. fēor�d>
fīf, five. fīf-ta.
siex, six. siex-ta.
seofon, seven. seofo�d>
eahta, eight. eahto�d>
nigon, nine. nigo�d>
tīen, ten. tēo�d>
ęndlufon, eleven. ęndlyf-ta.
twęlf, twelve. twe,lf-ta.
�5;o-tīene, thirteen. �5;o-tēo�d>
fēower-tīene, fourteen.
fīf-tīene, fifteen.
siex-tīene, sixteen.
seofon-tīene, seventeen.
eahta-tīene, eighteen.
nigon-tīene, nineteen.
twęn-tiġ, twenty.
�ġ, thirty.
fēower-tiġ, forty.
fīf-tiġ, fifty.
siex-tiġ, sixty.
{18} hund-·seofon-tiġ, seventy.
hund-·eahta-tiġ, eighty.
hund-·nigon-tiġ, ninety.
hund brace
hund-·ęndlufontiġ, hundred and ten.
hund-·twęlftiġ, hundred and twenty.
�;send, thousand.

Ān is declined like other adjectives.

Twā is declined thus:—

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. twēġen, twā, twā.
Dat. twǣm.
Gen. twēġra.

So also bēġen (both), , bǣm, bēġra.

ݲēo is declined thus:—

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. �9;e, �5;o, �5;o.
Dat. �/td>
Gen. �5;ora.

The others up to twęntiġ are generally indeclinable. Those in -tiġ are sometimes declined like neuter nouns, sometimes like adjectives, and are often left undeclined. When not made into adjectives they govern the genitive.

Hund and �;send are either declined as neuters or left undeclined, always taking a genitive:—eahta hund mīla (eight hundred miles), fēower �;send wera (four thousand men).

Units are always put before tens:—ān and twęntiġ (twenty-one). {19}

The ordinals are always weak, except ō�>, which is always strong.



Nom. iċ (I), �; (thou).
Acc. mē, �;.
Dat. mē, �;.
Gen. mīn, �;n.
Nom. wit (we two), ġit (ye two).
Acc. unc, inc.
Dat. unc, inc.
Gen. uncer, incer.
Nom. wē (we), ġē (ye).
Acc. ūs, ēow.
Dat. ūs, ēow.
Gen. ūre, ēower.


Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. hē (he), hit (it), hēo (she).
Acc. hine, hit, hīe.
Dat. him, him, hiere.
Gen. his, his, hiere.
Nom. hīe (they).
Dat. him.
Gen. hiera.

There are no reflexive pronouns in O.E., and the ordinary {20}personal pronouns are used instead:—hīe ġe·samnodon hīe (they collected themselves, assembled); hīe ā·bǣdon him wīf (they asked for wives for themselves). Self is used as an emphatic reflexive adjective agreeing with its pronoun:—swā swā hīe wȳsċton him selfum (as they wished for themselves).


Mīn (my), �;n (thy), ūre (our), ēower (your), and the dual uncer and incer are declined like other adjectives. The genitives his (his, its), hiere (her), hiera (their) are used as indeclinable possessives.


Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. hwā (who), hw岠(what).
Acc. hwone, hw岮
Dat. hwǣm, hwǣm.
Gen. hw屬 hw屮
Instr. hwȳ, hwȳ.

Hwelc (which) is declined like a strong adjective: it is used both as a noun and an adjective.


Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. se (that, the), �/td> sēo.
Acc. �/td> �;.
Dat. �;m, �;m, �;re.
Gen. �/td> �/td> �;re.
Instr. �;, �/td> �;, (�;re).
Nom. �;.
Dat. �;m.
Gen. �;ra.


Se is both a demonstrative and a definite article. It is also used as a personal pronoun:—hē ġe·hīer�#299;n word, and wyrċ�57; (he hears my words, and does them). as a demonstrative and pers. pronoun has its vowel long.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. �i>this), �/td> �;os.
Acc. �/td> �;s.
Dat. �, �,
Gen. �, �,
Instr. �;s, �;s. (�.
Nom. �;s.
Dat. �.

Other demonstratives, which are used both as nouns and as adjectives, are se ilca (same), which is always weak, swelc (such), which is always strong.


The regular relative is the indeclinable �, as in ǣlc �;ra �257;s mīn word ġe·hīer�(each of those who hears these my words). It is often combined with , which is declined:—sē � = who, masc., sēo �, fem., &c. alone is also used as a relative:—hēr is mīn cnapa, �c ġe·ċēas (here is my servant, whom I have chosen); sometimes in the sense of 'he who':—hēr �; h女t ��;n is (here thou hast that which is thine).


Indefinites are formed with swā and the interrogative pronouns, thus:—swā hwā swā, swā hwelċ swā (whoever), swā hw岠swā (whatever). {22}

Ān and sum (some) are used in an indefinite sense:—ān mann, sum mann = 'a certain man,' hence 'a man.' But the indefinite article is generally not expressed.

Ǣlċ (each), ǣniġ (any), nǣniġ (no, none), are declined like other adjectives.

Ō�> (other) is always strong:—�; ō�#281;nn.

Man, another form of mann, is often used in the indefinite sense of 'one,' French onhis brō�Horsan man of·slōg (they killed his brother Horsa).


There are two classes of verbs in O.E., strong and weak. The conjugation of strong verbs is effected mainly by means of vowel-gradation, that of weak verbs by the addition of d (-ode, -ede, -de) to the root-syllable.

The following is the conjugation of the strong verb bindan (bind), which will serve to show the endings which are common to all verbs:—

Pres. sing. 1. bind-e, bind-e.
2. bind-est, bintst, bind-e.
3. bind-e�t, bind-e.
plur.     bind-a�d> bind-en.
Pret. sing. 1. band, bund-e.
2. bund-e, bund-e.
3. band, bund-e.
plur.     bund-on, bund-en.
Imper. sing. bind; plur. bind-a�p;         Infin. bind-an.
Partic. pres. bind-ende; pret. ġe-·bund-en.
Gerund. tō bind-enne.

For the plural binda� both indicative and imperative, binde is used when the personal pronoun follows immediately after {23}the verb:—wē binda�(we bind), but binde wē (let us bind); so also gā� (go plur.), but gā ġē! (go ye).

The present participle may be declined like an adjective. Its declension when used as a noun is given above, p. 10.

The past participle generally prefixes ġe-, as in ġe·bunden, ġe·numen from niman (take), unless the other parts of the verbs have it already, as in ġe·hīeran (hear), ġe·hīered. It is sometimes prefixed to other parts of the verb as well. No ġe is added if the verb has another prefix, such as ā-, be-, for-; thus for·ġiefan (forgive) has the past participle for·ġiefen. The past participle may be declined like an adjective.

Traces of an older passive voice are preserved in the form hāt-te from hātan (call, name), which is both present 'is called,' and preterite 'was called':—se munuc hātte Abbo (the monk's name was Abbo).


In the strong verbs the plural of the pret. indic. generally has a different vowel from that of the sing. (ic band, wē bundon). The 2nd sing. pret. indic. and the whole pret. subj. always have the vowel of the preterite plural indicative (�; bunde, ic bunde, wē bunden.)

The 2nd and 3rd persons sing. of the pres. indic. often mutate the root-vowel, thus:—

a becomes ę as in (hē) stęnt from standan (stand).
ea ,, ie ,, fiel�> ,, feallan (fall).
e ,, i ,, cwi�d> ,, cwe�i>say).
eo ,, ie ,, wier�> ,, weor�i>happen).
ā ,, ǣ ,, hǣtt ,, hātan (command).
ō ,, ē ,, grēw�> ,, grōwan (grow).
ēa ,, īe ,, hīew�> ,, hēawan (hew).
ēo ,, īe ,, ċīest ,, ċēosan (choose).
ū ,, ȳ ,, lȳc�> ,, lūcan (close).


The full ending of the 3rd pers. sing. pres. indic. is -e� which is generally contracted, with the following consonant-changes:—

-te� becomes -tt as in lǣtt from lǣtan (let).
-de�> ,, -tt ,, bītt ,, bīdan (wait).
-dde�> ,, -tt ,, bitt ,, biddan (pray).
-�td> ,, -�d> ,, cwi�d> ,, cwe�i>say).
-se�> ,, -st ,, ċīest ,, ċēosan (choose).
-nde�> ,, -nt ,, bint ,, bindan (bind).

Double consonants become single, as in hē fiel�from feallan.

Before the -st of the 2nd pers. consonants are often dropt, as in �; cwist from cwe�>, �; ċīest from ċēosan; and d becomes t, as in �; bintst from bindan.

For the changes between s and r, �and d, g and h, see p. 7.

Some verbs, such as sēon (see), drop the h and contract before most inflections beginning with a vowel:—ic sēo, wē sēo� tō sēonne; but hē sih�

There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the different formation of their preterites. The following lists comprise all the strong verbs that occur in the texts given in this book, together with several others of the commoner ones.

I. 'Fall'-conjugation.

The pret. sing. and pl. has ēo or ē, and the past partic. retains the original vowel of the infinitive. {25}

(a) ēo-preterites.
feallan (fall) fiel�> fēoll fēollon feallen
healdan (hold) hielt hēold hēoldon healden
wealdan (wield) wielt wēold wēoldon wealden
weaxan (grow) wiext wēox wēoxon weaxen
blāwan (blow) blǣw�> blēow blēowon blāwen
cnāwan (know) cnǣw�> cnēow cnēowon cnāwen
sāwan (sow) sǣw�> sēow sēowon sāwen
wēpan (weep) wēp�> wēop wēopon wōpen
Wēpan has really a weak present (p. 30) with mutation (the original ō
re-appearing in the past partic.), but it makes no difference in the inflection.
flōwan (flow) flēw�> flēow flēowon flōwen
grōwan (grow) grēw�> grēow grēowon grōwen
rōwan (row) rēw�> rēow rēowon rōwen
bēatan (beat) bīett bēot bēoton bēaten
hēawan (hew) hīew�> hēow hēowon hēawen
hlēapan (leap) hlīep�> hlēop hlēopon hlēapen
(b) ē-preterites.
hātan (command) hǣtt hēt hēton hāten
lǣtan (let) lǣtt lēt lēton lǣten
fōn (seize) fēh�> fēng fēngon fangen
hōn (hang) hēh�> hēng hēngon hangen


II. 'Shake'-conjugation.

Verbs in a (ea) and ę (ie). Ō in pret. sing, and pl., a (亯i>) in partic. pret. Standan drops its n in the pret. The partic. pret. of swęrian is irregular.

faran (go) f峾 fōr fōron faren
sacan (quarrel) s夾 sōc sōcon sacen
scacan (shake) sc夾 scōc scōcon scacen
standan (stand) stęnt stōd stōdon standen
The following shows contraction of original ea
slēan (strike) slieh�> slōg slōgon sl䤣289;en
hębban (lift) hęf�> hōf hōfon hafen
sċieppan (create) sċiep�> scōp scōpon scapen
swęrian (swear) swęre�> swōr swōron sworen

The presents of these verbs are inflected weak, so that their imperative sing. is hęfe and swęre, like that of węnian (p. 32). Swęrian has indic. swęrige, swęrest, like węnian; hębban has hębbe, hęfst, &c. like hīeran (p. 30).

III. 'Bind'-conjugation.

I (ie, e, eo) followed by two consonants, one or both of which is nearly always a liquid (l, r) or nasal (m, n) in the infin., a (亯i>, ea) in pret. sing., u in pret. pl., u (o) in ptc. pret. Findan has a weak preterite.

bindan (bind) bint band bundon bunden
drincan (drink) drinc�> dranc druncon druncen
findan (find) fint funde fundon funden
ġieldan (pay) ġielt ġeald guldon golden
(on)ġinnan (begin) -ġin�> -gann -gunnon -gunnen
{27} grindan (grind) grint grand grundon grunden
iernan (run) [p. 7] iern�> arn urnon urnen
ġe-·limpan (happen) -limp�> -lamp -lumpon -lumpen
scrincan (shrink) scrinc�> scranc scruncon scruncen
springan (spring) spring�> sprang sprungon sprungen
swincan (toil) swinc�> swanc swuncon swuncen
windan (wind) wint wand wundon wunden
winnan (fight) win�> wann wunnon wunnen
berstan (burst) bierst b屳t burston borsten
breġdan (pull) ... br䤣289;d brugdon brogden
delfan (dig) dilf�> dealf dulfon dolfen
sweltan (die) swilt swealt swulton swolten
beorgan (protect) bierh�> bearg burgon borgen
beornan (burn) [p. 7] biern�> barn burnon burnen
ċeorfan (cut) ċierf�> ċearf curfon corfen
feohtan (fight) fieht feaht fuhton fohten
weorpan (throw) wierp�> wearp wurpon worpen
weor�i>become) wier�> wear�> wurdon worden

IV. 'Bear'-conjugation.

Verbs in e (i), followed by a single consonant, generally a liquid or nasal; in brecan the liquid precedes the vowel. A (亯i>) in pret. sing., ǣ (ā) in pret. pl., o (u) in ptc. pret. Cuman is irregular.

niman (take) nim�> nam nāmon numen
beran (bear) bier�> b尠 bǣron boren
brecan (break) bric�> br塠 brǣcon brocen
sċeran (shear) sċier�> sċear sċēaron scoren
stelan (steal) stil�> st媠 stǣlon stolen
teran (tear) .. t尠 tǣron toren
cuman (come) cym�> cōm cōmon cumen

V. 'Give'-conjugation.

Verbs in e (i, eo, ie) followed by single consonants, which are not liquids or nasals. This class differs from the last only in the ptc. pret. which keeps the vowel of the infinitive.

cwe�i>say) cwi�d> cw缠 cwǣdon cweden
etan (eat) itt ǣt ǣton eten
sprecan (speak) spric�> spr塠 sprǣcon sprecen
wrecan (avenge) wric�> wr塠 wrǣcon wrecen
biddan (pray) bitt b墠 bǣdon beden
liċġan (lie) lī�> l䤣289; lǣgon leġen
sittan (sit) sitt s岠 sǣton seten
�7;ġan (receive) �9;e�> �/td> �;gon �9;en
All these have weak presents:—imper. bide, liġe, site, �9;e.
Their is are mutations of the e which appears in their past partic.
ġiefan (give) ġief�> ġeaf ġēafon ġiefen
(on)ġietan (understand) -ġiett -ġeat -ġēaton -ġieten
The following is contracted in most forms:—
sēon (see) sih�> seah sāwon sewen

VI. 'Shine'-conjugation.

Verbs in ī, with pret. sing, in ā, pl. i, ptc. pret. i.

bīdan (wait) bītt bād bidon biden
bītan (bite) bītt bāt biton biten
drīfan (drive) drīf�> drāf drifon drifen
{29} (be)līfan (remain) -līf�> -lāf -lifon -lifen
rīdan (ride) rītt rād ridon riden
rīpan (reap) rīp�> rāp ripon ripen
(ā)rīsan (rise) -rīst -rās -rison -risen
sċīnan (shine) sċīn�> scān sċinon sċinen
snī�i>cut) snī�d> snā�> snidon sniden
stīgan (ascend) stīġ�> stāg stigon stiġen
(be)swīcan (deceive) -swīc�> -swāc -swicon -swicen
ġe·wītan (depart) -wītt wāt -witon -witen
wrītan (write) wrītt wrāt writon writen

VII. 'Choose'-conjugation.

Verbs in ēo and ū, with pret. sing. ēa, pl. u, ptc. pret. o. Flēon and tēon contract.

bēodan (offer) bīett bēad budon boden
brēotan (break) brīett brēat bruton broten
ċēosan (choose) ċīest ċēas curon coren
flēogan (fly) flīeh�> flēag flugon flogen
flēon (flee) flīeh�> flēah flugon flogen
flēotan (float) flīett flēat fluton floten
hrēosan (fall) hrīest hrēas hruron hroren
hrēowan (rue) hrīew�> hrēaw hruwon hrowen
for·lēosan (lose) -līest -lēas -luron -loren
sċēotan (shoot) sċīett sċēat scuton scoten
smēocan (smoke) smīec�> smēac smucon smocen
tēon (pull) tīeh�> tēah tugon togen
ā-�5;otan (fail) -�9;ett -�5;at -� -�
brūcan (enjoy) brȳc�> brēac brucon brocen
būgan (bow) bȳh�> bēag bugon bogen
lūcan (lock) lȳc�> lēac lucon locen
lūtan (bow) lȳtt lēat luton loten
scūfan (push) scȳf�> sċēaf scufon scofen



There are three conjugations of weak verbs—(1) in -an, pret. -de (hīeran, hīerde, 'hear'); (2) in -ian, pret. -ede (węnian, węnede, 'wean'); (3) in -ian, pret. -ode (lufian, lufode, 'love'). The verbs of the first two conjugations nearly all have a mutated vowel in the present and infinitive, which those of the third conjugation very seldom have.

I. an-verbs.

This class of weak verbs has the same endings as the strong verbs, except in the pret. and past partic., which are formed by adding -de and -ed respectively, with the following consonant changes.

-ndde becomes -nde as in sęnde from sęndan (send).
-llde ,, -lde ,, fylde ,, fyllan (fill).
-tde ,, -tte ,, mētte ,, mētan (find).
-pde ,, -pte ,, dypte ,, dyppan (dip).
-cde ,, -hte ,, tǣhte ,, tǣċan (show).

The past partic. is generally contracted in the same way:—sęnd, mētt, tǣht, but some of them often retain the uncontracted forms:—fylled, dypped. When declined like adjectives they drop their e where practicable:—fylled, plur. fylde; hīered, hīerde.

The 2nd and 3rd pres. sing. ind. are contracted as in the strong verbs.

(a) 'Hear'-class.

Pres. sing. 1. hīer-e (hear), hīer-e.
2. hīer-st, hīer-e.
3. hīer-�d> hīer-e.
plur.     hīer-a�d> hīer-en.
Pret. sing. 1. hīer-de, hīer-de.
2. hīer-dest, hīer-de.
3. hīer-de, hīer-de.
plur.     hīer-don, hīer-den.
Imper. sing. hīer; plur. hīer-a�sp;         Infin. hīer-an.
Ptc. pres. hīer-ende; pret. hīer-ed.
Gerund. tō hīer-enne.

Further examples of this class are:—

崷īewan (show) -īew�> -īewde -īewed.
cȳ�i>make known) cȳ�d> cȳ�td> cȳ�ȳdd
fyllan (fill) fyl�> fylde fylled
(nēa)lǣċan (approach) -lǣċ� -lǣhte -lǣht
lǣdan (lead) lǣtt lǣdde lǣdd
lęċġan (lay) lęġ�> lęġde lęġd
ġe·līefan (believe) -līef�> -līefde -līefed
nęmnan (name) nęmne�> nęmnde nęmned
sęndan (send) sęnt sęnde sęnd
sęttan (set) sętt sętte sętt
smēan (consider) smēa�> smēade smēad
tǣċan (show) tǣċ�> tǣhte tǣht
węndan (turn) węnt węnde węnd

(b) 'Seek'-class.

In this class the mutated vowels lose their mutation in the preterite and past partic., besides undergoing other changes in some verbs.

Those in double consonants (and ċġ) simplify them in the contracted 2nd and 3rd sing. pres. indic.:—sęlle, sęlst, sęl� sęċ[,g]e, sęġst, sęġ� also in the imperative, which is formed as in Conj. II:—sęle, sęġe, byġe, &c. {32}

cwęllan (kill) cwęl�> cwealde cweald
ręċċan (tell) ręċ�> reahte reaht
sęċġan (say) sęġ�> s䤣289;de s䤣289;d
sęllan (give) sęl�> sealde seald
węċċan (wake) węċ�> weahte weaht
�;nċan (think) �;nċ�> �;hte �;ht
bringan (bring) bring�> brōhte brōht
byċġan (buy) byġ�> bohte boht
�67;an (appear) �67;�> �;hte �;ht
wyrċan (work) wyrċ�> worhte worht
rēċan (care) rēċ�> rōhte rōht
sēċan (seek) sēċ�> sōhte sōht

II. 'Wean'-conjugation.

Pres. sing. 1. węn-iġe (wean), węn-iġe.
2. węn-est, węn-iġe.
3. węn-e�d> węn-iġe.
plur.     węn-ia�d> węn-ien.
Pret. sing. 1. węn-ede, węn-ede.
2. węn-edest, węn-ede.
3. węn-ede, węn-ede.
plur.     węn-edon, węn-eden.
Imper. węn-e, węn-ia�sp;         Infin. węn-ian.
Partic. pres. węn-iende; pret. węn-ed.
Gerund. tō węn-ienne.


So are conjugated all weak verbs with a short mutated root syllable, such as fęrian (carry), węrian (defend), ġe·byrian (befit). There are not many of them.

III. 'Love'-conjugation.

Pres. sing. 1. luf-iġe (love), luf-iġe.
2. luf-ast, luf-iġe.
3. luf-a�d> luf-iġe.
plur.     luf-ia�d> luf-ien.
Pret. sing. 1. luf-ode, luf-ode.
2. luf-odest, luf-ode.
3. luf-ode, luf-ode.
plur.     luf-odon, luf-oden.
Imper. luf-a, luf-ia�sp;         Infin. luf-ian.
Partic. pres. luf-iende: pret. luf-od. Gerund. tō luf-ienne.

So also āscian (ask), macian (make), weor�i> (honour), and many others.


Some verbs are conjugated partly after I, partly after III. Such are habban (have) and libban (live).

Habban has pres. indic. h塢e, h女t, h姾; habba� subj. h塢e, h塢en, pret. h奤e, imper. hafa, habba� particc. habbende, h奤.

Libban has pres. libbe, leofast, leofa� libba� subj. libbe, pret. leofode, imper. leofa, libba� particc. libbende, lifiende; leofod.

Fętian (fetch) has pret. fętte.


The strong-weak verbs have for their presents old strong preterites, from which new weak preterites are formed. Note the occasional second person sing. in t. {34}

Pres. sing. 1. wāt (know), wite.
2. wāst, wite.
3. wāt, wite.
plur.     witon, witen.
Pret.     wiste.
Imper. wite, wita�Infin. witan.
Partic. pres. witende; pret. witen.

The other most important weak-strong verbs are given below in the 1st and 2nd sing. pres. indic., in the plur. indic., in the pret., in the infin. and partic. pret. Of several the last two forms are doubtful, or do not exist.

Āh (possess), āge, āgon; āhte; āgen (only as adjective)[4].

Cann (know) canst, cunnon; cū�nnan; cū�i>only as adjective.)

Dearr (dare), durre, durron; dorste.

Ġe·man (remember), -manst; -munde; -munan.

M䤣289; (can), miht, magon, m䤣289;e (subj.); mihte.

Mōt (may), mōst, mōton; mōste.

Sċeal (shall), sċealt, sculon, scyle (subj.); scolde.

ݥarf (need), �, �(subj.); �; �.


(1) Willan (will) shows a mixture of subj. forms in the pres. indic. sing.:—

Pres. sing. 1. wile, wile.
2. wilt, wile.
3. wile, wile.
plur.     willa�d> willen.
Pret.     wolde, etc.


Similarly nyllan (will not):—

Pres. sing. 1. nyle, nyle.
2. nylt, nyle.
3. nyle, nyle.
plur.     nylla�d> nyllen.
Pret.     nolde, etc.

(2) Wesan (be).

Pres. sing. 1. eom; bēo, sīe; bēo.
2. eart; bist, sīe; bēo.
3. is; bi�d> sīe; bēo.
plur.     sind; bēo�d> sīen; bēon.
Pret. sing. 1. w屬 wǣre.
2. wǣre, wǣre.
3. w屬 wǣre.
plur.     wǣron, wǣren.
Imper. wes, wesa�275;o, bēo�sp;         Infin. wesan; bēon.
Partic. pres. wesende.

The contracted negative forms are:—neom, neart, nis; n屼/i>, nǣre, nǣron; nǣre, nǣren.

(3) Dōn (do).

Pres. sing. 1. dō, dō.
2. dēst, dō.
3. dē�d> dō.
plur.     dō�d> dōn.
Pret.     dyde, etc.
Imper. dō, dō�sp;         Infin. dōn.
Partic. pres. dōnde; pret. ġe·dōn.


(4) Gān (go).

Pres. sing. 1. gā, gā.
2. gǣst, gā.
3. gǣ�d> gā.
plur.     gā�d> gān.
Pret.     ēode, ēode.
Imper. gā, gā�sp;         Infin. gān.
Partic. pres. gangende; pret. ġe·gān.



The following are the most important prefixes, some of which are verbal, being confined to verbs and words formed directly from them; some nominal, being confined to nouns and adjectives.

ā- (1) originally 'forth,' 'away,' as in ā·rīsan, 'rise forth,' 'arise'; ā·faran, 'go away,''depart'; but generally only intensive, as in ā·cwęllan (kill), ā·hrēosan (fall).

(2) = 'ever' in pronouns and particles, where it gives an indefinite sense, as in ā-hwǣr (anywhere), ā-wiht (anything).

ǣġ- from ā-ġe-, the ā being mutated and the e dropped, has a similar meaning, as in ǣġ-hwelc (each), ǣġ�> = ǣġ-hw罥r (either).

be-, originally 'by,' 'around' (cp. the preposition be), (1) specializes the meaning of a transitive verb, as in be·sęttan (beset, surround), be·sċieran (shear); (2) makes an intransitive verb transitive, as in be·�;nċan (consider) from �;nċan (think); (3) gives a privative meaning, as in be·hēafdian (behead). In some words, such as be·cuman (come), it is practically unmeaning. {37}

for- (which is distinct from the preposition for) generally has the sense of 'loss' or 'destruction,' as in for·dōn (destroy), for·weor�> (perish). Of course, if the verb with which it is compounded already has this meaning, it acts merely as an intensitive, as in for·brēotan (break up, break), for·scrincan (shrink up). It also modifies in a bad sense generally, as in for·sēon (despise), or negatives, as in for·bēodan (forbid).

ġe- originally meant 'together,' as in ġe·fēra (fellow-traveller, companion) from fēran (travel). With verbs it often signifies 'completion,' 'attainment,' and hence 'success,' as in ġe·gān (conquer), originally 'go over,' or 'reach,' ġe·winnan (win) from winnan (fight). Hence generally prefixed to hīeran and sēon, ġe·hīeran and ġe·sēon strictly meaning 'succeed in hearing, seeing.' It is generally prefixed to past participles (p. 23), where it originally gave the meaning of completion—ġe·lufod = 'completely loved.'

mis- = 'mis,' as in mis-dǣd (misdeed).

n- = ne (not), as in (not), literally 'never,' nǣfre (never), n屼/i> (was not) = ne w屼/i>.

on- as a verbal prefix has nothing to do with the preposition on. It properly signifies 'separation,' as in on·lūcan (open) from lūcan (lock, close), but is often practically unmeaning, as in on·ġinnan (begin).

or-, literally 'out of,' is privative, as in orsorg (unconcerned) from sorg (sorrow).

tō- as a verbal prefix has nothing to do with the preposition (which occurs in tō·g売e, 'together,' &c.), but signifies 'separation,' as in tō·berstan (burst asunder), tō·breġdan (shake off), and hence 'destruction,' as in tō·cwīesan (crush to pieces, bruise).

un- negatives, as in un-ġesǣliġ (unhappy). {38}


(a) Nouns.


-end, from the present participle -ende, = '-er':—Hǣlend (healer, Saviour), būend (dweller).

-ere = '-er':—sāwere (sower), mynetere (money-changer, minter) from mynet (coin).

-ing, patronymic, 罥ling (son of a noble, prince) from 罥le (noble).


-nes, fem. from adjectives:—gōd-nes (goodness), rihtwīsnes (righteousness).

-u� -�, fem., generally from adjectives:—ġēogu�(youth), stręnġ� (strength) from strang.

-ung, fem. from verbs:—scotung (shooting, shot), hęrgung (ravaging), from scotian, hęrgian.

The following are also independent words:—

-dōm, masc.:—wīs-dōm (wisdom), �;ow-dōm (servitude).

-hād, masc.:—ċild-hād (childhood).

-rǣden, fem.:—ġe·cwid-rǣden (agreement) from cwide (speech); mann-rǣden (allegiance).

-sċipe, masc.:—frēond-sċipe (friendship). Concrete in w峥r-sċipe (piece of water, water).

(b) Adjectives.

-en, with mutation, denotes 'material,' 'belonging to':—gylden (golden), stǣnen (of stone), hǣ�> (heathen) from hǣ�(heath). In seolcen (silken) there is no mutation.

-feald = '-fold':—hund-feald (hundred-fold).

-iġmiht-iġ (mighty); hāl-iġ (holy) from hāl (whole). {39}

-isc, with mutation:—Ęnġlisc (English) from Angel; męnn-isc (human) from mann.

-olswic-ol (deceitful).

-iht, with mutation, denotes 'material,' 'nature':—stǣn-iht (stony).

-sum = 'some':—hīer-sum (obedient).

The following exist (sometimes in a different form) as independent words:—

-f岴sō� (truthful).

-fullsorg-full (sorrowful), ġe·lēaf-full (believing, pious).

-lēas = '-less':—ār-lēas (dishonoured, wicked).

-lic (cp. ġe·līc) = '-ly':—folc-lic (popular), heofon-lic (heavenly).

-weard = '-ward':—sū�ard (southward).


-lǣċanān-lǣċan (unite), ġe·�3;r-lǣċan (agree).


-e, the regular adverb-termination:—lange (long), ġe·līce (similarly) from lang, ġe·līc. Sometimes -līce (from -lic) is used to form adverbs, as blī�299;ce (gladly) from blī�.


Many abstract words are formed from present participles (often in a passive sense) and past participles (often in an active sense):—

-nesfor·ġiefen-nes (forgiveness), ġe·ręċed-nes (narrative), welwillend-nes (benevolence).

-licunārīmed-lic (innumerable).

-līcewelwillend-līce (benevolently).




When masculine and feminine beings are referred to by the same adjective or pronoun, the adjective or pronoun is put in the neuter:—hīe ġe·samnodon hīe, ealle �; hēafod-męnn, and ēac swelce wīf-menn ... and �; hīe blī�ǣron ... (they gathered themselves, all the chief men, and also women ... and when they were most merry ...). Here blī�i> is in the neuter plur.


Accusative. Some verbs of asking (a question) and requesting, together with lǣran (teach), take two accusatives, one of the person, and another of the thing:—hīe hine ne dorston ǣniġ �#257;scian (they durst not ask him anything); wē magon ēow rǣd ġe·lǣran (we can teach you a plan).

The accusative is used adverbially to express duration of time: hwȳ stande ġē hēr ealne d䤣289; īdle? (why stand ye here all the day idle?)

Dative. The dative in Old E. is of two kinds, (1) the dative proper, and (2) the instrumental dative, interchanging with the regular instrumental. It is not always easy to separate the two.

(1) The dative proper usually designates personal relations, and is frequently used with verbs, together with an accusative (generally of the thing). The dative is also used with adjectives. It is used not only with verbs of giving, &c., as in hē sealde ǣlcum ānne pęning (he gave each a penny); addressing, as in ic ēow sęċġe (I say to you), hē �e his Dryhtne (he thanked his Lord); but also with many verbs of benefiting, influencing, &c., as in ne dō ic �; nānne tēonan (I do thee no injury), hīe noldon him līefan (they would not allow {41}them to do so); �;m rē�īerde (restrained the cruel ones). Also in looser constructions, to denote the person indirectly affected, benefited, &c., as in byċġa�5;ow ele (buy for yourselves oil). Note especially the following idiom: hīe ġe·sōhton Bretene Brettum tō fultume (they came to Britain as a help to the Britains—to help them); hē clipode Crīst him tō fultume (he called Christ to his help).

The dative is also used with adjectives of nearness, likeness, &c.:—Ēadmund cyning clipode ānne biscop � ġe·hęndost w屼/i> (King Edmund summoned a bishop who was nearest at hand to him); heofona rīċe is ġe·līc �;m mangere �333;hte �#333;de męregrot (the kingdom of the heavens is like the merchant who sought the good pearl).

(2) The instrumental dative is used to denote the instrument and manner of an action: hē ġe·ęndode yflum dēa� (he ended with an evil death). Hence its use to form adverbs, as in sċēafmǣlum (sheafwise). It also signifies time when:—�#289;ēarum ǣr �;m �275; for�75;rde (three years before he died), which is also expressed by the instrumental itself:—sēo wolde ęfsian ǣlce ġēare �anct (she used to cut the saint's hair every year); �; fēor�289;ēare his rīċes (in the fourth year of his reign). A past participle with a noun in the instrumental dative is used like the ablative absolute in Latin: Hubba be·lāf on Nor�a-lande, ġe·wunnenum siġe mid w嫨rēownesse (H. remained in Northumbria, victory having been won with cruelty).

Genitive. The genitive is often used in a partitive sense:—his fēonda sum (one of his enemies); hiera fīf wǣron dysiġe (five of them were foolish). Hence it is generally used with fela, as in fela wundra (many miracles); also with numerals when used as substantives (p. 18).

The genitive is often used like an accusative to denote the object of various emotions and mental states, such as {42}joy, desire, rememberinghīe �ġnodon swī� (they rejoiced at it greatly); mē lēofre wǣre � on ġe·feohte fēolle wi�83;m �īn folc mōste hiera eardes brūcan (it would be pleasanter to me to fall in fight that my people might enjoy (possess) their country); ic �289;e·wilniġe (I desire that); ġif hē his fēores rōhte (if he cared about his life); hē w屠�#483;lendes ġe·myndiġ (he was mindful of—he remembered the Saviour).

Some of these verbs, such as biddan (ask), take an accusative of the person and a genitive of the thing:—hē hine hlāfes bitt (he asks him for bread).

Verbs of depriving, restraining, &c., have the same construction:—nis Angel-cynn be·dǣled Dryhtnes hālgena (England is not deprived of the Lord's saints).

Some verbs of giving, &c., take a genitive of the thing and a dative of the person:—him w屠of·togen ǣlces fōdan (they were deprived of all food).

The genitive is often used to define an adjective or noun:—�; eart wier�#281;ġes (thou art worthy of death); on �;m ġēare �red 罥ling ān and twęntiġ ġēara w屼/i> (in the year when Prince Alfred was twenty-one).


Adjectives agree with their nouns not only when used attributively (gōde męnn), but also when the adjective follows the noun, either predicatively or in apposition:—�; męnn sind gōde; hē ġe·seah ō�299;dle standan (he saw others standing idle); hīe cōmon mid langum sċipum, nā manigum (they came with long ships, not many).


In such expressions as 'the island of Britain,' the second noun is not put in the genitive, but the two are simply put in {43}apposition, both being declined separately:—Breten īeġland, on Bretene (�;m) īeġlande. In 'king Alfred,' &c., the proper name is put first in the same way:—Ŭfred 罥ling (prince Alfred); on Ǿelredes cyninges d䤣289;e (in the days of king Ǿelred).

There is a similar apposition with the adjective sum followed by a noun or pronoun, as in sume �; męnn (some of the men); �; �; hē sēow, sumu hīe fēollon wi�289; (while he sowed, some of them [the seeds] fell by the road). Sometimes the pronoun precedes, as in �; bǣdon hīe sume �mson mōste him macian sum gamen (then some of them asked that Samson might make some sport for them).

Another kind of apposition occurs in instances like the following, where we have an adjective agreeing with a following noun, and denoting a part of it:—hīe ġe·sǣton sū�rde Bretene ǣrest (they occupied the south of Britain first); sū�rd hit (= �nd) h奤on Peohtas (the Picts had the south part of it).


The weak forms are used:

(1) after the definite article:—se 罥la cyning (the noble king); �elan cyninges, �#333;de męregrot, �; gōdan męregrotu.

(2) after �>:—�;s earman landlēode (these poor people, pl.); �#257;lga cyning (this holy king), � hālgan cyninges.

(3) occasionally after other demonstrative and indefinite adjectives, and often after possessive pronouns:—�;ne dīeglan gold-hordas (thy hidden treasures).

(4) in the vocative:—�; yfla �;ow and slāwa! (thou bad and slothful servant); ēalā �; lēofa cyning! (oh, thou dear king).

Note that ō�> always keeps the strong form: �; ō�#275;or (the other wild beasts). So also do the possessive pronouns: {44}�;s mīn word (these my words). Ān in the sense of 'one' keeps the strong form to distinguish it from the weak āna = 'alone': �257;n dēorwier�281;regrot (the one precious pearl).


The definite article is omitted as in Modern English before names such as God, and also before Dryhten (the Lord), Dēofol (the Devil), although se Dēofol also occurs, and names of nations:—Bretta cyning (king of the Britons).

It is omitted in many prepositional combinations, not only in those where it is omitted in Modern English also, as in siġef岴 on sǣ and on lande (victorious on sea and on land), but also in many others: ġewęnde tō wuda on·ġēan (went back to the wood); se flothęre fērde eft tō sċipe (the army of pirates went back to their ships); hē fēng tō rīċe (he took the government—came to the throne).

The definite article is, on the other hand, sometimes used where it would not be in Modern E., as in se mann = 'man' (men in general).

The indefinite article is often not expressed at all:—�dyde unhold mann (an enemy did that); hē be·stealcode on land swā swā wulf (he stole to land like a wolf). Or it is expressed by sum: on �;m lande w屠sum mann, Lēofrīċ ġe·hāten (in that country was a man called L.). Or by ān, as in Modern English:—ān wulf wear�7;·sęnd tō be·węrienne �#275;afod wi�57; ō�#275;or (a wolf was sent to protect the head against the other wild beasts).


Hw岼/i> is used interrogatively of persons where we should use 'who':—hē nyste hw岠hīe wǣron (he did not know who they were). {45}



After ǣlc �;ra � (each of-those-who) the verb is put in the sing., agreeing not with �;ra � but with ǣlcǣlc �;ra �257;s mīn word ġe·hīer�(each of those who hear these my words).

When �> or �> is connected with a plural predicate by means of the verb 'to be,' the verb is put in the plural:—�wǣron �; ǣrestan sċipu Dęniscra manna �ngel-cynnes land ġe·sōhton (those were the first ships of Danish men which came to the land of the English race).

Impersonal verbs take an accusative of the person, sometimes also with a genitive of the thing.

Others, such as �67;an (appear), take a dative of the person:—w屠him ġe·�;ht �#299;e be·hȳdden �#275;afod (they thought they (the Danes) had hidden the head).


There being no future inflection in Old E., the present is used instead:—ne ā·bȳh�83;fre Eādmund Hinguare (Edmund will never submit to H.); gā ġē on mīnne wīnġeard, and ic sęlle ēow �riht bi�(go ye into my vineyard, and I will give you what is right). As we see in this example, there is a tendency to use bēon in a future sense. Another example is ġif ic bēo ġe·bunden mid seofon rāpum, sōna ic bēo ġe·wield (if I am bound with seven ropes, I shall at once be overcome). The future is sometimes expressed by will and shall, as in Modern English, though generally with a sense of volition with the one, and of necessity with the other, the idea of simple futurity coming out most clearly in the preterites wolde and scolde

Hē ġe·lǣhte āne lēon �e ā·bītan wolde (he seized a lion {46}that was going to devour him); hīe wēndon �#299;e scolden māre on·fōn (they expected to receive more).

The preterite has the meaning of the modern

(1) Preterite and imperfect:—se sāwere ūt ēode his sǣd tō sāwenne, and �; �; hē sēow ... (the sower went out to sow his seed, and while he was sowing ...).

(2) Perfect:—hēr is mīn cnapa, �c ġeċēas (here is my servant, whom I have chosen);—ūre cyning cōm nū hēr tō lande (our king has just landed here).

(3) Pluperfect:—�; �; ġe·cōmon � �; ęndlyftan tīd cōmon (when those came who had come at the eleventh hour).

Periphrastic tenses are sometimes formed, as in Modern E., by h塢e and h奤e with the past participles, and often have the meanings of the modern perfect and pluperfect respectively, as in nū ic h塢e ġestrīened ō�ā pund (now I have gained two other pounds), but even the pluperfect often has the sense of a simple preterite. The participle is undeclinable in the later language, but originally it was declined, being really an adjective in apposition to the noun or pronoun governed by habban: hīe h奤on hiera cyning ā·worpenne (they had deposed their king).

The pluperfect sense is often indicated by the addition of the adverb ǣr (before):—his swēora, �83;r w届 for·sl䤣289;en (his neck, which had been cut through).

The periphrastic forms of intransitive verbs are formed with wesansi�īe ā·farene wǣron (after they had gone away). Here the participle always agrees with the noun or pronoun with which it is connected.

The periphrases with the present participle have no distinctive meanings of duration, &c.:—ān mann w屠eardiende on Israhēla �;ode, Manuē ġe·hāten (a man dwelt in Israel called Manue). {47}


The passive is formed with wesan or weor�> with the past participle. These forms are very vague in meaning, and the distinction between the two auxiliaries is not clearly marked, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weor�> an action.

wear�9;e·lufod is generally preterite or perfect in meaning: ān wulf wear�7;·sęnd (a wolf was sent); mīne lēofe �9;nas, �hiera będdum wurdon of·sl䤣289;ene (my beloved thanes, who have been killed in their beds).

w屠ġe·lufod, indicating a state, is naturally pluperfect in meaning:—se ǣrendraca s䤣289;de his hlāforde hū him ġe·andwyrd w屼/i> (the messenger told his lord how he had been answered).


The subjunctive states something not as a fact, as in the indicative, but merely as an object of thought. Hence it is used to express wish, conditions, doubt, &c.

A. In principal sentences.

Wish and command (often nearly equivalent to the imperative):—�m sīe wuldor and lof ā būtan ęnde (therefore let there be to him praise and glory ever without end); ne hē ealu ne drince nǣfre o�wīn (nor shall he ever drink ale or wine).

B. In dependent sentences.

The chief cases are the following:—

(1) In indirect narrative and question: sēo cwēn s䤣289;de �ere nǣre be healfum dǣle ġe·s䤣289;d be Salomones mǣr� (the queen said that she had not been told about Solomon's glory by half); ic āsciġe hwǣr sēo offrung sīe (I ask where the offering is); męnn woldon sċēawian hū hē lǣġe (men {48}wished to see how he lay). When the statement in the indirect narration is perfectly certain in itself, and not merely accepted on the authority of the speaker, it is put in the indicative:—hē hiere s䤣289;de on hwǣm his miht w屼/i> (he told her what his strength consisted in).

(2) After verbs of desiring and commanding

� ġe·wilniġe and ġe·wysċe mid mōde � āna ne be·līfe 奴er mīnum lēofum �9;num (that I desire and wish with heart that I may not remain alone after my dear thanes).

(3) To express purpose�; lǣs ġē �wǣte ā·wyrtwalien (lest ye root up the wheat);—Dryhten ās·tāg ni�ō bǣm �#275; ġe·sāwe �; burg (the Lord descended, in order that he might see the city).

(4) To express result�; n女t �; mihte �#363; m䤣289;e him wi�dan (thou hast not the power that thou canst withstand him).

(5) To express hypothetical comparison (as if):—se wulf folgode for��;m hēafde, swelce hē tam wǣre (the wolf followed on with the head, as if he were tame); hē ġe·lǣhte āne lēon, and tō·br䤣289;d hīe tō styċċum, swelce hē tō·tǣre tiċċen (he seized a lion and tore her to pieces, as if he were rending a kid).

(6) In conditional clauses, generally with ġif or būtan, and in concessive clauses with �;ah, �;ah �:—God wāt � nyle ā·būgan fram his bīgęngum ǣfre, swelte ic, libbe ic (God knows that I will not swerve from his worship ever, whether I die or live); �;s flotmęnn cuma� �; cwicne ġe·binda�363;tan �; mid flēame �;num fēore ġe·beorge (these pirates will come and bind thee alive, unless thou savest thy life with flight); God hielt Ēadmund hālne his līchaman o� miċlan d䤣289;, �;ah �275; on moldan cōme (God will keep Edmund {49}with his body whole until the great day, although he has come to earth—been buried). Sometimes the idea of 'if' must be got from the context:—clipia�33; � ġieftum swā hwelce swā ġē ġe·mēten (summon to this wedding whomsoever ye meet, = if ye meet any one); hīe be·hēton hiere sċeattas wi�83;m �275;o be·swice Samson (they promised her money in consideration of her betraying Samson, = if she would...).

When the statement is assumed as unreal, instead of merely hypothetical, as in the above instances, both clauses are put in the subjunctive, the preterite being substituted for the present, as in Modern English also, where if I were ... implies I am not.... The modern distinction between if I were and if I had been, the former corresponding to the present indicative I am not, the latter to the preterite I was not, is not made in Old English, which uses gif ic wǣre in both instances. Sometimes the 'if'-clause has to be supplied in thought:—mē lēofre wǣre � on ġe·feohte fēolle wi�#483;m �299;n folc mōste hiera eardes brūcan (I would rather fall in fight that my people might possess their country), where we must supply some such clause as ġif hit swā bēon mihte (if it might be so—if it were possible to save my people by my death).

(7) In clauses dependant on a negative sentencenis nān �e his mihte wi�de (there is nothing that resists his might). Sometimes the negation must be gathered from the context, as in se hālga is mǣrra �męnn m䤣289;en ā·smēan (the saint is more illustrious than men can conceive = the saint is so illustrious that no men can conceive it).

(8) In other cases, to express uncertainty, futurity, &c.: �;n rīċe ġe·wītt fram �;, o� �; wite �d ġe·wielt manna rīċa (thy kingdom shall depart from thee, till thou knowest that God rules the kingdoms of men); uton {50}weor�#363;rne naman, ǣr �;m �275; sīen tō·dǣlde ġeond ealle eor�i> (let us make our name famous, before we are dispersed over the earth).

The preterite subjunctive is often expressed by should and would with an infinitive, as in Modern English.

Scolde is used after verbs of desiring, requesting and commandingbiddende � Ŭmihtigan �#275; him ārian scolde (praying the Almighty to have mercy on him). In the following example the verb of commanding is understood from the noun ǣrendehē sęnde tō �ninge bēotlic ǣrende, �#275; ā·būgan scolde tō his mannrǣdenne, ġif hē his fēores rōhte (he sent to the king an arrogant message, that he was to turn to his allegiance, if he cared about his life).

Wolde is used after verbs of purposese cyning ēode inn � wolde ġe·sēon �; �483;r sǣton (the king went in to see those who were sitting there).


After verbs of commanding the infinitive often seems to have a passive sense:—hīe hēton him sęndan māran fultum (they ordered that more forces should be sent to them). So also after verbs of hearing, &c.:—�#483;ste w媠�ē sęċġan hīerdon (the greatest slaughter we have heard told of). In such cases an indefinite pronoun has been omitted: 'ordered them to send ...' etc.


The gerund is used—

(1) to express purpose:—ūt ēode se sāwere his sǣd tō sāwenne (the sower went forth to sow his seed).

(2) it defines or determines an adjective (adverb or noun): hit is scandlic ymb swelc tō sprecenne (it is shameful to speak of such things). {51}


Some prepositions govern the accusative, such as �i> (through), ymbe (about); some the dative (and instrumental), such as 奴er (after), ǣr (before), 岼/i> (at), be (by), binnan (within), būtan (without), for (for), fram (from), of (of), (to).

Some govern both accusative and dative, such as ofer (over), on (on, in), under (under). The general rule is that when motion is implied they take the accusative, when rest is implied, the dative. Thus on with the accusative signifies 'into,' with the dative 'in.' But this rule is not strictly followed, and we often find the accusative used with verbs of rest, as in hē his hūs ġe·timbrode ofer stān (he built his house on a rock), and conversely, the dative with verbs of motion, as in hīe fēollon on stǣnihte (they fell on stony ground).

As regards the use and meaning of the prepositions, it must be noticed that in is very seldom used, its place being supplied by on, the meaning 'on' being in its turn often expressed by ofer, as in the passage just quoted.

When a thing is referred to, �;r is substituted for hit, the preposition being joined on to the �;r, so that, for instance, �;r-tō corresponds to tō him; hīe lǣddon �yning tō ānum trēowe, and tīeġdon hine �;r-tō (they led the king to a tree, and tied him to it). So also hēr-beēastan is equivalent to 'east of this (country).'

Prepositions sometimes follow, instead of preceding the words they modify, sometimes with other words intervening: hīe scuton mid gafelocum him tō (they shot at him with missiles); hīe cwǣdon him be·twēonan (they said among themselves); �;m Ŭmihtigan tō lofe, �299;e on ġe·līefdon (to the praise of the Almighty, in whom they believed), where on {52}refers to the indeclinable �. So also in �#363;s �275; inne wunode (the house he dwelt in).

Where the noun modified by such a preposition is not expressed, the preposition becomes an adverb: se cyning sęnde his hęre tō, and for·dyde �; mannslagan (the king sent his army to the place, and destroyed the murderers).


The negative particle is ne, which drops its e before some common verbs and pronouns, as in nis = ne is, nān = ne ān. The negative particle is prefixed to every finite verb in a sentence, and to all the words besides which admit the contracted forms:—tō·cwīesed hrēod hē ne for·brīett (he breaks not the bruised reed), hit nā ne fēoll (it did not fall); nān mann nyste nān �i> (no man knew anything). So also with ne ... ne = 'neither ... nor': ne flītt hē ne hē ne hrīem�(he neither disputes nor cries out).


Correlation is often more fully expressed in Old than in Modern English, as in �; �; męnn slēpon, �; cōm his fēonda sum = 'when the men slept, then came one of his enemies.' In �; �; = 'when' the two correlatives are brought immediately together:—�; �; hē sēow, sumu hīe fēollon wi�289; = 'then when he sowed, some of them fell by the road.' In the following example the conjunction �> is correlative with the pronoun �>:—� ġe·wilniġe � āna ne be·līfe 奴er mīnum lēofum �9;num—'that I desire, that I may not remain alone after my dear thanes.' Sometimes a word is used to include both the demonstrative and the relative meaning:—hē ġe·brōhte hine �;r hē hine ǣr ġe·nam (he brought him to the place where he took him from). {53}


The Old English word-order resembles that of German in many respects, though it is not so strict, thus:—

The verb comes before its nominative when the sentence is headed by an adverb or adverbial group, or when the object or predicate is put at the head of the sentence:—�; cw缠se cyning (then said the king); ǣrest wǣron būend � landes Brettas (at first the Britons were the inhabitants of this country); on his dagum cōmon ǣrest �5;o sċipu (in his days three ships first came); �#483;ron olfendas (camels carried it); mǣre is se God �iēl on be·līef�(great is the God that Daniel believes in).

The infinite often comes at the end of the sentence; wē magon ēow rǣd ġe·lǣran (we can teach you a plan).

The finite verb often comes at the end in dependent sentences, an auxiliary verb often coming after an infinitive or participle; �wǣron �; ǣrestan sċipu Dęniscra manna �ngel-cynnes land ġe·sōhton (those were the first ships of Danish men which came to the land of the English race); �mǣste w媠�275; sęċġan hīerdon o�sne andweardan d䤣289; (the greatest slaughter that we have heard tell of up to this present day); �#299;e �odes mann ā·bitan scolden (in order that they should devour the man of God).

There is a tendency to put the verb at the end in principal sentences also, or, at least, to bring it near the end: hiene man of·slōg (they killed him); hīe �;r siġe nāmon (they got the victory there).



M. N. F. M. N. F.
Sg. N. — — -(u) -a -e -e
A. — — -(e) -an -e -an
D. -e -e -e -an -an -an
G. -es -es -e -an -an -an
Pl. N. -as -(u) -a -an
D. -um -um -um -um
G. -a -a -(en)a -ena
Sg. N. — — -(u) -a -e -e
A. -ne — -(e) -an -e -an
D. -um -um -re -an -an -an
G. -es -es -re -an -an -an
I. -e -e (-re) (-an -an -an)
Pl. N. -e -(u) -e brace
brace -an
D. -um -um
G. -ra -ra


Indic. Subj. Indic. Subj.
Sg. 1. -e; -iġe -(iġ)e - ; -de -e; -de
2. -(e)st; -ast -(iġ)e -e; -dest -e; -de
3. -(e)�d> -a�> -(iġ)e - ; -de -e; -de
Pl.     -a�d> -ia�> -(i)en -on; -don -en; -den
Imper. sg. -(a); pl. -(i)a�p;         Infin. -(i)an.
Partic. pres. -(i)ende; pret. -en, -ed, -od. Ger. (i)enne.





Ān on-ġinn is ealra � � God 媭mihtiġ. Se

ġe·lēafa � būtan gōdum weorcum, sē is dēad; �nd

�;ra apostola word. Ic eom gōd hierde: se gōda hierde

sęl�āgen līf for his sċēapum. Ūre Ā·līesend is se gōda


hierde, and wē crīstene męnn sind his sċeap. Se mōna his

leoht ne sęl� steorran of heofone fealla�#257; swā

w峥r ā·dwǣsċ�63;r, swā ā·dwǣsċ�75;o 嫭esse synna.

Ealle ġe·sċeafta, heofonas and ęnġlas, sunnan and mōnan,

steorran and eor�all nīetenu and ealle fuglas, sǣ and


ealle fiscas God ġe·scōp and ġe·worhte on siex dagum; and

on �;m seofo�ġe hē ġe·ęndode his weorc; and hē

be·hēold �; eall his weorc �275; ġe·worhte, and hīe wǣron

eall swī�333;d. Hē fērde ġeond manigu land, bodiende

Godes ġe·lēafan. Hē for·lēt eall woruld-�Se cyning


be·bēad �n scolde ofer eall Angel-cynn sċipu wyrċan;

and hiera w屠swā fela swā nǣfre ǣr ne w屠on nānes

cyninges d䤣289;e. Se cyning hēt of·slēan ealle �; Dęniscan

męnn �Angel-cynne wǣron.

ܦ#257; ne mihton hīe him nān word and-swarian, ne nān


mann ne dorste hine nān �āre āscian. Hīe fuhton


on �; burg ealne d䤣289;, and �;hton �#299;e hīe scolden

ā·brecan. Se eorl ġe·węnde west tō Īr-lande, and w屠�;r

ealne �inter. Ǿelred cyning and Ŭfred his brō�>

fuhton wi�e �ęre on ųces-dūne.


Se mann is ēċe on ānum dǣle, �, on �;re sāwle;

hēo ne ġe·ęnda�83;fre. Ġif se biscop dē�is āgnum

willan, and wile bindan �n-scyldigan, and �cyldigan

ā·līesan, �for·līest hē �; miht � God

for·ġeaf. ܦ#275;od win�#289;ēan �;ode, and rīċe on·ġēan rīċe.


Ealle męnn ēow hatia�mīnum naman. Hē ġe·worhte

fela wundra binnan �;m fierste �275; biscop w屮 Hē

ġe·hǣlde sum wīf mid hālgum w峲e. Se cyning wear�

of·sl䤣289;en fram his āgnum folce. On �;m ilcan ġēare w屼/p>

se miċla hungor ġeond Angel-cynn. Se m岳e-prēost āsca�


�267;ild, and cwi�i�t �; dēofle?' ݯnne andwyrt

se god-f壥r, and cwi�c wi� dēofle.' God

嫭ihtiga, ġe·miltsa mē synn-fullum! Ǿelred cyning cōm

hām tō his āgenre �;ode, and hē gl壬īce fram him eallum

on·fangen wear�


Crīst, ūre Dryhten, be·bēad his leornung-cnihtum �>

hīe scolden tǣċan eallum �;odum �; �ā hē self him

tǣhte. Ġif ġē for·ġiefa�um hiera synna, �for·gief�

ēower se heofonlica F壥r ēowre synna. Ne m䤣289; nān

mann twǣm hlāfordum �;owian: o�#275; ānne hata�/p>


ō�lufa�e hē bi�7;num ġe·hīersum and ō�nġehīersum.

Se cyning nam �rles sunu mid him tō Ęnġla-lande.

Męnn be·hōfia�33;dre lāre on � tīman, �ġe·ęndung

�worulde. Se līchama, ��;re sāwle rēaf, andbīda�


�ċlan dōmes; and �;ah hē bēo tō dūste for·molsnod,


God hine ā·rǣr� ġe·bring�33;·g売e sāwle and

līchaman tō �;m ēċan līfe. Hwelc f壥r wile sęllan his

ċilde stān, ġif hit hine hlāfes bitt? Ā·ġiefa�83;m cāsere �;

�e �#257;seres sind, and Gode �; �e Godes sind.


Sēo sāwol and-bīda�ēċan ǣristes.

Hē w屠cyning ofer eall Ęnġla-land twęntiġ wintra. God

嫭ihtiġ is ealra cyninga cyning, and ealra hlāforda hlāford.

Dēofol is ealra un-riht-wīsra manna hēafod, and �;

yflan męnn sind his limu. Synnfulra manna dēa�fel and


earmlic, for �;m �299;e fara�issum scortan līfe tō ēċum

wītum. Hū fela hlāfa h塢e ġē? Seofon, and fēa fisca.

Ne ġe·wilna �; ō�annes ǣhta!

On �;m landum eardodon Ęnġle, ǣr �;m �299;e hider on

land cōmon. Hīe fuhton on �; burg ealne d䤣289;, ac hīe ne


mihton hīe ā·brecan. ܦ#257; ēodon hīe tō hiera sċipum. ܦ#483;r

bēo�299;�iġe byriġ on �;m lande, and on ǣlcre byriġ


God cw缠tō Noē: 'Ic wile for·dōn eall mann-cynn mid

w峲e for hiera synnum, ac ic wile ġe·healdan �;, and �;n


wīf, and �;ne �9;e suna.' Ān mann h奤e twēġen suna; �;

cw缠hē tō �;m ieldran: 'gā and wyrċ tō·d䤣289; on mīnum

wīn-ġearde.' ܦ#257; cw缠hē: 'ic nyle:' ēode �;ah si�ō

�;m wīnġearde. Hē dyde his f壥r willan. Se prēost

cw缠tō �;m folce: 'Ic ēow blētsiġe on naman �der,


�na, and �#257;lgan Gāstes.' Āra �;num f壥r and

�;nre mēder! Sum wīf cōm tō Crīste, and b墠for hiere

dehter. Sēo dohtor wear�9;e·hǣled �#289;e·lēafan �;re


Bēo�9;e·myndiġe �;ra twēġra worda �hten cw缠on


his god-spelle! Hē cw缺 'For·ġiefa� ēow bi�ġiefen;

sęlla� ēow bi�9;e·seald.'

Twēġen męnn ēodon intō Godes temple hīe tō ġe·biddenne.

Ŭfred cyning fōr mid �ċipum ūt on sǣ, and

ġe·feaht wi�75;ower sċip-hl岴as Dęniscra manna, and �;ra


sċipa twā ġe·nam, and �; męnn of·sl䤣289;ene wǣron �

�;r-on wǣron. ܦ#257; cōmon �5;o sċipu. ܦ#257; ġe·fēngon hīe

�;ra �5;ora sċipa twā, and �;a męnn of·slōgon, ealle būtan

fīfum. Se wītega ā·wrāt be �;m fēower nīetenum �

崷īewdu wǣron, �#299;e h奤en ēagan him on ǣlce healfe.


Ān �;ra nīetena w屠on męnniscre onsīene him 崷īewed,

ō� lēon onsīene, � on ċealfes, fēor�earnes.

God �#483;restan mann rihtne and gōdne ġe·scōp, and

eall mann-cynn mid him. Ŭfred Ǿelwulfing w屠cyning

ofer eall Angel-cynn būtan �;m dǣle �er Dęna onwealde


w屮 Ǣlc gōd trēow bier�33;de w岴mas, and ǣlc

yfel trēow bier� w岴mas; ne m䤣289; �#333;de trēow

beran yfle w岴mas, ne �le trēow gōde w岴mas.

Ēadigu sind ēowru ēagan, for �;m �299;e ġe·sēo�

ēowru ēaran, for �;m �299;e ġe·hīera�#257; hwā swā sęl�


ānum �gum męnn ċeald w峥r on mīnum naman, ne

for·līest hē his mēde. Ne fare ġē on hǣ�manna weġe!

Gōd mann of gōdum gold-horde bring�33;d for� yfel

mann of yflum goldhorde bring� for�

Gregōrius se hālga pāpa is rihtlīce ġe·cweden Ęnġliscre


�;ode apostol. ܦ#257; hē ġe·seah � mǣsta dǣl �;re �;ode

his lāre for·sāwon, �; for·lēt hē hīe, and ġe·ċēas �; hǣ�p>

lēode. Ġif se blinda blindne lǣtt, hīe fealla�75;ġen on ānne

pytt. Se Hālga Gāst is lufu and willa �der and �>

Suna; and hīe sind ealle ġe·līce mihtiġe. Bętere is sēo


sāwol �se męte, and bętera se līchama �his scrūd.


Sēo sāwol is gāst, and be eor� męttum ne leofa�

Be·healda�57;s flēogendan fuglas, �sāwa�e rīpa�

ac se heofonlica F壥r hīe ā·fētt. Hē cw缬 'Ic neom

ō�annum ġe·līc;' swelce hē cwǣde, 'Ic āna eom rihtwīs,


and �; ō�nd synn-fulle.'

ܦ#257; se Hǣlend �fōr, �; folgodon him twēġen blinde,

cwe� 'Ġe·miltsa unc, Davīdes sunu!' Hē cw缠tō

him: 'Ġe·līefe ġit � inc m䤣289;e ġe·h嫡n?' Hē cw缺

'Sīe inc 奴er incrum ġe·lēafan.' Ǿelstān cyning fōr


inn on Scot-land, ǣġ�289;e mid land-hęre ġe mid sċip-hęre,

and his miċel ofer·hęrgode. Se mann � for·ġiett, God

for·ġiett ēac hine. Fara� lǣra�e �;oda! Lǣra�

hīe �#299;e healden eall �; �e ic ēow be·bēad! Sume

męnn s䤣289;don be him �#275; wǣre Ŭfredes sunu cyninges.


Se Hǣlend āscode his leornung-cnihtas, 'Hwone sęċġa�

męnn �#299;e mannes Sunu?' Hw岠sęċġe ġē � sīe?

ܦ#363; eart �bbendan Godes sunu. Crīst cw缠be his

F壥r: 'Ġē sęċġa�hē ēower God sīe, and ġē hine ne

on·cnēowon.' Ġif hīe �ālgan F壥r on·cnēowen,


�under·fēngen hīe mid ġe·lēafan his Sunu, �275; ā·sęnde

tō middan-ġearde. Se weġ is swī�ru and sticol

sē �483;tt tō heofona rīċe; and se weġ is swī�#257;d and

smē�275; �483;tt tō hęlle wĭte. Dysiġ bi�eġ-fērenda

mann sē �� smē�ġ �299;ne mis-lǣtt, and


for·lǣtt �ticolan �e ġe·bring�33; �;re byriġ. ߦt

ic ēow sęċġe on �;ostrum, sęċġa�on leohte; and �>

ġē on ēare ġe·hīera�ia�n hrōfum. Hīe scufon ūt

hiera sċipu, and ġe·węndon him be·ġeondan sǣ.

Healda�dō�257; hw岠swā hīe sęċġa� ne dō


ġē nā, 奴er hiera weorcum: hīe sęċġa� ne dō�l

hiera weorc hīe dō�męnn hīe ġe·sēon. Hīe lufia�/p> {60}

man hīe grēte on strǣtum. Ēalā ġē nǣddran and nǣddrena

cynn, hū flēo ġē fram hęlle dōme?

Wē sind ealle cuman on � and-weardan līfe, and


ūre eard nis nā hēr; ac wē sind hēr swelce weġ-fērende

męnn: ān cym�33;�r�lc mann sęl�bearne

nǣddran, ġif hit fisces bitt? Ǣlc �;ra �t, hē on·fēh�

and sē �275;ċ�275; hit fint. Ne gǣ�3;lc �;ra on heofona

rīċe ��333; mē, 'Dryhten, Dryhten;' ac sē �ċ�


mīnes F壥r willan �heofonum is, sē gǣ�eofona

rīċe. Nis hit nā gōd �;t man nime bearna hlāf and hundum

weorpe. Ic h塢e �9;nas under mē: and ic cwe�333;

�, 'gā,' and hē gǣ� tō ō�'cum,' and hē

cym� tō mīnum �;owe, 'wyrċ �and hē wyrċ�


Se Hǣlend ġe·nam �; fīf hlāfas, and blētsode, and tō·br塬

and tō·dǣlde be·twix �;m sittendum; swā ġe·līce ēac

�; fiscas tō·dǣlde; and hīe ealle ġe·nōg h奤on. ܦ#257; �

�;r ǣton wǣron fēower �;send manna, būtan ċildum and

wīfum. Hīe cōmon tō him, and tō him ġebǣdon, and �>


cwǣdon: 'Sō�9;ce �; eart Godes sunu.' Ne wēne ġē �>

ic cōme sibbe on eor� sęndenne: ne cōm ic sibbe tō

sęndenne, ac sweord. Hē be·bēad �#299;e sǣten ofer �;re

eor�ē s䤣289;de �r�a land wǣre swī�g

and swī�l.


Hīe ealle on �yning wǣron feohtende, o�hīe

hine ofsl䤣289;enne h奤on. Ǣlc mann �33;�#281;nn for·sih�

bi� Gode for·sewen. Sē �75;aran h塢e tō ġe·hiērenne,

ġe·hīere. Gōd is ūs hēr tō bēonne.

God cw缠tō ānum wītegan, sē w屠Ionas ġe·hāten:


'Far tō �;re byriġ, and boda �;r �; word ��; sęċġe.'


Lufia�5;owre fīend, and dō��;m �75;ow yfel dō�

Lufa Dryhten �;nne God on ealre �;nre heortan, and on

ealre �;nre sawle, and on eallum �;num mōde. Sē �/p>

lufa�brō�one �275; ġe·sih�363; m䤣289; hē lufian God,


�e hē ne ġe·sih�99;cham-līce? Sęġe ūs hwonne �;s

�#289;e·weor�nd hwelc tācen sīe �;nes tō-cymes and

worulde ġe·ęndunge.

Se Hǣlend cw缠tō ānum his leornung-cnihta, sē w屼/p>

hāten Philippus: 'Mid hwǣm magon wē byċġan hlāf �


folce?' Wel wiste Crīst hw岠hē dōn wolde, and hē wiste

�ilippus �ste. God m䤣289; dōn eall �wē

sculon wundrian his mihte, and ēac ġe·līefan. Crīst ā·rǣrde

Lazarum of dēa�d cw缠tō his leornung-cnihtum: 'Tō·līesa�

his bęndas, �#275; gān m䤣289;e.' God is 嫭ihtiġ,


and m䤣289; dōn eall �#275; wile. Ġē nyton on hwelcre tīde

ēower hlāford cuman wile. For �;m bēo ġē ġearwe; for

�;m �nes Sunu wile cuman on �;re tīde �89;ē nyton.

Se Hǣlend cw缠be his F壥r: 'Ic hine cann, and ġif ic

sęċġe � hine ne cunne, �bēo ic lēas, ēow ġe·līc.'


Se dēofol cw缠tō Crīste: 'Ġif �; sīe Godes sunu, cwe�

tō � stānum �#299;e bēon ā·węnde tō hlāfum.' ܦ#257;

and-wyrde se Hǣlend, and cw缺 'Hit is ā·writen, "ne

leofa�ann nā be hlāfe ānum, ac leofa�allum �;m

wordum �257;�odes mū�Se Hǣlend cōm tō him,


�;r hīe wǣron ġe·gadrode, and cw缺 'Sīe sibb be·twix

ēow; ic hit eom; ne bēo ġē nā ā·fyrhte.' F壥r ūre, �; �

eart on heofonum, sīe �;n nama ġe·hālgod. Wē syngodon,

wē dydon un-rihtlīce; sęle ūs for·ġiefnesse: hw岠sculon wē





VII. 24-7.

Ǣlc �;ra �257;s mīn word ġe·hīer� �; wyrċ�

ġe·līc �;m wīsan were, sē his hūs ofer stān ġet·imbrode.

ܦ#257; cōm �;r reġen and miċel flōd, and �;r blēowon windas,

and ā·hruron on �#363;s, and hit nā ne fēoll: sō�9;ce hit


w屠ofer stān ġe·timbrod.

And ǣlc �;ra �89;e·hīer�57;s mīn word, and �; ne wyrċ�

sē bi�9;e·līc �;m dysigan męnn, �89;e·timbrode his hūs ofer

sand-ċeosol. ܦ#257; rīnde hit, and �;r cōm flōd, and blēowon

windas, and ā·hruron on �;t hūs, and �#363;s fēoll; and


his hryre w屠miċel.

XII. 18-21.

Hēr is mīn cnapa, �c ġe·ċēas; mīn ġe·corena, on �;m

wel ġe·līcode mīnre sāwle: ic ā·sętte mīnne gāst ofer hine,

and dōm hē boda�75;odum. Ne flītt hē, ne hē ne hriem�

ne nān mann ne ġe·hīer�stefne on strǣtum. Tō·cwīesed


hrēod hē ne for·brīett, and smēocende fleax hē ne ā·dwǣsc�

ǣr �;m �275; ā·weorpe dōm tō siġe. And on his naman

�;oda ġe·hyhta�

XIII. 3-8.

Sō�9;ce ūt ēode se sāwere his sǣd tō sāwenne. And �;

�; hē sēow, sumu hīe fēollon wi�289;, and fuglas cōmon


and ǣton �;. Sō�9;ce sumu fēollon on stǣnihte, �;r hit


n奤e miċle eor�nd hr壬īce ūp sprungon, for �;m �

hīe n奤on pǣre eor�#299;epan; sō�9;ce, ūp sprungenre

sunnan, hīe ā·drūgodon and for·scruncon, for �;m �299;e

n奤on wyrtruman. Sō�9;ce sumu fēollon on �, and


�; � wēoxon, and for·�on �;. Sumu sō�9;ce

fēollon on gōde eor�nd sealdon w岴m, sum hund-fealdne,

sum siextiġ-fealdne, sum �#289;-fealdnę.

XIII. 24-30.

Heofona rīċe is ġe·worden �;m męnn ġe·līc �275;ow gōd

sǣd on his 墥re. Sō�9;ce, �; �; męnn slēpon, �; cōm his


fēonda sum, and ofer·sēow hit mid coccele on·middan �;m

hwǣte, and fērde � Sō�9;ce, �; sēo wyrt wēox, and

�岴m brōhte, �; 崷īewde se coccel hine. ܦ#257; ēodon

�āfordes �;owas and cwǣdon: 'Hlāford, hū, ne sēowe

�; gōd sǣd on �;num 墥re? hwanon h奤e hē coccel?'


ܦ#257; cw缠hē: '�de unhold mann.' ܦ#257; cwǣdon �;

�;owas: 'Wilt �;, wē gā�gadria�99;e?' ܦ#257; cw宼/p>

hē: 'Nese: �; lǣs ġē �wǣte ā·wyrtwalien, �ġē

�occel gadria�483;ta�3;ġ�axan o�99;p-tīman;

and on pǣm rīptīman ic sęċġe �;m rīperum: "gadria�


ǣrest �occel, and binda�67;ēaf-mǣlum tō for·b屮enne;

and gadria� hwǣte intō mīnum bęrne."'

XIII. 44-8.

Heofona rīċe is ġe·līc ġe·hȳddum gold-horde on �;m

墥re. ݯne be·hȳtt se mann �e fint, and for his blisse

gǣ� sęl� �#275; āh, and ġe·byġ� 墥r.


Eft is heofona rīċe ġe·līc �;m mangere �333;hte �#333;de

męre-grot. ܦ#257; hē funde �257;n dēor-wier�281;regrot, �;

ēode hē, and sealde eall �#275; āhte, and bohte �#281;regrot.


Eft is heofona rīċe ġe·līc ā·sęndum nętte on �; sǣ, and of


ǣlcum fisc-cynne gadriendum. ܦ#257; hīe �; �#281;tt ūp

ā·tugon, and sǣton be �;m strande, �; ġe·curon hīe �;

gōdan on hiera fatu, and �; yflan hīe ā·wurpon ūt.

XVIII. 12-14.

Ġif hwelc mann h姾 hund sċēapa, and him losa�7;n of

�;m, hū, ne for·lǣtt hē �; nigon and hund·nigontiġ on �;m


muntum, and gǣ� sēċ�ān �·wear� ġif

hit ġe·limp�hē hit fint, sō�9;ce ic ēow sęċġe �#275;

swī�289;e·blissa��;m ānum �for �;m nigon and

hund·nigontigum �257; ne losodon.

XX. 1-16.

Heofona rīċe is ġe·līc �;m hīredes ealdre, �ǣrnemerġen


ūt ēode ā·hȳran wyrhtan on his wīn-ġeard. Ġe·wordenre

ġe·cwid-rǣdenne �;m wyrhtum, hē sealde ǣlcum ānne

�;ning wi�d䤣289;es weorce, and ā·sęnde hīe on his wīnġeard.

And �; hē ūt ēode ymbe undern-tīd, hē ġe·seah

o� strǣte īdle standan. ܦ#257; cw缠hē: 'Gā ġē on


mīnne wīnġeard, and ic sęlle ēow �ht bi�d hīe �;

fērdon. Eft hē ūt ēode ymbe �; siextan and nigo�>

tīd, and dyde �;m swā ġe·līce. ܦ#257; ymbe �; ęndlyftan

tīd hē ūt ēode, and funde ō�andende, and �; s䤣289;de hē:

'Hwȳ stande ġē hēr ealne daeġ īdle?' ܦ#257; cwǣdon hīe:


'For �;m �63;s nān mann ne hȳrde.' ܦ#257; cw缠hē: 'And

gā ġē on mīnne wīnġeard.'

Sō�9;ce �; hit w屠ǣfen ġe·worden, �; s䤣289;de se wīnġeardes

hlāford his ġe·rēfan: 'Clipa �; wyrhtan, and ā·ġief him

hiera mēde; on·ġinn fram �;m ȳt·emestan o� fyrmestan.'


Eornostlīce �; �; ġe·cōmon �e �; ęndlyftan

tīd cōmon, �; on·fēngon hīe ǣlc his pęning. And �; � {65}

�;r ǣrest cōmon, wēndon �#299;e scolden māre on·fōn; �;

on·fēngon hīe syndriġe �;ningas. ݡ on·gunnon hīe murcnian

on·ġēan �īredes ealdor, and �ǣdon: 'ܦ#257;s


ȳtemestan worhton āne tīd, and �; dydest hīe ġe·līce ūs,

�483;ron byr�on � d䤣289;es hǣtan.' ܦ#257; cw缠hē

and-swariende hiera ānum: 'Ēalā �; frēond, ne dō ic �;

nānne tēonan; hū, ne cōme �; tō mē tō wyrċenne wi�

ānum pęninge? Nim �#299;n is, and gā; ic wile �


ȳtemestum sęllan eall swā miċel swā �;. O� mōt ic

dōn � wile? Hw罥r �299;n ēage mānfull is for �;m

�gōd eom? Swā bēo�yrmestan ȳtemeste, and �;

ȳtemestan fyrmeste; sō�9;ce maniġe sind ġe·clipode, and

fēa ġe·corene.'

XXII. 2-14.


Heofona rīċe is ġe·līc �;m cyninge �ode his suna

ġiefta, and sęnde his �;owas, and clipode �; ġe·la�tō

�;m ġieftum. ܦ#257; noldon hīe cuman. ܦ#257; sęnde hē eft ō�>

�;owas, and s䤣289;de �;m ġe·la� 'Nū ic ġe·ġearwode

mīne feorme: mīne fearras and mīne fuglas sind of·sl䤣289;ene,


and eall mīn �ind ġearu; cuma�33; �;m ġieftum.' ܦ#257;

for·gīemdon hīe �nd fērdon, sum tō his tūne, sum tō

his mangunge. And �; ō�#257;mon his �;owas, and mid

tēonan ġe·swęnċton, and of·slōgon. ܦ#257; se cyning �289;e·hierde,

�; w屠hē ierre, and sęnde his hęre tō, and for·dyde


�; mann-slagan, and hiera burg for·b屮de.

ܦ#257; cw缠hē tō his �;owum: 'Witodlīce �;s ġiefta sind

ġearwe, ac �; �89;e·la�ǣron ne sind wier�#257;�63;

tō wega ġelǣtum, and clipia�33; � ġieftum swā hwelce

swā ġē ġe·mēten.' ܦ#257; ēodon �; �;owas ūt on �; wegas,


and ġe·gadrodon ealle �; �299;e ġe·mētton, gōde and yfle;

�; wǣron �; ġieft-hūs mid sittendum mannum ġefyldu.

ܦ#257; ēode se cyning inn, �#275; wolde ġe·sēon �; �483;r


sǣton, and �; ġe·seah hē �;r ānne mann � mid ġieftlicum

rēafe ġescrȳdd. ܦ#257; cw缠hē: 'Lā, frēond, hūmeta


ēodest �; inn, and n奤est ġieftlic rēaf?' ݡ swīgode hē.

And se cyning cw缠tō his �9;num: 'Ġe·binda�handa

and his fēt, and weorpa� on �; ȳterran �;ostru; �;r bi�

wōp and tō�#299;st-bītung.' Witodlīce maniġe sind ġe·la�/p>

and fēa ġe·corene.

XXV. 1-13.


ݯnne bi�ona rīċe ġe·līc �;m tīen fǣmnum, �257;

leoht-fatu nāmon, and fērdon on·ġēan �rȳd-guman and

�; brȳd. Hiera fīf wǣron dysiġe, and fīf glēawe. And �; fīf

dysigan nāmon leohtfatu, and ne nāmon nānne ele mid him;

�; glēawan nāmon ele on hiera fatum mid �;m leohtfatum.


ܦ#257; se brȳdguma ielde, �; hnappodon hīe ealle, and slēpon.

Witodlīce tō middre nihte man hrīemde, and cw缺 'Nū se

brȳdguma cym�a�tō·ġēanes.' ܦ#257; ā·rison ealle �;

fǣmnan, and glęnġdon hiera leohtfatu. ܦ#257; cwǣdon �;

dysigan to pǣm wīsum: 'Sęlla�3;s of ēowrum ele, for �;m


ūre leohtfatu sind ā·cwęnċtu.' ܦ#257; and·swarodon �; glēawan,

and cwǣdon: 'Nese; �; lǣs �275; and ġē n塢en ġenōg:

gā�33; �;m ċīependum, and byċġa�5;ow ele.' Witodlīce,

�; hīe fērdon, and woldon byċġan, �; cōm se brȳdguma;

and �; �89;earwe wǣron ēodon inn mid him tō �;m


ġieftum; and sēo duru w屠be·locen. ܦ#257; 岠nīehstan cōmon

�33;�#483;mnan, and cwǣdon: 'Dryhten, Dryhten, lǣt ūs

inn.' ܦ#257; and-swarode hē him, and cw缺 'Sō�#275;ow

sęċġe, ne cann ic ēow.' Witodlīce, wacia� �;m �89;ē

nyton ne �䤣289; ne �; tīd.

XXV. 14-30.


Sum mann fērde on ęl�;odiġnesse, and clipode his


�;owas, and be·tǣhte him his ǣhta. And ānum hē sealde

fīf pund, sumum twā, sumum ān: ǣġhwelcum be his āgnum

m䤣289;ne; and fērde sōna.

ܦ#257; fērde sē �257; fīf pund under·fēng, and ġe·strīende


ō�#299;f. And eall-swā sē �257; twā under·feng, ġe·strīende

ō�ā. Witodlīce sē � ān under·fēng, fērde, and

be·dealf hit on eor�nd be·hȳdde his hlāfordes feoh.

Witodlīce 奴er miċlum fierste cōm �;ra �;owa hlāford,

and dihte him ġe·rad. ܦ#257; cōm sē �257; fīf pund under·fēng,


and brōhte ō�#299;f, and cw缺 'Hlāford, fīf pund �; sealdest

mē; nū ic ġe·strīende ō�#299;f.' ܦ#257; cw宠his hlāford tō

him: 'Bēo blī�#363; gōda �;ow and ġe·trēowa: for �;m

�363; wǣre ġe·trēowe ofer lȳtlu �ic [.]ge·sętte �; ofer

miċlu; gā intō �;nes hlāfordes blisse.' ܦ#257; cōm sē �257;


twā pund under·fēng, and cw缺 'Hlāford, twā pund �;

mē sealdest; nū ic h塢e ġe·strīened ō�ā.' ܦ#257; cw缼/p>

his hlāford tō him: 'Ġe·blissa, �; gōda �;ow and ġetrēowa:

for �;m �363; wǣre ġe·trēowe ofer fēa, ofer fela ic �;

ġe·sętte; gā on �;nes hlāfordes ġe·fēan.' ܦ#257; cōm sē �


ān pund under·fēng, and cw缺 'Hlāford, ic wāt �>

�; eart heard mann: �; rīpst �;r �; ne sēowe, and

gaderast �;r �; ne spręnġdest. And ic fērde of·drǣdd,

and be·hȳdde �;n pund on eor�ēr �; h女t �#299;n

is.' ܦ#257; andswarode his hlāford him, and cw缺 '�; yfla


�;ow and slāwa, �; wistest � rīpe �;r ic ne sēowe,

and ic gadriġe �;r ic ne strēdde: hit ġe·byrede �#363;

be·f岴e mīn feoh myneterum, and ic nāme, �ic cōme,

�#299;n is, mid �;m gafole. Ā·nima�pund 岠him, and

sęlla�83;m �275; �; tīen pund brōhte. Witodlīce ǣlcum


�;ra ��sęl� hē h姾 ġe·nōg; �;m ��

�m �67;�hē h塢e, �m bi�rogden. And

weorpa� un·nyttan �;ow on �; ȳterran �;ostru; �;r

bi�33;p and tō�st·bītung.'





Ŧter �;m sō�9;ce ealle męnn sprǣcon āne sprǣċe. ܦ#257;

�; hīe fērdon fram Ēast-dǣle, hīe fundon ānne feld on

Sennaār-lande, and wunodon �;r-on.

ܦ#257; cwǣdon hīe him be·twēonan: 'Uton wyrċan ūs tiġelan,


and ǣlan hīe on fȳre!' Witodlīce hīe h奤on tiġelan for

stān and tierwan for weal-līm. And hīe cwǣdon: 'Uton

timbrian ūs ċeastre, and stīepel o�on hēanne! uton

weor�#363;rne naman, ǣr ��275; sīen tō·dǣlde ġeond

ealle eor�/p>


Witodlīce Dryhten ā·stāg ni�ō �;m �#275; ġe·sāwe

�; burg and �tīepel, �#257;mes bearn ġe·timbrodon.

And hē cw缺 '� ān folc, and ealle hīe spreca�7;n

l壥n, and hīe be·gunnon �#333; wyrċenne: ne ġe·swīca�99;e

ǣr �;m � ġearu sīe; sō�9;ce uton cuman and tō·dǣlan


hiera sprǣċe!'

Swā Dryhten hīe tō·dǣlde of �;re stōwe ġeond ealle eor�p>

And for �;m man nęmnde �; stōwe Babēl for �;m �483;r

wǣron tō·dǣlde ealle sprǣċa.


God wolde pā fandian Abrahāmes ġe·hīersumnesse, and


clipode his naman, and cw缠him �#333;: 'Nim �;nne

ān-cęnnedan sunu Isaāc, �363; lufast, and far tō �;m


lande Visionis hra�d ġe·offra hine �;r uppan ānre


Abrahām �; ā·rās on �;re ilcan nihte, and fērde mid


twǣm cnapum tō �;m fierlenum lande, and Isaāc samod,

on assum rīdende.

ܦ#257; on �;m �n d䤣289;e, �; hīe �; dūne ġe·sāwon, �;r

�;r hīe tō scoldon tō of·slēanne Isaāc, �; cw缠Abrahām

tō �;m twǣm cnapum �Andbīdia�5;ow hēr mid �;m


assum sume hwīle! ic and �;t ċild gā�tō ġe·biddenne,

and wit si�uma�33;na eft tō ēow.'

Abrahām �; hēt Isaāc beran �udu tō �;re stōwe,

and hē self b尠his sweord and fȳr. Isaāc �57;scode Abrahām

his f壥r: 'F壥r mīn, ic āsciġe hwǣr sēo offrung sīe;


hēr is wudu and fȳr.' Him andwyrde se f壥r: 'God foresċēawa�

mīn sunu, him self �; offrunge.'

Hīe cōmon �; tō �;re stōwe � ġe·sweotolode God;

and hē �;r weofod ā·rǣrde on �; ealdan wīsan, and �p>

wudu ġe·lōgode swā swā hē hit wolde habban tō his suna


b屮ette, si�ē of·sl䤣289;en wurde. Hē ġe·band �; his

sunu, and his sweord ā·tēah, �#275; hine ġe·offrode on �;

ealdan wīsan.

Mid �;m �275; wolde �;t weorc be·ġinnan, �; clipode

Godes ęnġel arodlīce of heofonum: 'Abrahām!' Hē andwyrde


sōna. Se ęnġel him cw缠tō: 'Ne ā·cwęle �;

�267;ild, ne �;ne hand ne ā·stręċe ofer his swēoran! Nū ic

on·cnēow sō�9;ce �#363; on·drǣtst swī�, nū pū pīnne

ān-cęnnedan sunu woldest of·slēan for him.'

ܦ#257; be·seah Abrahām sōna under b塬 and ġe·seah �;r


ānne ramm be·twix �;m brēmlum be �;m hornum ġe·h奴ne,

and hē h奤e �amm tō �;re offrunge, and hine �;r

of·snā� tō lāce for his sunu Isaāc. Hē hēt �; stōwe

Dominus videt, � 'God ġe·sih�d ġiet is ġe·s䤣289;d

swā, In monte Dominus videbit, �, 'God ġe·sih�ūne.'


Eft clipode se ęnġel Abrahām, and cw缺 'Ic s䤣289;de

�ē selfne, s䤣289;de se Ŭmihtiga, nū �; noldest ārian

�;num āncęnnedum suna, ac �; w屠mīn ęġe māre �/p>

his līf, ic �; nū blētsiġe, and �;nne of-spring ge·maniġ-fielde

swā swā steorran on heofonum, and swā swā sand-ċeosol


on sǣ; �;n ofspring sċeal āgan hiera fēonda ġeatu. And on

�;num sǣde bēo�e �;oda ġe·blētsode, for �;m �363;

ġe·hīersumodest mīnre hǣse �/p>

Abrahām �; ġe·ċierde sōna tō his cnapum, and fērdon him

hām sōna mid heofonlicre blētsunge.



Sum cwēn w屠on sū�83;le, Saba ġe·hāten, snotor and

wīs. ܦ#257; ġe·hīerde hēo Salomones hlīsan, and cōm fram

�;m sū� ġe·mǣrum to Salomone binnan Hierusalēm

mid miċelre fare, and hiere olfendas bǣron sū�wyrta,

and dēor-wier�89;imm-stānas, and un-ġerīm gold. Sēo cwēn


�; h奤e sprǣċe wi�mon, and s䤣289;de him swā hw岼/p>

swā hēo on hiere heortan ġe·�;hte. Salomon �; hīe lǣrde,

and hiere s䤣289;de ealra �;ra worda andġiet �275;o hine āscode.

ܦ#257; ġe·seah sēo cwēn Salomones wīsdōm, and �#483;re

tempel �275; ġe·timbrod h奤e, and �; lāc � Gode


offrode, and �ninges maniġ-fealde �9;nunga, and w屼/p>

tō �;m swī�wundrod �#275;o n奤e fur�#257;nne gāst,

for �;m �275;o ne mihte nā fur�ēan. Hēo cw缠�;

tō �;m cyninge: 'Sō�岠word �ġe·hīerde on

mīnum earde be �; and be �;num wīsdōme, ac ic nolde


ġe·līefan ǣr �;m �self hit ġe·sāwe. Nū h塢e ic ā·fandod

�#275; n屠be healfum dǣle �;n mǣr�89;e·cȳped. Māre

is �;n wīsdōm and �;n weorc �se hlīsa wǣre �/p>

ġe·hīerde. Ēadige sind �;ne �9;nas and �;ne �;owas, �

simle 崷foran �; standa� �;nne wīsdōm ġe·hīera�


Ġe·blētsod sīe se 嫭ihtiga God, �275; ġe·ċēas and ġe·sętte


ofer Israhēla rīċe, �#363; dōmas sętte and riht-wīsnesse,'

Hēo for·ġeaf �;em cyninge �; hund·twęlftiġ punda goldes,

and unġerīm dēorwier�rta and dēorwier�289;immstāna.

Salomon ēac for·ġeaf �;re cwēne swā hw屠swā hēo ġiernde


岠him; and hēo ġe·węnde on·ġeān tō hiere ē�d hiere

�9;num. Salomon �; w屠ġe·mǣrsod ofer eallum eor�

cyningum, and ealle �;oda ġe·wilnodon �#299;e hine ġe·sāwen,

and his wīsdōm ġe·hīerden, and hīe him maniġfeald lāc



Sēo cwēn h奤e ġe·tācnunge �;re hālgan ġe·la�ealles

crīstenes folces, �333;m tō �;m ġe·sibbsuman Crīste tō

ġe·hīerenne his wīsdōm and �; god-spellican lāre �275;

ā·stealde, and be on·liehtunge �#333;�289;e·lēafan, and be

�;m tōweardan dōme, be ūrre sāwle un-dēadlicnesse, and be


hyhte and wuldre �289;e·mǣnelican ǣristes.

Sēo cwēn cōm tō Salomone mid miċlum lācum on golde

and on dēorwier�289;immstānum and wyrt-brǣ�nd

�#483;ron olfendas. Sēo ġe·lēaffulle ġe·la���

of ǣlcum earde tō Crīste, bring��;s fore-s䤣289;dan lāc


奴er gāstlicum andġiete. Hēo offra�gold �ō�>

ġe·lēafan, and wyrtbrǣ�rh ġe·bedu, and dēorwier�

ġimmas �䤣289;ernesse gōdra �;awa and hāliġra m䤣289;na.

Be �ġe·la�cw缠se wītega tō Gode: Adstitit

regina a dextris tuis, in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate,


�, 'sēo cwēn stęnt 岠�;nre swī�on ofergyldum

ġierlan, ymb·scrȳdd mid maniġfealdre fāgnesse.' Sēo gāstlice

cwēn, Godes ġe·la�is ġe·glęnġed mid dēorwier�>

fr峷unge and maniġfealdum blēo gōdra drohtnunga and



Hēo s䤣289;de Salomone ealle hiere dīegolnessa, and sēo

ġe·la�#289;e·opena�299;ste hiere inn-ġehyġd and �299;eglan

ġe·�;htas on sō�detnesse.

Olfendas bǣron �; dēorwier�#257;c mid �;re cwēne


intō Hierusalēm; for �;m �257; hǣ��83;r wǣron


ġe·hoferode �#289;ītsunge and atollice �eahtras, bǣron,

�iera ġe·ċierrednesse and ġe·lēafan, �; gāstlican lāc

tō Crīstes handum.

Sēo cwēn wundrode Salomones wīsdōmes, and his ġe·timbrunga,

and �9;nunga; and sēo ġe·la�undra�299;stes


wīsdōmes, for �;m �275; is sō�99;sdōm, and eall wīsdōm is

of him. Hē ġe·timbrode �; hēalican heofonas and ealne

middanġeard, and ealle ġe·sceafta ġe·sętte on �ingum,

in mensura, et pondere, et numero, �, on ġe·mete, and

on hęfe, and on ġe·tele. Crīstes �9;nung is ūre hǣlo and


folca ā·līesednes, and �; sind ġe·sǣliġe � �9;nia�33;

ġe·cwēmednesse on �;m gāstlicum ġe·rȳnum.

Sēo cwēn s䤣289;de �ere nǣre be healfum dǣle ġe·s䤣289;d

be Salomones mǣr�d sēo gāstlice cwēn, Godes ġe·la�/p>

o�289;e·hwelc hāliġ sāwol, �hēo cym�33; �;re heofonlican


Hierusalēm, �ġe·sih�75;o miċle māran mǣr�

and wuldor �hiere ǣr on līfe �ītegan o�ostolas

ġe·cȳdd wǣre. Ne m䤣289; nān ēage on � līfe

ġe·sēon, ne nān ēare ġe·hīeran, ne nānes mannes heorte

ā·smēan �; �e God ġearca�83;m �e lufia�257;


�ē magon be·ġietan, ac wē ne magon hīe ā·smēan,

ne ūs nǣfre ne ā·�9;ett �;ra gōda ġe·nyhtsumnes.

Crīst is ealra cyninga cyning, and swā swā ealle �;oda

woldon ġe·sēon �#289;e·sibbsuman Salomon, and his wīsdōm

ġe·hīeran, and him mislicu lāc brōhton, swā ēac nū of eallum


�;odum ġe·wilnia�81;nn tō ġe·sēonne �#289;e-sibbsuman

Crīst �#289;e·lēafan, and �odspellican wīsdōm ġe·hīeran,

and hīe him d䤣289;-hwǣmlīce �; gāstlican lāc ġe·offria�p>

maniġfealdum ġe·metum.


On Cȳres dagum cyninges wrēġdon �; Babilōniscan �p> {73}


wītegan Daniēl, for �;m �275; tō·wearp hiera dēofol-ġield,

and cwǣdon ān-mōdlīce tō �;m fore-s䤣289;dan cyninge Cȳrum:

'Betǣċ ūs Daniēl, �63;rne god Bēl tō·wearp, and �racan

ā·cwealde �275; on be·līefdon; ġif �; hine for·stęntst, wē

for·dilgia�75; and �;nne hīred.'


ܦ#257; ġe·seah se cyning �#299;e ān-mōde wǣron, and nīedunga

�ītegan him tō handum ā·sċēaf. Hīe �; hine

ā·wurpon intō ānum sēa� �;m wǣron seofon lēon, �;m

man sealde d䤣289;hwǣmlīce twā hrī�nd twā sċēap, ac him

w屠�; of·togen ǣlces fōdan siex dagas, �#299;e �odes


mann ā·bītan scolden.

On �;re tīde w屠sum ō�#299;tega on Jūdēa-lande, his

nama waes Abacuc, sē b尠his rifterum męte tō 墥re. ܦ#257;

cōm him tō Godes ęnġel, and cw缺 'Abacuc, ber �p>

męte tō Babilōne, and sęle Daniēle, sē �t on �;ra lēona


sēa�bacuc andwyrde �;m ęnġle: 'Lā lēof, ne ġe·seah

ic nǣfre �; burg, ne ic �ēa�57;t.'

ܦ#257; se ęnġel ġe·lǣhte hine be �;m feaxe, and hine b尼/p>

tō Babilōne, and hine sętte bufan �;m sēa�#257; clipode se

Abacuc: '�; Godes �;ow, Daniēl, nim �;s lāc �275; God


sęnde!' Daniēl cw缺 'Mīn Dryhten Hǣlend, sīe �; lof

and weor� �#363; mē ġe·mundest.' And hē �; �;re

sande brēac. Witodlīce Godes ęnġel �;r-rihte mid swiftum

flyhte ġe·brōhte �isc-�9;n, Abacuc, �;r hē hine

ǣr ġe·nam.


Se cyning �; Cȳrus on �;m seofo�ġe ēode drēoriġ

tō �;ra lēona sēa�d inn be·seah, and efne �; Daniēl

sittende w屠ġe·sundfull on·middan �;m lēonum. ܦ#257; clipode

se cyning mid miċelre stefne: 'Mǣre is se God �iēl

on be·līef�d hē �; mid �;m worde hine ā·tēah of �;m


scr奥, and hēt inn weorpan �; �e ǣr for·dōn woldon.

ߦs cyninges hǣs wear�līce ġe·fręmmed, and �>

wītegan ēhteras wurdon ā·scofene be·twix �; lēon, and hīe


�;r-rihte mid grǣdigum ċeaflum hīe ealle tō·tǣron. ܦ#257;

cw缠se cyning: 'Forhtien and on·drǣden ealle eor�63;end


Daniēles God, for �;m �275; is Ā·līesend and Hǣlend,

wyrċende tācnu and wundru on heofonan and on eor�/p>


Nabochodonosor, se hǣ�yning, ġe·hęrgode on Godes

folce, on Jūdēa-lande, and for hiera mān-dǣdum God �>

ġe·�. ܦ#257; ġe·nam hē �; mā�u, gyldenu and silfrenu,


binnan Godes temple, and tō his lande mid him

ġe·lǣdde. Hit ġe·lamp eft si�岠hē on swefne āne

ġe·sih�him selfum ġe·seah, swā swā him si�#257;·ēode.

Ŧter � ymb twelf mōna�75;ode se cyning binnan

his healle mid ormǣtre ūp-āhafennesse, hęriende his weorc


and his miht, and cw缺 'Hū, ne is �#275;o miċle Babilōn,

�self ġe·timbrode tō cyne-stōle and tō �, mē

selfum to wlite and wuldre, mid mīnum āgnum m䤣289;ne

and stręnġ�c him clipode �;rrihte tō swī�81;ġeslic

stefn of heofonum, �e� 'ܦ#363; Nabochodonosor,


�;n rīċe ġe·wītt fram �;, and �; bist fram mannum ā·worpen,

and �;n wunung bi�wildēorum, and �; itst g屳, swā

swā oxa, seofon ġēar, o��; wite � hēalica

God ġe·wielt manna rīċa, and �#275; for·ġief�99;ċe �;m

�275; wile.'


Witodlīce on �;re ilcan tīde w屠�;os sprǣċ ġe·fylled

ofer Nabochodonosor, and hē arn tō wuda, and wunode mid

wildēorum, leofode be g屳e, swā swā nīeten, o�his

feax wēox swā swā wīf-manna, and his n䤣289;las swā swā

earnes clawa.


Eft si�im for·ġeaf se 嫭ihtiga Wealdend his ġe·witt,

and hē cw缺 'Ic Nabochodonosor ā·hōf mīn ēagan ūp tō

heofonum, and mīn andġiet mē wear�ġiefen, and ic �;

blētsode �īehstan God, and ic hęrede and wuldrode


�e leofa�#275;ċnesse, for �;m � miht is ēċe, and


his rīċe stęnt on mǣġ� on mǣġ�lle eor�63;end

sind tō nāhte ġe·tealde on his wi�nnesse. Ŧter his

willan hē dē�3;ġ�289;e on heofone ġe on eor�nd nis

nān �e his mihte wi�de, o�m tō cwe�ȳ

dēst �; swā?' On �;re tīde mīn andġiet ġe·węnde tō mē,


and ic be·cōm tō weor�e mīnes cyne-rīċes, and mīn

męnnisce hīw mē be·cōm. Mīne witan mē sōhton, and mīn

mǣr�r�9;e·ēacnod. Nū eornostlīce ic mǣrsiġe and

wuldriġe �eofonlican cyning, for �;m �l his weorc

sind sō� his wegas riht-wīse, and hē m䤣289; ġe·ēa�75;dan


�; �mōdiġnesse fara�>

ݵs ġe·ēa�5;dde se 嫭ihtiga God �ōdigan cyning





Ān mann w屠eardiende on Israhēla �;ode, Manuē

ġe·hāten, of �;re mǣġ�; his wīf w屠un-tīemend, and

hīe wunodon būtan ċilde. Him cōm �; gangende tō Godes

ęnġel, and cw缠�#299;e scolden habban sunu him


ġe·mǣnne; 'ne hē ealu ne drince nǣfre o�#299;n, ne nāht

fūles ne �7;ġe; sē bi� hāliġ fram his ċildhāde; and

man ne mōt hine ęfsian o�·sċieran, for �;m �275;

on·ġin�33; ā·līesenne his folc, Israhēla �;ode, of Philistēa



Hēo ā·cęnde �; sunu, swā swā hiere s䤣289;de se ęnġel, and

hēt hine Samson; and hē swī�275;ox; and God hine blētsode,

and Godes gāst w屠on him. Hē wear�57; mihtiġ on

miċelre stręnġ�ā �#275; ġe·lǣhte āne lēon be weġe, �

hine ā·bītan wolde, and tō·br䤣289;d hīe tō styċċum, swelce he


tō·tǣre sum ēa�tiċċen.

Hē be·gann �; tō winnenne wi�57; Philistēos, and hiera

fela of·slōg and tō scame tūcode, �;ah �299;e onweald h奤en

ofer hīs lēode. ܦ#257; fērdon �; Philistēi for�r Samsone,

and hēton his lēode �#299;e hine ā·ġēafen tō hiera onwealde,


�#299;e wrecan mihten hiera tēon-rǣdenne mid tintregum

on him. Hīe �; hine ġe·bundon mid twǣm b岴enum rāpum

and hine ġe·lǣddon tō �;m folce. And �; Philistēiscan �>

f䤣289;nodon swī�non him tō·ġēanes ealle hlȳdende; woldon

hine tintreġian for hiera tēonrǣdenne. ܦ#257; tō·br䤣289;d


Samson bēġen his earmas, �#257; rāpas tō-burston �275; mid


ġe·bunden w屮 And hē ġe·lǣhte � class="over"> a sōna sumes assan

ċinn-bān �275; �;r funde, and ġe·feaht wi�99;e, and of·slōġ

ān �;send mid �san ċinnbāne. Hē wear�57; swī�

of·�for �;m wundorlican slęġe, and b墠�eofonlican


God �#275; him ā·sęnde drincan, for �;m ��;re

nēawiste n屠nān w峥rsċipe. ܦ#257; arn of �;n ċinnbāne

of ānum tē�r; and Samson �; dranc, and his Dryhtne


Ŧter � hē fērde tō Philistēa lande, intō ānre byriġ


on hiera onwealde, Gaza ġe·hāten. And hīe �ġnodon;

be·sętton �; �;t hūs �275; inne wunode; woldon hine

ġe·niman mid �;m �275; ūt ēode on ǣrne-merġen, and hine

of·slēan. Hw岠�; Samson hiera sierwunga under·ġeat; and

ā·rās on middre nihte tō·middes his fēondum, and ġe·nam


�; burg-ġeatu, and ġe·b尠on his hryċġe mid �;m postum,

swā swā hīe be·locenu wǣron, ūp tō ānre dūne tō ufeweardum

�;m cnolle; and ēode swā or-sorg of hiera ġe·sih�p>

Hine be·swāc swā·�;ah si�#257;n wīf, Dalila ġe·hāten, of


�;m hǣ�olce, swā �#275; hiere s䤣289;de, �iere swīcdōm

be·pǣht, on hwǣm his stręnġ� and his wundorlicu

miht. ܦ#257; hǣ�hilistēi be·hēton hiere sċeattas wi�83;m

�275;o be·swice Samson �trangan. ܦ#257; āscode hēo

hine ġeorne mid hiere ōlǣċunge on hwǣm his miht wǣre;


and hē hiere andwyrde: 'Ġif ic bēo ġe·bunden mid seofon

rāpum, of sinum ġeworhte, sōna ic bēo ġe·wield.' ߦt

swicole wīf �; be·ġeat �; seofon rāpas, and hē �ierwunge

swā wear�9;e·bunden. And him man cȳ�t

�;r cōmon his fīend; �; tō·br塠hē sōna �; rāpas, swā


swā hęfel-�3;das; and �#299;f nyste on hwǣm his miht

w屮 Hē wear�ġe·bunden mid eall-nīwum rāpum; and

hē �; tō·br塬 swā swā �; ō�p>

Hēo be·swāc hine swā·�;ah, �#275; hiere s䤣289;de 岼/p> {78}

nīehstan: 'Ic eom Gode ġe·hālgod fram mīnum ċildhāde; and


ic n屠nǣfre ġe·ęfsod, ne nǣfre be·scoren; and ġif ic bēo

be·scoren, �bēo ic un-mihtiġ, ō�annum ġe·līc;'

and hēo lēt �; swā.

Hēo �; on sumum d䤣289;e, �; �; hē on slǣpe l䤣289;, for·ċearf

his seofon loccas, and ā·weahte hine si��; w屼/p>


hē swā unmihtiġ swā swā ō�#281;nn. And �; Philistēi

ġe·fēngon hine sōna, swā swā hēo hine be·lǣwde, and ġe·lǣddon

hine on·weġ; and hēo h奤e �ċeatt, swā swā

him ġe·wear�

Hīe �; hine ā·blęndon, and ġe·bundenne lǣddon on


heardum racentēagum hām tō hiera byriġ, and on cwearterne

be·lucon tō langre fierste: hēton hine grindan 岼/p>

hiera hand-cweorne. ܦ#257; wēoxon his loccas and his miht

eft on him. And �; Philistēi full·blī�483;ron: �on

hiera Gode, Dagon ġe·hāten, swelce hīe �is fultum


hiera fēond ġe·wielden.

ܦ#257; Philistēi �; miċle feorme ġe·worhton, and ġe·samnodon

hīe on sumre ūp-flōra, ealle �; hēafod-męnn, and

ēac swelce wīf-męnn, �5;o �;send manna on miċelre blisse.

And �; �; hīe blī�ǣron, �; bǣdon hīe sume �mson


mōste him macian sum gamen; and hine man sōna

ġe·fętte mid swī� wāfunge, and hēton hine standan

be·twix twǣm stǣnenum swēorum. On �;m twǣm swēorum

stōd �#363;s eall ġe·worht. And Samson �; plegode

swī� 崷foran; and ġe·lǣhte �; swēoras mid swī�


mihte, and slōg hīe tō·g売e �#299;e sōna tō·burston; and

�#363;s �; ā·fēoll eall, �;m folce tō dēa�d Samson

for� swā �#275; miċle mā on his dēa�57;·cwealde

�hē ǣr cwic dyde.




Breten īeġ-land is eahta hund mīla lang, and twā hund

mīla brād; and hēr sind on �;m īeġlande fīf ġe·�;odu:

Ęnġlisc, Brettisc, Scyttisc, Pihtisc, and Bōc-l壥n.

Ǣrest wǣron būend � landes Brettas. ܦ#257; cōmon


of Armenia, and ġe·sǣton sū�arde Bretene ǣrest. ܦ#257;

ġe·lamp hit �ohtas cōmon sū� Scithian mid

langum sċipum, nā manigum; and �; cōmon ǣrest on

Nor�nian ūp; and �;r bǣdon Scottas �#299;e �;r

mōsten wunian. Ac hīe noldon him līefan, for �;m �299;e


cwǣdon �#299;e ne mihten ealle 崷g売e ġe·wunian �;r.

And �; cwǣdon �; Scottas: 'Wē magon ēow hw署e rǣd

ġe·lǣran: wē witon ō�299;eġland hēr-be·ēastan; �;r ġē

magon eardian, ġif ġē willa� ġif hwā ēow wi�281;nt,

wē ēow fultumia�ġē hit m䤣289;en ġe·gān.'


ܦ#257; fērdon �; Peohtas, and ġefērdon �nd nor�ard;

sū�ard hit h奤on Brettas, swā swā wē ǣr cwǣdon.

And �; Peohtas him ā·bǣdon wīf 岠Scottum on �; ġe·rād

�#299;e ġe·curen hiera cyne-cynn ā on �; wīf-healfe. ߦt

hīe hēoldon swā lange si�/p>


And �; ġe·lamp ymbe ġēara ryne �otta sum dǣl

ġe·wāt of Ibernian on Bretene, and �ndes sumne dǣl

ġe·ēodon; and w屠hiera hęre-toga Rēoda ġe·hāten: fram

�#299;e sind ġe·nęmnede Dālrēodi.


Anno 449. Hēr Martiānus and Valentīnus on·fēngon rīċe,


and rīċsodon seofon winter.

And on hiera dagum, Hęnġest and Horsa, fram Wyrtġeorne

ġe·la�Bretta cyninge, ġe·sōhton Bretene on �;m

stęde �ġe·nęmned Ypwines-flēot, ǣrest Brettum tō fultume,

ac hīe eft on hīe fuhton.


Se cyning hēt hīe feohtan on·ġēan Peohtas; and hīe swā

dydon, and siġe h奤on swā hwǣr swā hīe cōmon.

Hīe �; sęndon tō Angle, and hēton him sęndan māran

fultum; and hēton him sęċġan Bret-wēala nāhtnesse and �>

landes cysta. Hīe �; sęndon him māran fultum. ܦ#257; cōmon


�; męnn of �ǣġ�288;ermānie: of Eald-seaxum, of

Ęnġlum, of Īotum.

Of Īotum cōmon Cant-ware and Wiht-ware—� sēo

mǣġ�ū earda�iht—and �nn on West-seaxum

� nū·ġiet hǣtt 'Īotena cynn.' Of Eald-seaxum


cōmon Ēast-seaxe, and Sū�e, and West-seaxe.

Of Angle cōmon—sē ā si�tōd wēste be·twix Īotum and

Seaxum—Ēast-ęnġle, Middel-ęnġle, Mierċe, and ealle Nor�e.

455. Hēr Hęnġest and Horsa fuhton wi�ġeorne


�;m cyninge in �;re stōwe �ġe·cweden Ħ#289;les-�/p>

and his brō�rsan man of·slōg. And 奴er �;m Hęnġest

fēng tō rīċe, and ųc his sunu.

457. Hēr Hęnġest and ųc fuhton wi�tas in �;re

stōwe �ġe·cweden Cręċġan-ford, and �;r of·slōgon


fēower �;send wera. And �; Brettas �; for·lēton Cęnt-land,

and mid miċle ęġe flugon tō Lunden-byriġ.

473. Hēr Henġest and ųc ġe·fuhton wi�75;alas, and

ġe·nāmon un-ārīmedlicu hęre-rēaf, and �; Wēalas flugon

�; Ęnġle swā swā fȳr.


787. Hēr nam Beorht-rīċ cyning Offan dohtor Ēad-burge.

And on his dagum cōmon ǣrest �5;o sċipu; and �; se


ġe·rēfa �;r tō rād, and hīe wolde drīfan tō �ninges

tūne, �; hē nyste hw岠hīe wǣron; and hine man of·slōg.

ߦt wǣron �; ǣrestan sċipu Dęniscra manna �el-cynnes


land ġe·sōhton.

851. Hēr Ċeorl ealdor-mann ġe·feaht wi�83;�#281;nn

mid Defena-sċīre 岠Wiċġan-beorge, and �;r miċel w媼/p>

ġe·slōgon, and siġe nāmon.

And �; ilcan ġēare Ǿelstān cyning and Ealhhęre dux


miċelne hęre of·slōgon 岠Sand-wīc on Cęnt; and nigon

sċipu ġe·fēngon, and �; ō�289;e·flīemdon; and hǣ�#281;nn

ǣrest ofer winter sǣton.

And �; ilcan ġēare cōm fēor�lf hund sċipa on

Tęmese-mū�nd brǣcon Cantwara-burg, and Lunden-burg,


and ġe·flīemdon Beorhtwulf Mierċna cyning mid his

fierde; and fērdon �; sū� Tęmese on Sū�89;e; and

him ġe·feaht wi�wulf cyning and Ǿelbeald his

sunu 岠Āc-lēa mid West-seaxna fierde, and �;r �#483;ste

w媠ġe·slōgon on hǣ�ęre �275; sęċġan hīerdon o�


�andweardan d䤣289;, and �;r siġe nāmon.

867. Hēr fōr se hęre of Ēast-ęnġlum ofer Humbre-mū�>

tō Eoforwīc-ċeastre on Nor�re. And �;r w屠miċel

un-ġe�3;rnes �;re �;ode be·twix him selfum, and hīe

h奤on hiera cyning ā·worpenne Ōsbryht, and un-ġecyndne


cyning under·fēngon Ŭlan. And hīe late on ġēare tō �;m

ġe·ċierdon �#299;e wi� hęre winnende wǣron; and hīe

�;ah miċle fierd ġe·gadrodon, and �ęre sōhton 岼/p>

Eoforwīc-ċeastre; and on �; ċeastre brǣcon, and hīe sume

inne wurdon; and �;r w屠un-ġemetlic w媠ge·sl䤣289;en Nor�bra,


sume binnan, sume būtan, and �; cyningas

bēġen ofsl䤣289;ene; and sēo lāf wi� hęre fri�




Sum swī�89;e·lǣred munuc cōm sū�er sǣ fram sancte

Benedictes stōwe, on Ǿelredes cyninges d䤣289;e, to Dūnstāne

尦#267;e-biscope, �#289;ēarum ǣr �;m �275; for�75;rde,

and se munuc hātte Abbo. ܦ#257; wurdon hīe 岠sprǣċe, o�


�#363;nstān reahte be sancte Ēadmunde, swā swā Ēadmundes

sweord-bora hit reahte Ǿelstāne cyninge, �; �;

Dūnstān ġēong mann w屬 and se sweord-bora w屠for·ealdod

mann. ܦ#257; ġe·sętte se munuc ealle �;, ġe·ręċednesse on

ānre bēc, and eft, �; �; sēo bōc cōm tō ūs, binnan fēam


ġēarum, �; ā·węndon wē hit on Ęnġlisc, swā swā hit hēr·奴er

stęnt. Se munuc �; Abbo binnan twǣm ġēarum ġe·węnde

hām tō his mynstre, and wear�33;na tō abbode

ġe·sętt on �;m ilcan mynstre.

Ēadmund se ēadiga, Ēast-ęnġla cyning, w屠snotor and


weor� and weor�imle mid 罥lum �;awum �p>

嫭ihtigan God. Hē w屠ēa�33;d and ġe·�, and

swā ān-rǣd �unode �#275; nolde ā·būgan tō bismerfullum

leahtrum, ne on nāw�alfe hē ne ā·hielde his

�;awas, ac w屠simle ġe·myndiġ �;re sō�#257;re: 'Ġif �;


eart tō hēafod-męnn ġe·sętt, ne ā·hęfe �; �;, ac bēo be·twix

mannum swā swā ān mann of him.' Hē w屼/p>

cystiġ wǣdlum and widewum swā swā f壥r, and mid

wel-willendnesse ġe·wissode his folc simle tō riht-wīsnesse,

and �;m rē�īerde, and ġe·sǣliġlīce leofode on sō�>




Hit ġe·lamp �; 岠nīehstan �#257; Dęniscan lēode fērdon

mid sċip-hęre, hęrgiende and slēande wīde ġeond land, swā

swā hiera ġe·wuna is. On �;m flotan wǣron �; fyrmestan

hēafod-męnn, Hinguar and Hubba, ġe·ānlǣhte �ēofol,


and hīe on Nor�a-lande ġe·lęndon mid 岣um, and

ā·wēston �nd, and �; lēode of·slōgon. ܦ#257; ġe·węnde

Hinguar ēast mid his sċipum, and Hubba be·lāf on Nor�a-lande,

ġe·wunnenum siġe mid w媭hrēownesse.

Hinguar �; be·cōm tō Ēast-ęnġlum rōwende on �;m ġēare


�red 罥ling ān and twęntiġ ġēara w屬 sē �t-seaxna

cyning si�ear�83;re. And se fore-s䤣289;da

Hinguar fǣrlīce, swā swā wulf, on lande be·stealcode, and

�; lēode slōg, weras and wīf, and �; unġewittigan ċīld,

and to bismere tūcode �; bilewītan Crīstenan. Hē sęnde


�; si�ōna tō �;m cyninge bēotlic ǣrende, �#275;

ā·būgan scolde tō his mann-rǣdenne, ġif hē his fēores rōhte.

Se ǣrend-raca cōm �; tō Ēadmunde cyninge, and Hinguares

ǣrende him arodlīce ā·bēad: 'Hinguar ūre cyning, cēne

and siġef岴 on sǣ and on lande, h姾 fela �;oda ġe·weald,


and cōm nū mid fierde fǣrlīce hēr tō lande, �>

hē hēr winter-setl mid his werode h塢e. Nū hǣtt hē �;

dǣlan �;ne dīeglan gold-hordas and �;nra ieldrena ġe·strēon

arodlīce wi�, and �; bēo his under-cyning, ġif �;

cwic bēon wilt, for �;m �363; n女t �; miht �#363; m䤣289;e


him wi�dan.'

Hw岠�; Ēadmund cyning clipode ānne biscop �

�; ġe·hęndost w屬 and wi� smēade hū hē �;m

rē�nguare andwyrdan scolde. ܦ#257; forhtode se biscop

for �;m fǣrlican ġe·limpe, and for �ninges līfe,


and cw缠�m rǣd �;hte �#275; tō �;m ġe·buge �

him bēad Hinguar. ܦ#257; swīgode se cyning, and be·seah

tō �;re eor�nd cw缠�; 岠nīehstan cynelīce him

tō: 'Ēalā �; biscop, tō bismere sind ġe·tāwode �;s earman


land-lēode, and mē nū lēofre wǣre � on ġe·feohte


fēolle wi�83;m �299;n folc mōste hiera eardes brūcan.'

And se biscop cw缺 'Ēalā �; lēofa cyning, �;n folc

lī�l䤣289;en, and �; n女t �ultum �#363; feohtan

m䤣289;e, and �;s flot-męnn cuma� �; cwicne ġe·binda�

būtan �; mid flēame �;num fēore ġe·beorge, o�#363; �; swā


ġe·beorge �#363; būge tō him.' ܦ#257; cw缠Ēadmund cyning,

swā swā hē full·cēne w屺 '� ġe·wilniġe and ġe·wȳsċe

mid mōde � āna ne be·līfe 奴er mīnum lēofum �9;num,

�hiera będdum wurdon mid bearnum and wīfum fǣrlīce

of·sl䤣289;ene fram � flot-mannum. N屠mē nǣfre ġe·wunelic


� worhte flēames, ac ic wolde swī�eltan,

ġif ic �, for mīnum āgnum earde, and se 嫭ihtiga God

wāt � nyle ā·būgan fram his bī-gęnġum ǣfre, ne fram

his sō�fe, swelte ic, libbe ic.'

Ŧter � wordum hē ġe·węnde tō �;m ǣrend-racan �


Hinguar him tō sęnde, and s䤣289;de him un·forht: 'Witodlīce

�; wǣre nū wier�#281;ġes, ac ic nyle ā·fȳlan on �;num fūlum

blōde mīne clǣnan handa, for �;m �Crīste folgiġe, �

ūs swā ġe·bȳsnode; ac ic blī�99;ce wile bēon of·sl䤣289;en

�#275;ow, ġif hit swā God fore-sċēawa� nū swī��>


and sęġe �;num rē�āforde, "ne ā·bȳh�83;fre Ēadmund

Hinguare on līfe, hǣ�ęre-togan, būtan hē to Hǣlende

Crīste ǣrest mid ġe·lēafan on � lande ġe·būge."'

ܦ#257; ġe·węnde se ǣrend-raca arodlīce on·weġ, and ġe·mētte

be weġe �媭hrēowan Hinguar mid ealre his fierde


fūse to Ēadmunde, and s䤣289;de �;m ārleasan hū him ġe·andwyrd

w屮 Hinguar bebēad �; mid bieldo �;m sċip-hęre

�#299;e �ninges ānes ealle cēpan scolden, � hǣse

for·seah, and hine sōna bindan.

Hw岠�; Ēadmund cyning, mid �;m �guar cōm,


stōd innan his healle, �#483;lendes ġe·myndiġ, and ā·wearp

his wǣpnu: wolde ġe·efenlǣċan Crīstes ġe·bȳsnungum, � {85}

for·bēad Petre mid wǣpnum tō winnenne wi�57; w嫨rēowan

Iūdēiscan. Hw岠�; ārlēasan �; Ēadmund ġe·bundon, and

ġe·bismrodon huxlīce, and bēoton mid sāglum, and swā


si�ǣddon �#289;e·lēaffullan cyning tō ānum eor�tan

trēowe, and tīeġdon hine �;r-tō mid heardum bęndum,

and hine eft swungon langlīce mid swipum; and hē

simle clipode be·twix �;m swinglum mid sō�289;e·lēafan tō

Hǣlende Crīste; and �; hǣ�ā for his ġe·lēafan wurdon


wōdlīce ierre, for �;m �275; clipode Crīst him tō fultume:

hīe scuton �; mid gafelocum him tō, swelce him to gamene,

o�hē eall w屠be·sętt mid hiera scotungum, swelce īles

byrsta, swā swā Sebastiānus w屮 ܦ#257; ġe·seah Hinguar, se

ārlēasa flotmann, � 罥la cyning nolde Crīste wi�n,


ac mid ānrǣdum ġe·lēafan hine ǣfre clipode: hēt hine �;

be·hēafdian, and �; hǣ�wā dydon. Be·twix �;m �275;

clipode tō Crīste �;·ġiet, �; tugon �; hǣ�one hālgan

tō slęġe, and mid ānum swęnġe slōgon him of �#275;afod,

and his sāwol sī�#289;e·sǣliġ tō Crīste. ܦ#483;r w屠sum


mann ġe·hęnde ġe·healden, �od be·hȳdd �;m hǣ�/p>

� ġe·hīerde eall, and hit eft s䤣289;de, swā swā wē hit


Hw岠�; se flot-hęre fērde eft tō sċipe, and be·hȳddon �>

hēafod �#257;lgan Ēadmundes on �;m �7;ċum brēmlum,


�t be·byrġed ne wurde. ܦ#257; 奴er fierste si�īe

ā·farene wǣron, cōm �nd-folc tō, �483;r tō lāfe w屬

�;r hiera hlāfordes līc l䤣289; būtan hēafde, and wurdon swi�

sāriġe for his slęġe on mōde, and hūru �#299;e n奤en �>

hēafod tō �;m bodiġe. ܦ#257; s䤣289;de se sċēawere � ǣr


ġe·seah, �#257; flotmęnn h奤en �#275;afod mid him; and

w屠him ġe·�;ht, swā swā hit w屠full·sō� hīe behȳdden

�#275;afod on �;m holte for·hwega.

Hīe ēodon �; ęndemes ealle tō �;m wuda, sēċende ġe·hwǣr,

ġeond �;flas and brēmlas, ġif hīe ā-hwǣr mihten


ġe·mētan �#275;afod. W屠ēac miċel wundor �257;n wulf

wear�7;·sęnd, �odes wissunge, tō be·węrienne �>

hēafod wi�57; ō�#275;or ofer d䤣289; and niht. Hīe ēodon �;

sēċende and simle clipiende, swā swā hit ġe·wunelic is �;m

�wuda gā� 'hwǣr eart �; nū, ġe·fēra?' And him


andwyrde �#275;afod, 'hēr, hēr, hēr;' and swā ġe·lōme

clipode andswariende him eallum, swā oft swā hiera ǣniġ

clipode, o�hīe ealle be·cōmon �ā clipunge him tō.

ܦ#257; l䤣289; se grǣga wulf �wiste �#275;afod, and mid his

twǣm fōtum h奤e �#275;afod be·clypped, grǣdiġ and hungriġ,


and for Gode ne dorste �#275;afdes on·byrġan, ac

hēold hit wi�75;or. ܦ#257; wurdon hīe of·wundrode �>

wulfes hierd-rǣdenne, and �#257;liġe hēafod hām fęredon

mid him, �nde �;m Ŭmihtigan ealra his wundra.

Ac se wulf folgode for��;m hēafde, o�hīe tō


tūne cōmon, swelce hē tam w履, and ġe·węnde eft si�p>

tō wuda on·ġēan.

ܦ#257; land-lēode �; si�ęġdon �#275;afod tō �;m hālgan

bodiġe, and be·byriġdon swā hīe sēlest mihton on swelcre

hr壵nge, and ċiriċan ā·rǣrdon sōna him on·uppan. Eft


�; on fierste, 奴er fela ġēarum, �; sēo hęrgung ġe·swāc,

and sibb wear�ġiefen �;m ġe·swęnċtan folce, �; fēngon

hīe tō·g売e, and worhton āne ċiriċan weor�9;ce �;m hālgan,

for �;m �lōme wundru wurdon 岠his byrġenne, 岼/p>

�;m ġe·bed-hūse �;r hē be·byrġed w屮 Hīe woldon �;


fęrian mid folclicre weor� �ālgan līchaman, and

lęċġan innan �;re ċiriċan. ܦ#257; w屠miċel wundor �#275;

w屠eall swā ġe·hāl swelce hē cwic wǣre, mid clǣnum līchaman,

and his swēora w屠ġe·hǣled, �83;r w屠for·sl䤣289;en, and

w屠swelce ān seolcen �3;d ymbe his swēoran, mannum tō


sweotolunge hū hē ofs·l䤣289;en w屮 Ēac swelce �; wunda,

�257; w嫨rēowan hǣ�id ġe·lōmum scotungum on his

līce macodon, wǣron ġe·hǣlde �one heofonlican God;


and hē; lī�257; onsund o�e and-weardan d䤣289;, and-bīdiende

ǣristes and �275;ċan wuldres. His līchama ūs


cȳ� lī�ormolsnod, �#275; būtan for·liġre hēr on

worulde leofode, and mid clǣnum līfe tō; Crīste sī�/p>

Sum widewe wunode, Ōswyn ġe·hāten, 岠�#257;lgan

byrġenne, on ġe·bedum and f岴ennum manigu ġēar si�/p>

Sēo wolde ęfsian ǣlce ġēare �anct, and his n䤣289;las


ċeorfan sīeferlīce mid lufe, and on scrīne healdan tō hāliġ-dōme

on weofode. ݡ weor�岠land-folc mid ġe·lēafan �p>

sanct, and ܦ#275;odred biscop � mid ġiefum on golde and

on seolfre, �;m sancte tō weor�.

ܦ#257; cōmon on sumne sǣl un-ġesǣlige �;ofas eahta on


ānre nihte tō �;m ār-weor�#257;lgan: woldon stelan �;

mā�e męnn �brōhton, and cunnodon mid cr奴e

hū hīe inn cuman mihten. Sum slōg mid slęċġe swī�257;

h岰an, sum hiera mid fēolan fēolode ymb·ūtan, sum ēac

under·dealf �; duru mid spadan, sum hiera mid hlǣddre wolde


on·lūcan �;t ēag-�;rel; ac hīe swuncon on īdel, and earmlīce

fērdon, swā � hālga wer hīe wundorlīce ġe·band,

ǣlcne swā hē stōd strūtiendne mid tōle, �era nān ne

mihte �r�9;e·fręmman ne hīe �ā·styrian; ac

stōdon swā o�#289;en. Męnn �; �ndrodon, hū �;


weargas hangodon, sum on hlǣddre, sum lēat tō ġe·delfe,

and ǣlc on his weorce w屠f岴e ġe·bunden. Hīe wurdon

�; ġe·brōhte tō �;m biscope ealle, and hē hēt hīe ā·hōn on

hēam ġealgum ealle; ac hē n屠nā ġe·myndiġ hū se mildheorta

God clipode �is wītegan �;s word �275;r standa�


Eos qui ducuntur ad mortem eruere ne cesses, '�; � lǣtt

tō dēa�57;·līes hīe ūt simle.' And ēac �; hālgan canōnes

bēc ġe·hādodum for·bēoda�9;e biscopum ġe prēostum tō

bēonne ymbe �;ofas, for �;m � ne ġe·byre�83;m �

bēop ġe·corene Gode to �9;nienne �#299;e ġe·�3;rlǣċan


scylen on ǣniġes mannes dēa�289;if hīe bēo�tnes


�9;nas. Eft �; ܦ#275;odred biscop sċēawode his bēc, hē si�p>

be·hrēowsode mid ġēomrunge �#275; swā rē�#333;m sętte

�;m unġesǣligum �;ofum, and hit be·sārgode ǣfre o�/p>

līfes ęnde, and �; lēode b墠ġeorne �#299;e him mid f岴en


fullīce �9;e dagas, biddende �lmihtigan �#275; him

ārian scolde.

On �;m lande w屠sum mann, Lēofstān ġe·hāten, rīċe

for worulde, un-ġewittiġ for Gode; sē rād tō �;m hālgan

mid rīċetere swī�d hēt him 崷īewan orgellīce swī�


�ālgan sanct, hw罥r hē ġe·sund wǣre; ac swā hra�

swā hē ġe·seah �nctes līchaman, �; ā·wēdde hē sōna,

and w媭hrēowlīce grymetode, and earmlīce ġe·ęndode yflum

dēa�s is �;m ġe·līc �ġe·lēaffulla pāpa Gregōrius

s䤣289;de on his ġesętnesse be �;m hālgan Laurentie, �299;�p>


Rōme-byriġ, �#281;nn wolden sċēawian hū hē lǣġe ġe

gōde ġe yfle; ac God hīe ġe·stilde swā �#483;r swulton

on �;re sċēawunge seofon męnn 崷g売e; �; ġeswicon

�; ō�#333; sċēawienne �artyr mid męnniscum ġe·dwylde.


Fela wundra wē ġe·hīerdon on folclicre sprǣċe be �;m

hālgan Ēadmunde, �275; hēr nylla�#289;e·write sęttan, ac hīe

wāt ġe·hwā. On � hālgan is sweotol, and on swelcum

ō��d 嫭ihtiġ m䤣289; �ann ā·rǣran eft on

dōmes d䤣289;e onsundne of eor�ē �lt Ēadmund hālne


his līchaman o� mīċlan d䤣289;, �;ah �275; on moldan cōme.

Wier�483;re sēo stōw for �;m weor�n hālgan �#299;e

man weor�nd wel ġe·lōgode mid clǣnum Godes �;owum

tō Crīstes �;owdōme; for �;m �hālga is mǣrra �/p>

męnn m䤣289;en ā·smēan. Nis Angel-cynn be·dǣled Dryhtnes


hālgena, �on Ęnġla-lande liċġa�ce hālgan swelce

�#257;lga cyning, and Cū� se ēadiga and sancte

Ǿel�3;�#274;liġ, and ēac hiere sweostor, onsund on līchaman,

ġe·lēafan tō trymmunge. Sind ēac fela ō�


Angel-cynne hālgan, �a wundra wyrċa�#257; swā hit


wīde is cū�483;m Ŭmihtigan tō lofe, �299;e on ġe·līefdon.

Crīst ġe·sweotola�um �is mǣre hālgan �#275; is

嫭ihtiġ God �ċ�c wundru, �;ah �257; earman

Iūdēiscan hine eallunga wi�33;cen, for �;m �299;e sind

ā·wierġde, swā swā hīe wȳsċton him selfum. Ne bēo�57;n


wundru ġe·worht 岠hiera byrġennum, for �;m �299;e ne

ġe·līefa�one lifiendan Crīst; ac Crīst ġe·sweotola�

mannum hwǣr se gōda ġe·lēafa is, �hē swelc wundru

wyrċ� his hālgan wīde ġeond �;s eor�屠him sīe

wuldor and lof ā mid his heofonlicum F壥r and �;m Hālgan


Gāste, ā būtan ęnde.



The references marked 'Gr.' are to the pages and paragraphs of the grammar; paragraph-references in ( ) are to the numbered paragraphs in the grammar.


Line 2. sē. Gr. 21. 1.

�nd. Gr. 45. 2.

l. 6. sęl� Gr. 45. 5.

l. 7. sēo 嫭esse. Gr. 44. 3.

l. 12. ġeworhte. Gr. 46. (3).

l. 16. hiera. Gr. 41. 3.

nǣfre ... ne ... nānes. Gr. 52. 2. ne w屼/i> is usually contracted into n屼/i>; the full form is used here because the w屼/i> is emphatic.

l. 17. hēt ofslēan. Gr. 50. 4.

l. 23. Ǿelred cyning. Gr. 42. 6.

l. 24. ųces-dūn, sf. Ashdown, literally 'hill (or down) of the ashtree.'

l. 27. wile here denotes repetition, = 'is in the habit of.' Cp. l. 52.

l. 28. �/b> is correlative with gif (l. 26), Gr. 52. 3.

l. 37. 嫭ihtiga. Gr. 43. (4).

l. 43. ēower se heofonlica F壥r. This insertion of the definite article between a possessive pronoun and an adjective is frequent.

l. 50. bēo. Gr. 48. (6).

l. 52. , for.

l. 56. twęntiġ wintra. Gr. 18.

l. 58. Dēofol. Gr. 44. 1.

l. 60. scortan. Gr. 43. (2).

l. 61. fisca. Gr. 41. 3.

l. 63. pǣm, those.

hider on land, lit. hither on to land, = to this land.

l. 74. blētsian. The older form of this word is bledsian. It is a derivative of blōd, like rīċsian from rīċe, with mutation of the root vowel. Its original meaning was to 'sprinkle with blood,' and hence, in heathen times, to 'consecrate,' especially to consecrate an altar by sprinkling it with the blood of the victim.

l. 80. godspell. The original form of this word was probably gōdspell = 'good tidings,' a literal translation of the Greek euagg諩on. {92}Afterwards the first vowel was shortened before the following consonant-group, or else god was directly substituted for gōd, as giving a more evident meaning, the result being that the word was taken in the sense of 'God's tidings.' In this form it was adopted into Icelandic (gu�all) and Old High German (gotespel), having been introduced by the Old English missionaries.

bi� Gr. 45. 5.

l. 82. hīe. Gr. 19.

l. 89. him on ǣlce healfe, lit. 'to (for) themselves on each side,' = on every side (of themselves).

l. 92. rihtne. Gr. 42. 5.

l. 93. Ǿelwulf-ing. Gr. 38.

l. 101. fare ġē. Gr. 22. 7.

l. 106. forsāwon. A plural verb after a singular noun of multitude is common in O. E., as in other languages.

l. 107. ġif se blinda blindne lǣtt. ġif here takes the indic., instead of the subj. (Gr. 48. 6), because the case is not assumed to be unreal. So also in V. 13, where the opposition (wi�81;nt) is assumed as certain, and VI. 19.

l. 114. cwǣde. Gr. 48. (5).

l. 118. m䤣289;e. Compare Gr. 47. (B. 1).

l. 119. sīe. Gr. 47. (A).

l. 120. Scotland is here used in its older sense of 'Ireland.' Compare the first extract from the Chronicle, p. 79 below.

l. 121. his. Gr. 41. 3.

l. 123. healden. Gr. 48. (2).

l. 124. wǣre. Gr. 47. (B. 1).

l. 132. sē �> Gr. 21.

l. 135. �b> Gr. 21; 52. 3.

l. 137. on ēare. Gr. 51. 2.

l. 138. ġewęndon him, lit. 'they went for-themselves'; a reflexive pronoun in the dative, Gr. 40. (1), is often added to verbs of motion.

l. 139. dō ġē. Gr. 22.

l. 142. grēte. Compare Gr. 49. (8).

l. 145. swelce, adverb, 'as it were.'

l. 151. nime. Gr. 49. (7).

l. 161. cōme. Compare m䤣289;e, l. 118 above.

l. 166. ofsl䤣289;enne. Gr. 46. 5.

l. 176. ġeweor�b> Gr. 47. (B. 1.)

l. 180. wolde. Gr. 45. 5.

l. 191. bēon. Gr. 48. (2). {93}


l. 1. �;s mīn word. Gr. 43. 8.

l. 16. āweorpe. Gr. 49. (8).

l. 20. hit refers back to sǣd, l. 18.

l. 22. ūp sprungenre sunnan. Gr. 41. 2.

l. 28. is ġeworden. An over-literal rendering of the Latin factum est.

l. 32. hine, reflexive, Gr. 19.

l. 40. tō forb屮enne. We see here how out of the active 'in order to burn it' may be developed the passive 'in order that it may be burnt,' as in the modern E. 'a house to let.' Compare Gr. 50. 4, (1).

l. 52. on hiera fatu. Compare l. 137.

l. 60. ġewordenre ġecwidrǣenne �;m wyrhtum. A very stiff adaptation of the ablative absolute of the original, 'conventione autem facta cum operariis.' �;m wyrhtum is to be taken as a dative of the person affected (Gr. 41).

l. 67. dyde �;m swā ġelīce. The Latin has simply 'fecit similiter.' The sense is 'did like to it' (like his former proceeding), the swā being pleonastic.

l. 86. �b> Gr. 21.

l. 90. suna, dative, 'for his son.'

l. 106. ġiefthūs. hūs must here be taken in the sense of 'hall,' 'chamber.' In Icelandic the plural hūs is regularly used to denote the group of buildings (often detached) constituting a house or homestead, the kitchen, for instance, which was originally detached, being still called eldhūs (fire-house).

l. 107. �#275; wolde gesēon. This clause is due to a confusion of two constructions, (1) hē wolde ġesēon, (2) �> (in order that) hē ġe·sāwe.


The first two pieces are taken from Ŭfric's translation of the Heptateuch, first published by Thwaites in his Heptateuchus, and afterwards by Grein as vol. i. of his Bibliothek der angels㢨sischen Prosa—Genesis xi. and xxii. The other three are from Ŭfric's Homilies (edited by Thorpe)—ii. 584 foll., i. 570, ii. 432.

l. 4. him betwēonan. Gr. 51. 5.

l. 13. l壥n. This word is the Latin latina (= lingua latina) used first in the sense of 'Latin language,' then of language generally. {94}

l. 17. for �;m ... for �;m �, correlative, the first demonstrative, the second relative.

l. 28. tō scoldon. This use of sċeal with a verb of motion understood is very common.

l. 36. him self. him is the reflexive dative of interest referring to God—literally, 'God him-self will appoint for him-self.' In such constructions we see the origin of the modern himself, themselves.

ll. 46, 47. nū ... nū, correlative, = now ... now that, the second being almost causal (since).

l. 51. h奤e ... tō, took ... for.

l. 52. Gode tō lāce. Gr. 40. (1).

l. 57. mīn ęġe, objective genitive, 'the fear of me.'

māre, neut. 'a greater thing,' 'something more important.'

l. 81. māre. Cp. l. 57.

l. 82. wǣre. Gr. 49. (7).

l. 89. hw屼/b> is governed by ġiernde, by 'attraction.'

l. 135. miċle, adverb.

l. 137. wǣre. Gr, 49. (7).

l. 153. belīefan is a later form for ġelīefan.

l. 156. tō handum. Cp. l. 122 above.

l. 174. ǣr ġenam. Gr. 46. 6.

l. 200. fram mannum. fram here, as usual, denotes the agent 'by' in passive constructions.

l. 202. wite. Compare Gr. 48. (3) and 49. (8).


From Ŭfric's translation of the Book of Judges in Thwaites' Heptateuch.

l. 8. onġin�33; ālīesenne, will release, onġinnan is often used pleonastically in this way.

l. 35. Gaza ġehāten. When a name together with ġehāten is put in apposition to another noun it is left undeclined, contrary to the general principle (Gr. 42. 6).

l. 41. swā swā hīe belocenu wǣron, locked as they were.

ufeweardum �;m cnolle. Gr. 43. 2.

l. 46. w屼/b>, consisted.

l. 51. ġeworhte. We should expect ġeworhtum (Gr. 42. 5). Perhaps the nom. is due to confusion with the construction with a relative clause—�sinum ġeworhte sind. {95}

l. 74. Dagon ġehāten. Compare l. 35. swelce, 'on the ground that'—'because (as they said).'

l. 81. hēton. Compare l. 106.

l. 87. for�is often used pleonastically in this way with mid.


l. 2. hēr sind, there are here. hēr is here used analogously to �;r, as in II. 3 and the modern E. there are. Cp. also l. 12 below.

ġe�;odu, languages as the test of nationality. It is believed that Latin was still spoken as a living language by the Romanized Britons at the time of the venerable Bede (eighth century), from whose Church History this section was taken by the compilers of the Chronicle.

l. 5. Armenia is an error for Armorica.

l. 6. Scithie, Scythia.

l. 8. Nor�ie, North of Ireland.

l. 24. hēr, at this date—at this place in the series of entries which constitute the Chronicle.

l. 26. Wyrtġeorn is the regular development of an earlier *Wurtigern from the British Vortigern.

l. 28. Ypwinesflēot has not been identified; some say Ebbsfleet.

l. 45. Ħ#289;les�b>, Aylesthorpe, a village near Aylesford.

l. 49. Cręċġanford, Crayford.

l. 52. The diction of this passage, with its alliteration and simile, shows that it is taken from some old poem.

l. 61. hǣ�#281;nn, Danes.

l. 62. mid Defena-sċīre, literally 'together with Devonshire,' that is 'with a force of Devonshire men.'

l. 64. dux is here written instead of ealdormann. So also we find rex for cyning.

l. 65. Sandwīc, Sandwich.

l. 68. fēor�lf hund, fourth half = three and a half. This is the regular way of expressing fractional numbers, as in the German viertehalb.

l. 71. Sū�89;e, Surrey.

l. 73. Āclēa, Ockley.

l. 76. se hęre, the Danish army. hęre got a bad sense, through its association with hęrgian (to harry), and hence is applied only to a plundering, marauding body of men. In the Laws hęre is defined as {96}a gang of thieves more than thirty-five in number. The national English army (militia) is called fierd, l. 71, 3 above.

Humbremū�, mouth of the Humber.

l. 77. Eoforwīc, York; a corruption of Eboracum.

l. 84. inne wurdon, got in.

l. 85. sume. Compare IV. 51.


From Ŭfric's Lives of the Saints, now published for the Early English Text Society by Prof. Skeat. The present life has been printed only by Thorpe, in his Analecta Anglosaxonica from a very late MS. It is here given from the older MS., Cott. Jul. E. 7.

It will be observed that the present piece is in alliterative prose, that is, with the letter-rime of poetry, but without its metrical form. The alliteration is easily discernible:—cōm sū�er sǣ fram sancte Benedictes stōwe; d䤣289;e, tō Dūnstāne, &c.

l. 1. sancte is an English modification of the Latin genitive sancti.

l. 5. sancte is here the E. dative inflection, sanct having been made into a substantive.

l. 39. bilewīt = *bile-hwīt (with the regular change of hw into w between vowels) literally 'white (=tender) of bill,' originally, no doubt, applied to young birds, and then used metaphorically in the sense of 'gentle,' 'simple.'

l. 70. worhte flēames. This construction of wyrcan with a genitive is frequent.

l. 76. wǣre, subj. Gr. 48. (6).

l. 85. fūse. The correct reading is probably fūsne, but the plural fūse may be taken to refer to Hinguar and his men collectively.

l. 149. ġebedhūs. The Welsh bettws, as in Bettws-y-coed = 'chapel in the wood,' still preserves the O. E. form nearly unchanged.

l. 176. swā �> does not denote result here, but is explanatory—'namely by being bound....'

l. 178. hīe, reflexive.

l. 179. �. hū, correlative.

l. 185. The reference is apparently to Proverbs xxiv. 11, which (in the Vulgate) runs thus: 'Erue eos qui ducuntur ad mortem.'

l. 200. hw罥r, (that he might see) whether ...

l. 215. līchaman, instrumental dative (Gr. 41) of defining.

l. 222. Ēliġ = ǣl-īeg 'eel-island.' {97}


The order is strictly alphabetical (�owing t) except that words with the prefix ge are put in the order of the letter that follows the ge (gebed under b, &c.).

The following abbreviations are used :—

sm., sn., sf. masc., neut., fem. substantive.

sv. strong verb.

wv. weak verb.

swv. strong-weak verb (preterito-present).

The others require no explanation.

The numbers after sv. refer to the classes of strong verbs in the grammar.

Words in [ ] are Latin (and Greek) originals or cognate Old E. words. The latter are only referred to when the connection can be proved by the phonetic laws given in the grammar.

Ā, av. ever, always.

abbod, sm. abbot [Latin abbatem].

ā-·bēodan, sv. 7, w. dat. (offer), announce.

ā-·biddan, sv. 5, ask for, demand.

ā-·bītan, sv. 6, devour.

ā-·blęndan, wv. blind [blind].

ā-·brecan, sv. 4, break into, take (city).

ā-·būgan, sv. 7, bend; swerve, turn.

ac, cj. but.

ā-·cęnnan, wv. bring forth, bear (child).

ā-·cwęllan, wv. kill.

ā-·cwęnċan, wv. extinguish.

ā-·drūgian, wv. dry up, intr. [drȳġe].

ā-·dwǣsċan, wv. extinguish.

墥r, sm. field.

罥le, aj. noble, excellent.

罥ling, sm. prince.

ǣfen, sm. evening.

ǣfre, av. ever, always.

奴er, av., prep. w. dat. after—奴er �;em, after that, afterwards; according to, by.

ǣġ-hwelc, prn. each.

ǣġ�>, prn. either, each—cj. ǣġ�289;e ... ġe, both ... and [ = ǣġ hw罥r].

ǣht, sf. property [āhte, āgan].

ǣlan, wv. burn.

ǣlċ, aj. each.

嫭esse, sf. alms, charity [Greek eleēmos�75;].

媭mihti[g.], aj. almighty.

ǣniġ, aj. any [ān].

ǣr, prep. w. dat. before (of time), ǣr �;m �>cj. before.

ǣr, av. formerly, before; superl. ǣrest, adj. and adv., first.

尦#267;e-biscop, sm. archbishop [Latin archiepiscopus].

ǣrende, sn. errand, message.


ǣrend-raca, sm. messenger.

ǣ-rist, sfm. (rising again), resurrection [ārīsan].

ǣrne-mergen, sm. early morning.

, sm. (ash-tree); war-ship.

岼/b>, prp. w. dat. at; deprivation, from; origin, source—ābǣdon wīf 岠him, 'asked for wives from them;' specification, defining—wurdon 岠sprǣċe, 'fell into conversation.'

岭·breġdan, sv. 3 (snatch away), deprive of.

岭·foran, prp. w. dat. before.

岭·g売e, av. together.

岭īewan, wv. w. dat. show.

ǣton, see etan.

ā-·fandian, wv. experience, find out [findan].

ā-·faran, sv. 2, go away, depart.

ā-·feallan, sv. 1, fall.

ā-·fēdan, wv. feed.

ā-·fȳlan, wv. defile [fūl].

ā-fyrht, aj. frightened [past partic. of ā·fyrhtan from forht].

āgan, swv. possess.

ā-·gān, sv. happen.

āgen, aj. own [originally past partic. of āgan].

ā-·ġiefan, sv. 5, w. dat. give, render.

āh, see āgan.

ā-·hębban, sv. 2, raise, exalt.

ā-·hieldan, wv. incline.

ā-·hōn, sv. 1, hang, trans.

ā-·hrēosan, sv. 7, fall.

āhte, see āgan.

ā-hwǣr, av. anywhere.

ā-·hȳran, wv. hire.

ā-·līesan, wv. (loosen), release; redeem [lēas].

ā-·līesed-nes, sf. redemption.

ā-līesend, sm. redeemer.

ān, aj. one (always strong); a certain one, certain; alone (generally weak); gen. pl. ānra in ānra ge-hwelċ, 'each one.'

ān-cęnned, aj. (past partic.) (only-born), only (child).

and, cj. and.

and-bīdian, wv. w. gen. wait, expect [bīdan].

andet-nes, sf. confession.

andettan, wv. confess.

and-ġiet, sn. sense, meaning; understanding, intelligence.

and-swarian, wv. w. dat. answer [andswaru].

and-swaru, sf. answer [swęrian].

and-weard, aj. present.

and-wyrdan, wv. w. dat. answer [word].

Angel, sm. Anglen (a district in Slesvig).

Angel-cynn, sn. English nation, England.

ā-·niman, sv. 4, take away.

ān-lǣċan, wv. unite.

ān-mōd, aj. unanimous.

ān-mōd-līce, av. unanimously.

ān-rǣd, aj. (of one counsel) constant, firm, resolute.

apostol, sm. apostle.

ār, sf. mercy; honour.

ā-·rǣran, wv. raise, build [ārīsan].

ārian, wv. w. dat. honour; spare, have mercy on [ār].

ā-·rīsan, sv. 6, arise.

ār-lēas, aj. wicked.

arn, see iernan.

arod, aj. quick, bold.

arod-līce, av. quickly, readily, boldly.

ār-weor� adj. worthy of honour, venerable.

āscian, wv. ask.

ā-·scūfan, sv. 7, thrust.

ā-·sęndan, wv. send.

ā-·sęttan, wv. set, place.

ā-·smēan, wv. consider, think of, conceive.

assa, sm. ass.

ā-·stęllan, wv. institute.

ā-·stīgan, sv. 6, ascend, descend.

ā-·stręċċan, wv. stretch out, extend.

ā-·styrian, wv. stir, move.

ā-·tēon, sv. 7, draw out, draw, take.

atol-lic, aj. deformed.

ā-·�5;otan, sv. 7, fail, run short.


ā-·węċċan, wv. awake, arouse [wacian].

ā-·wēdan, wv. go mad [wōd].

ā-·węndan, wv. turn; translate.

ā-·weorpan, sv. 3, throw, throw away; depose (king).

ā-·wēstan, wv. lay waste, ravage.

ā-·wierġed, aj. cursed, accursed, [past. partic. of āwierġan, from wearg].

ā-wiht, prn. aught, anything.

ā-·wrītan, sv. 6, write.

ā-·wyrtwalian, wv. root up.


B塼/b>, sn. back—under b塬 behind.

b墼/b>, see biddan.

bǣdon, see biddan.

b屮an, wv. burn, trans. [beornan].

b屮ett, sn. burning.

bǣron, see beran.

b岴, sm. bast.

b岴en, aj. of bast.

be, prep. w. dat. by; about, concerning.

beald, aj. bold.

bearn, sn. child [beran].

bēatan, sv. 1, beat.

be-·bēodan, sv. 7, w. dat. bid, command.

be-·byrġan, wv. bury.

bēċ, see bōc.

be-·clyppan, wv. embrace, encompass, hold.

be-·cuman, sv. 4, come.

ġe·bed, sn. prayer [biddan].

be-·dǣlan, wv. w. gen. deprive of [dǣl].

będd, sn. bed.

be-·delfan, sv. 3; (hide by digging), bury.

ġe·bed-hūs, sn. oratory, chapel.

be-·f岴an, wv. (make fast); w. dat. commit, entrust to.

be-·foran, prp. w. dat. before.

bēġen, prn. both.

be-·ġeondan, prp. w. acc. beyond.

be-·ġietan, sv. 5, get, obtain.

be-·ġinnan, sv. 3, begin.

be-·hātan, sv. 1, w. dat. promise.

be-·hēafdian, wv. behead [hēafod].

be-·healdan, sv. 1, behold.

be-·hōfian, wv. w. gen. require.

be-·hrēowsian, wv. repent [hrēowan].

be-·hȳdan, wv. hide.

be-·lǣwan, wv. betray.

be-·līefan, wv. believe.

be-·līfan, sv. 6, remain [lāf].

be-·lūcan, sv. 7, lock, close.

bęnd, smfn. bond [bindan].

bēodan, sv. 7, w. dat. offer.

bēon, v. be—bēon ymbe, have to do with.

beorg, sm. hill, mountain.

ġebeorgan, sv. 3, w. dat. save, protect.

beornan, sv. 3, burn, intrans.

bēot-lic, aj. boastful.

be-·pǣċan, wv. deceive.

beran, sv. 4, bear, carry; (ġeberan, bring forth).

bęrn, sn. barn.

berstan, sv. 3, burst.

be-·sārgian, wv. lament [sāriġ].

be-·sċieran, sv. 4, shear, cut hair.

be-·sēon, sv. 5, see, look.

be-·sęttan, wv. set about, surround, cover.

be-·stealcian, wv. go stealthily, steal.

be-·swīcan, sv. 6, deceive, circumvent, betray.

be-·tǣċan, wv. commit, entrust, give up.

bętera, bętst, see gōd.

be·twēonan, prp. w. dat. between, among.

be-·twix, prep. w. acc. and dat. between, among; of time, during—betwix �;m �>cj. while.

be-·węrian, wv. defend.

be-·witan, swv. watch over, have charge of.

bīdan, sv. 6, wait.

biddan, sv. 5, ask, beg.

ġe·biddan, sv. 5, refl. pray.


bieldo, sf. (boldness), arrogance [beald].

bī-gęng, sm. worship [bi, by, and gęnġ from gān].

bile-wīt, aj. simple, innocent.

bindan, sv. 3, bind.

binnan, av. inside; prp. w. dat. within, in [ = be-innan].

biscop, sm. bishop [Latin episcopus].

bi-smer, snm. insult, ignominy.

bismer-full, aj. ignominious, shameful.

bismerian, wv. treat with ignominy, insult [bismer].

bītan, sv. 6, bite.

bi� see bēon.

blāwan, sv. 1, blow.

bleoh, sn. colour.

blēow, see blāwan.

blētsian, wv. bless.

blind, aj. blind.

bliss, sf. merriment, joy.

blissian, wv. rejoice.

blī�, aj. glad, merry.

blī�299;ce, av. gladly.

blōd, sn. blood.

bōc, sf. book, scripture.

Bōc-l壥n, sn. book Latin, Latin.

bodian, wv. announce, preach [bēodan].

bodiġ, sm. body.

bohte, see byċġan.

brād, aj. broad.

brǣ� sm. vapour, odour.

brecan, sv. 4, break; take (city).

breġdan, sv. 3, pull.

brēmel, sm. bramble.

Breten, sf. Britain.

Brettas, smpl. the British.

Brettisc, aj. British [Brettas].

bringan, wv. bring.

brōhte, see bringan.

brō�>, sm. brother.

brūcan, sv. 7, w. gen. enjoy, partake of.

brȳd, sf. bride.

brȳd-guma, sm. bridegroom [literally bride-man].

būan, wv. dwell.

būend, smpl. dwellers [pres. partic. of būan].

bufan, prp. w. dat. and acc. over, above, on.

būgan, sv. 7, bend, incline.

bundon, see bindan.

burg, sf. city.

burg-ġeat, sn. city-gate.

būtan, av. outsīde; prp. w. dat. without, except, besides [ = be-ūtan].

būtan, cj. unless, except.

byċġan, wv. buy.

byr�>, sf. burden [beran].

byrġen, sf. tomb [bebyrġan].

ġebyrian, wf. be due, befit.

byriġ, see burg.

byrst, sf. bristle.

ġe·bȳsnian, wv. give example, illustrate.

ġe·bȳsnung, sf. example.


Cann, see cunnan.

canōn, sm. canon; canōnes bēc, canonical books.

Cantwara-burg, sf. Canterbury [Cantwara, gen. of Cantware].

Cant-ware, pl. Kent-dwellers, men of Kent [Lat. Cantia and ware].

cāsere, sm. emperor [Latin Caesar].

ċeaflas, smpl. jaws.

ċeald, aj. cold.

ċealf, sn. calf.

ċēap, sn. purchase.

ċēas, see ċēosan.

ċeaster, sf. city [Latin castra].

cēne, aj. brave, bold.

cęnnan, wv. bring forth, bear child.

Cęnt, sf. Kent [Cantia].

Cęnt-land, sn. Kent.

ċeorfan, sv. 3, cut.

ċēosan, sv. 7, choose.

cēpan, wv. w. gen. attend, look out for.

ċīepan, wv. trade, sell [ċēap].

ċīepend, sm. seller [pres. partic. of ċīepan].

ċierr, sm. turn.


ċierran, wv. turn, return, go—ċierran tō, take to.

ġe·ċierred-nes, sf. conversion.

ċild, sn. child.

ċild-hād, sm. childhood.

ċinn-bān, sn. jawbone.

ċiriċe, sf. church.

clǣne, aj. clean, pure.

clawu, sf. claw.

clipian, wv. call, summon.

clipung, sf. calling.

clyppan, wv. clip, embrace.

cnapa, sm. (boy, youth), servant.

cnoll, sm. top, summit.

coccel, sm. corn-cockle.

cōm, see cuman.

coren, see ċēosan.

cr奴, sm. skill, cunning.

crīsten, aj. Christian.

cuma, sm. stranger [cuman].

cuman, sv. 4, come; cuman ūp, land.

cunnan, swv. know.

cunnian, wv. try [cunnan].

curon, see ċēosan.

cū� aj. known [originally past partic. of cunnan].

cwǣdon, see cwe�>.

cwae� see cwe�>.

cweartern, sn. prison.

cwēman, wv. please, gratify.

ġe·cwēmednes, sf. pleasing.

cwēn, sf. queen.

cwe�>, sv. 5, say, speak; name, call.

cwic, aj. alive.

cwide, sm. speech, address [cwe�/p>

ġecwīd-rǣden, sf. agreement.

cwi�, see cwe�>.

cym� see cuman.

cyne-cynn, sn. royal family.

cyne-līc, aj. royal.

cyne-līce, av. like a king, royally.

cyne-stōl, sm. throne.

cyning, sm. king.

cynn, sn. race, kind.

cyst, sf. excellence [ċēosan].

cystiġ, aj. (excellent), charitable.

cȳ�>, wv. make known, tell [cū�>


Dǣd, sf. deed.

d䤣289;, sm. day.

d䤣289;-hwǣm-līce, av. daily.

dǣl, sm. part—be healfum dǣle, by half.

dǣlan, wv. divide, share.

dēad, aj. dead.

dēa� sm. death.

Defena-sċīr, sf. Devonshire [Devonia].

dehter, see dohtor.

ġedelf, sn. digging.

delfan, sv. 3, dig.

Dęne, smpl. Danes.

Dęnisc, aj. Danish.

dēofol, sum. devil [Latin diabolus].

dēofol-ġield, sn. idol.

dēop, aj. deep.

dēor, sn. wild beast.

dēore, aj. dear, precious.

dēor-wier�, aj. precious.

dīegol, aj. hidden, secret.

dīegol-nes, sf. secret.

dīepe, sf. depth [dēop].

dihtan, wv. appoint [Latin dictare].

disc-�9;n, sm. (dish-thane), waiter.

dohtor, sf. daughter.

dōm, sm. doom, judgment, sentence.

dōn, sv. do, act.

dorste, see durran.

draca, sm. dragon.

dranc, see drincan.

drēoriġ, aj. sad.

drīfan, sv. 6, drive.

drinca, sm. drink.

drincan, sv. 3, drink.

drohtnian, wv. live, continue, behave.

drohtnung, sf. conduct.

drȳġe, aj. dry.

Dryhten, sm. Lord,

dūn, sf. hill, down.

durran, swv. dare.

duru, sf. door.

dūst, sn. dust.

ġe·dwyld, sn. error.

dyde, see dōn.

dyppan, wv. dip.

dysiġ, aj. foolish.



Ēac, av. also; ēac swelce, also.

ēacnian, wv. increase.

ēadiġ, aj. (prosperous), blessed.

ēage, sn. eye.

ēag-�;rel, sn. (eye-hole), window.

eahta, num. eight.

ēa-lā, interj. oh!

eald, aj. old—cp. ieldra.

Eald-seaxe, smpl. Old Saxons.

ealdor, sm. chief, master.

ealdor-mann, sm. chief, officer.

eall, aj. all.

eall, av. quite ; eall swā miċel swā, (quite) as much as.

eall-nīwe, aj. quite new.

eallunga, av. entirely.

ealu, sn. ale.

eard, sm. country, native land.

eardian, wv. dwell.

ēare, sn. ear.

earm, sm. arm.

earm, aj. poor, wretched, despicable.

earm-lic, aj. miserable.

earm-līce, av. miserably, wretchedly.

earn, sm. eagle.

eart, see wesan.

ēast, av. eastwards.

ēast-dǣl, sm. east part, the East.

Ēast-ęnġle, smpl. East-Anglians.

Ēast-seaxe, smpl. East-Saxons.

ēa�, aj. insignificant, weak.

ēa�75;dan, wv. humble [ēa�3;d].

ēa�33;d, aj. humble.

ēċe, aj. eternal.

ēċ-nes, sf. eternity.

efen, aj. even.

ġe·efen-lǣċan, wv. imitate.

efne, av. behold, lo! [efen].

ęfsian, wv. clip, shear.

eft, av. again; afterwards, then; back.

ęġe, sm. fear.

ęġesa, sm. fear [eġe].

ęġes-lic, aj. fearful, awful.

ēhtere, sm. persecutor.

ele, sm. oil.

ęl-�;odiġ-nes, sf. foreign land.

ęnde, sm. end.

ęndemes, av. together.

ġe·ęndian, wv. end; die.

ęndlufon, num. eleven.

ęndlyfta, aj. eleventh.

ġe·ęndung, sf. ending, end.

ęnġel, sm. angel [Latin angelus].

Ęnġla-land, sn. England [Ęnġla gen. pl. of Ęnġle].

Ęnġle, smpl. the English [Angel].

Ęnġlisc, aj. English—sn. English language [Ęnġle].

ēode, see gān.

eom, see wesan.

eorl, sm. earl.

eor�63;end, sm. earth-dweller.

eor�, sf. earth.

eor�, aj. firm in the earth.

eor�/b>, aj. earthly.

eornost, sf. earnest.

eornost-līce, av. in truth, indeed.

ēow, see �;.

etan, sv. 5, eat.

ē�>, sm. country, native land.


F壥r, sm. father.

f䤣289;en, aj. glad.

f䤣289;er, aj. fair.

f䤣289;er-nes, sf. fairness, beauty.

f䤣289;nian, wv. w. gen. rejoice.

fǣmne, sf. virgin.

fǣr, sf. danger.

fǣr-lic, aj. sudden.

fǣr-līce, av. suddenly.

f岴, aj. fast, firm.

f岴an, wv. fast.

f岴en, sf. fasting.

f岼/b>, sn. vessel.

fāg-nes, sf. variegation, various colours.

fandian, wv. w. gen. try, test, tempt [findan].

faran, sv. 2, go.

faru, sf. procession, retinue, pomp.

fēa, aj. pl. few.

ġe·fēa, sm. joy.

feallan, sv. 1, fall.

fearr, sm. bull; ox.

feax, sn. hair of head.


fēdan, wv. feed [fōda].

fela, aj. pl. w. gen. many.

feld, sm. field.

feoh, sn. money, property.

ġe·feoht, sn. fight.

feohtan, sv. 3, fight.

fēole, sf. file.

fēolian, wv. file.

fēoll, see feallan.

fēond, sm. enemy.

feorh, snm. life.

feorm, sf. (food); feast, banquet.

feorr, av. far.

fēor�, num. fourth.

fēower, num. four.

ġe·fēra, sm. companion [fōr].

fēran, wv. go, fare [fōr].

ġe·fēran, wv. (go over), take possession of.

fęrian, wv. carry [faran].

fēt, see fōt.

fętian, wv. fetch—pret. ġefętte.

ġe·fętte, see fętian.

fīend, see fēond.

fierd, sf. army [faran].

fierlen, aj. distant [feorr].

fierst, sm. period, time.

fīf, num. five.

findan, sv. 3 (pret. funde), find.

fisc, sm. fish.

fisc-cynn, sn. fish-kind.

flēam, sm. flight [flēon].

fleax, sn. flax.

flēogan, sv. 7, fly.

flēon, sv. 7, flee.

flēotan, sv. 7, float.

flītan, sv. 6, quarrel, dispute.

ġe·flīeman, wv. put to flight [flēam].

flōd, sm. flood.

flota, sm. fleet [flēotan].

flot-hęre, sm. naval army, army of pirates.

flot-mann, sm. sailor, pirate.

flōwan, sv. 1, flow.

flugon, see flēon.

flyht, sm. flight [flēogan].

fōda, sm. food.

folc, sn. people, nation.

folc-lic, aj. popular.

folgian, wv. w. dat. follow; obey.

fōn, sv. 1, seize, take, capture; fēng tō rīċe, came to the throne; tōg売e fēngon, joined together.

for, prep. w. dat. before—rīċe for worulde, in the eyes of the world; causal, for, because of, for the sake of—ne dorste for Gode, for the fear of God—for �;m, therefore, for �;em (�ecause; w. acc., instead of, for.

fōr, sf. journey [faran].

fōr, see faran.

for-·b屮an, wv. burn up, burn, trans.

for-·bēodan, sv. 7, forbid.

for-·brēotan, sv. 7, break.

for-·ċeorfan, sv. 3, cut off.

for-·dilgian, wv. destroy.

for-·dōn, sv. destroy.

for-·ealdod, aj. aged [past partic. of forealdian, grow old].

fore-sċēawian, wv. pre-ordain, decree, appoint.

fore-sęċġan, wv. say before—se fores䤣289;da, the aforesaid.

for-·ġiefan, sv. 5, w. dat. give, grant; forgive.

for-·ġief-nes, sf. forgiveness.

for-·ġīeman, wv. neglect.

for-·ġietan, sv. forget.

forht, aj. afraid.

forhtian, wv. be afraid.

for-·hwega, av. somewhere.

for-·lǣtan, sv. 1, leave, abandon.

for-·lēosan, sv. 7, lose.

for-·liġer, sn. wantonness, immorality.

forma, aj. first—superl. fyrmest, first.

for-·molsnian, wv. crumble, decay.

for-·scrincan, sv. 3, shrink up.

for-sēon, sv. 5, despise.

for-·slēan, sv. 2, cut through.

for-·standan, sv. 2, (stand before), protect.

for� av. forth, forwards, on.

for�275;ran, wv. depart, die.

for-·�n, wv. suffocate, choke.


for-·weor�>, sv. 3, perish.

fōt, sm. foot.

fr峷ian, wv. adorn.

fr峷ung, sf. ornament.

fram, prep. w. dat. from; agent. w. pass. hīe wǣron fram Wyrtġeorne ġela�invited by.

fręmman, wv. perform, do.

frēond, sm. friend.

fri� sm. peace—fri�n, make peace.

fugol, sm. bird.

fuhton, see feohtan.

fūl, aj. foul, impure.

full, aj. full.

full-·blī�, aj. very glad.

full-·cēne, aj. very brave.

ful-līce, av. fully.

full-·sō� aj. very true.

fultum, sm. help; forces, troops.

fultumian, wv. w. dat. help.

funde, see findan.

fur�>, av. further, more [for�>

fūs, aj. hastening.

fyllan, wv. fill, fulfil [full].

fȳr, sn. fire.

fyrmest, see forma.


Gadrian, wv. gather.

g屳, sn. grass.

gafeloc, sm. missile, spear.

gafol, sn. interest, profit.

gamen, sn. sport.

gān, sv. go.

ġe·gān, sv. gain, conquer.

gangende, see gān.

gāst, sm. spirit; se hālga gāst, the Holy Ghost.

gāst-lic, aj. spiritual.

ġe, cj. and—ġe ... ġe, both ... and.

ġē, see �;.

ġealga, sm. gallows.

ġēar, sn. year.

ġearcian, wv. prepare [ġearo].

ġeard, sm. yard, court.

ġearu, aj. ready.

ġearwian, wv. prepare.

ġeat, sn. gate.

ġēogu� sf. youth.

ġēomrung, sf. lamentation.

ġeond, prp. w. acc. through, throughout.

ġēong, aj. young.

ġeorn, aj. eager.

ġeorne, av. eagerly, earnestly.

ġiefan, sv. 5, give.

ġiefta, sfpl. marriage, wedding [ġiefan].

ġieft-hūs, sn. wedding-hall.

ġieft-lic, aj. wedding.

ġiefu, sf. gift; grace (of God) [ġiefan].

ġierla, sm. dress [ġearu].

ġiernan, wv. w. gen. yearn, desire; ask [ġeorn].

ġiet, av. yet; further, besides.

ġif, cj. if.

ġimm, sm. gem, jewel [Latin gemma].

ġimm-stān, sm. gem, jewel.

ġit, see �;.

ġītsian, wv. covet.

ġītsung, sf. covetousness, avarice.

gl墼/b>, aj. glad.

gl墭līce, av. gladly.

glēaw, aj. prudent, wise.

glęnġan, wv. adorn; trim (lamp).

god, sm. God.

god-f壥r, sm. godfather.

god-spell, sn. gospel.

godspel-lic, aj. evangelical.

gōd, aj. good—compar. bętera. superl. bętst.

gōd, sn. good thing, good.

gold, sn. gold.

gold-hord, sn. treasure.

grǣdiġ. aj. greedy.

grǣġ, aj. grey.

grētan, wv. greet, salute.

grindan, sv. 3, grind.

grīst-bītung, sf. gnashing of teeth.

grymetian, wv. grunt, roar.

gyldan, wv. gild [gold].

gylden, aj. golden [gold].


Habban, wv. have; take.


hād, sm. rank, condition.

ġe·hādod, aj. ordained, in orders, clerical [past partic. of hādian, ordain].

h奤e, h姾, see habban.

h奴an, wv. hold fast, hold [habban].

hǣlan, wv. heal [hāl].

hǣlend, sm. Saviour [pres. partic. of hǣlan].

hǣlo, sf. salvation [hāl].

hǣs, sf. command.

h岰e, sf. hasp.

hǣte, sf. heat [hāt].

hǣ� sf. heath.

hǣ�>, aj. heathen [hǣ�>

hāl, aj. whole, sound.

ġe·hāl, aj. whole, uninjured.

hālga, sm. saint.

hālġian, wv. hallow, consecrate.

hāliġ, aj. holy.

hāliġ-dōm, sm. holy object, relic.

hām, av. homewards, home.

hand, sf. hand.

hand-cweorn, sf. hand-mill.

hangian, wv. hang, intr. [hōn].

hāt, aj. hot.

hātan, sv. 1, command, ask—w. inf. in passive sense, hēton him sęċġan, bade them be told ; name—passive, hātte.

hatian, wv. hate.

hātte, see hātan.

, prn. he.

hēafod, sn. head.

hēafod-mann, sm. head-man, ruler, chief.

hēah, aj. high—superl. hīehst.

healdan, sv. 1, hold, keep; guard; preserve; observe, keep.

healf, aj. half.

healf, sf. side.

hēa-lic, aj. lofty [hēah].

heall, sf. hall.

heard, aj. hard ; strong; severe.

hębban, sv. 2, raise.

hęfel-�3;d, sm. web-thread, thread.

hęfe, sm. weight [hębban].

hęfiġ, aj. heavy [hęfe].

hęll, sf. hell.

ġe·hęnde, aj. w. dat. near [hand].

hēo, see .

heofon, sm. heaven—often in plur., heofona rīċe.

heofon-lic, aj. heavenly.

hēold, see healdan.

heord, sf. herd.

heorte, sf. heart.

hēr, av. here; hither—hēr·奴er, &c., hereafter.

hēr-be-·ēastan, av. east of this.

hęre, sm. army.

hęre-rēaf, sn. spoil.

hęre-toga, sm. army-leader, general, chief [toga from tēon].

hęrgian, wv. ravage, make war [hęre].

hęrgung, sf. (ravaging), warfare, war.

hęrian, wv. praise.

hēt, see hātan.

hider, av. hither.

hīe, see .

hīehst, see hēah.

hiera, see .

ġe·hīeran, wv. hear.

hierde, sm. shepherd [heord].

hierd-rǣden, sf. guardianship.

hiere, see .

ġe·hīer-sum, aj. w. dat. obedient [hīeran].

ġe·hīersum-nes, sf. obedience.

him, hine, see .

hīred, snm. family, household.

his, see .

hit, see .

hīw, sn. hue, form.

hlǣdder, sf. ladder.

hl岴, sm. load.

hlāf, sm. bread, loaf of bread.

hlāford, sm. lord.

hlīsa, sm. fame.

hlūd, aj. loud.

hlȳdan, wv. make a noise, shout [hlūd].

hnappian, wv. doze.

ġe·hoferod, aj. (past partic.), hump-backed.

holt, sn. wood.


hōn, sv. 1, hang [hangian].

horn, sm. horn.

hr墭līce, av. quickly.

hr壵ng, sf. hurry.

hra�, av. quickly—swā hra�#257;, as soon as.

hrēod, sn. reed.

hrēowan, sv. 7, rue, repent.

hrīeman, wv. cry, call.

hrī�>, sn. ox.

hrōf, sn. roof.

hryċġ, sm. back.

hryre, sm. fall [hrēosan].

, av. how.

hū-meta, av. how.

hund, sn. w. gen. hundred.

hund, sm. dog.

hund-feald, aj. hundredfold.

hund-·nigontiġ, num. ninety.

hund-·twęlftiġ, num. hundred and twenty.

hungor, sm. hunger; famine.

hungriġ, aj. hungry.

hūru, av. especially.

hūs, sn. house.

hux-līce, av. ignominiously.

hwā, prn. who.

ġe·hwā, prn. every one.

hwǣm, see hwā.

hwǣr, av. where—swā hwǣr swā, wherever.

ġe·hwǣr, av. everywhere.

hw屼/b>, hw岼/b>, see hwā.

hw岼/b>, interj. what! lo! well.

hwǣte, sm. wheat.

hw罥r, av. cj. whether—hw罥r �>to introduce a direct question.

hw署e, av. however.

hwanon, av. whence.

hwelċ, prn. which; any one, any—swā hwelċ swā, whoever.

ġe·hwelċ, prn. any, any one.

hwīl, sf. while, time.

hwone, see hwā.

hwonne, av. when.

hwȳ, av. why.

hȳdan, wv. hide.

hyht, sf. hope.

ġe·hyhtan, wv. hope.

hȳran, wv. hire.


, prn. I.

īdel, aj. idle; useless, vain—on īdel, in vain.

īeġ-land, sn. island.

ieldan, wv. delay [eald].

ieldra, see eald.

ieldran, smpl. ancestors [originally compar. of eald].

iernan, sv. 3, run; flow.

ierre, aj. angry.

īl, sm. hedgehog.

ilca, prn. same (always weak, and with the definite article).

in, prp. w. dat. and acc. in, into.

inc, see �;.

inn, av. in (of motion).

innan, prp. w. dat. (av.) within.

inne, av. within, inside.

inn-ġehyġd, sn. inner thoughts, mind.

in-tō, prp. w. dat. into.

Īotan, smpl. Jutes.

Īr-land, sn. Ireland.

Iūdēisc, aj. Jewish—�; Iūdēiscan, the Jews.


, interj. lo!—lā lēof! Sir!

lāc, sn. gift; offering, sacrifice.

ġe·lǣċan, wv. seize.

lǣdan, wv. lead; carry, bring, take.

l壥n, sn. Latin; language.

l䤣289;, see liċġan.

lǣran, wv. w. double acc. teach; advise, suggest [lār].

ġe·lǣred, aj. learned [past partic. of lǣran].

lǣs, av. less—�; lǣs (�i>cj. w. subj. lest.

lǣtan, sv. 1, let; leave—hēo lēt �; swā, she let the matter rest there.

ġe·lǣte, sn.—wega ġelǣtu, pl. meetings of the roads.

lāf, sf. remains—tō lāfe bēon, remain over, be left [(be)līfan].


ġe·lamp, see ġelimpan.

land, sn. land, country.

land-folc, sn. people of the country.

land-hęre, sm. land-army.

land-lēode, smpl. people of the country.

lang, aj. long.

lange, av. for a long time, long.

lang-līce, av. for a long time, long.

lār, sf. teaching, doctrine.

late, av. slowly, late—late on ġēare, late in the year.

ġe·la�b>, wv. invite.

ġe·la�b>, sf. congregation.

lēaf, sf. leave.

ġe·lēafa, sm. belief, faith.

ġe·lēaf-full, aj. believing, pious.

leahtor, sm. crime, vice.

lēas, aj. without (expers), in compos.—less; false.

lēat, see lūtan.

lęċġan, wv. lay [liċġan].

ġe·lęndan, wv. land [land].

lēo, smf. lion.

lēode, smpl. people.

lēof, aj. dear, beloved; pleasant—mē wǣre lēofre, I would rather—[lufu].

leofode, see libban.

leoht, sn. light.

leoht-f岼/b>, sn. (light-vessel), lamp.

leornian, wv. learn.

leornung-cniht, sm. disciple.

lēt, see lǣtan.

libban, wv. live.

līc, sn. body, corpse.

ġe·līc, aj. w. dat. like.

ġe·līce, av. in like manner, alike, equally.

liċġan, sv. 5, lie.

līc-hama, sm. body.

līcham-līce, av. bodily.

ġelīcian, wv. w. dat. please.

līefan, wv. w. dat. allow [lēaf].

ġe·līefan, wv. believe [gelēafa].

līf, sn. līfe.

lifiend, see libban.

lim, sn. limb, member.

ġe·limp, sn. event, emergency, calamity.

ġe·limpan, sv. 3, happen.

lī� see liċġan.

locc, sm. lock of hair.

lof, sn. praise; glory.

ġe·lōgian, place; occupy, furnish.

ġe·lōm, aj. frequent, repeated.

ġe·lōme, av. often, repeatedly.

losian, wv. w. dat. be lost—him losa�loses [(for)lēosan].

lūcan, sv. 7, close.

lufian, wv. love.

lufu, sf. love [lēof].

Lunden-burg, sf. London [Lundonia].

lūtan, sv. 7, stoop.

lȳtel, aj. little.


, see micel.

macian, wv. make.

m䤣289;, swv. can, be able.

m䤣289;en, sn. strength, capacity; virtue [m䤣289;].

mǣġ� sf. family; tribe, nation; generation.

ġe·mǣne, aj. common.

ġe·mǣnelic, aj. common, general.

mǣre, aj. famous, glorious, great (metaphorically).

ġe·mǣre, sn. boundary, territory.

mǣrsian, wv. extol, celebrate [mǣre].

mǣr�, sf. glory [mǣre].

m岳e, sf. mass [Latin missa].

m岳e-prēost, sm. mass-priest.

mǣst, see miċel.

magon, see m䤣289;.

man, indef. one [mann].

mān, sn. wickedness.

mān-dǣd, sf. wicked deed.

mān-full, aj. wicked.

mangere, sm. merchant.

mangung, sf. trade, business.

maniġ, aj. many.

manīġ-feald, aj. manifold.

maniġ-fieldan, wv. multiply [maniġfeald].

mann, sm. man; person.

mann-cynn, sn. mankind.


mann-rǣden, sf. allegiance.

mann-slaga, sm. manslayer, murderer [slēan, slęġe].

māre, see miċel.

martyr, sm. martyr.

mā�, sm. treasure.

mā�, sn. precious vessel.

, see ic.

mearc, sf. boundary.

mēd, sf. reward, pay.

mēder, see mōdor.

męnn, see mann.

męnnisc, aj. human [mann].

męre-grot, sr. pearl [margarita].

merġen, sm. morning [morgen].

ġe·met, sn. measure; manner, way.

metan, sv. 5, measure.

ġe·mētan, wv. meet; find [ġemōt].

męte, sm. food—pl. męttas.

miċel, aj. great, much—comp. māre, mā (adv., sn., aj.), sup. mǣst.

miċle, av. greatly, much.

mid, prp. w. dat. (instr.) with—mid �;m �>cj. when.

middan-ġeard, sm. world [literally middle enclosure].

midde, aj. mid, middle (only of time).

middel, sn. middle.

Middel-ęnġle, smpl. Middle-Angles.

Mierċe, smpl. Mercians [mearc].

miht, sf. might, strength; virtue [m䤣289;].

mihte, see m䤣289;.

mihtiġ, aj. mighty, strong.

mīl, sf. mile [Latin milia (passuum)].

mild-heort, aj. mild-hearted, merciful.

ġe·miltsian, wv. w. dat. have mercy on, pity [milde].

mīn, see ic.

mis-lǣdan, wv. mislead, lead astray.

mis-lic, aj. various.

mōd, sn. heart, mind.

mōdig, aj. proud.

mōdiġ-nes, sf. pride.

mōdor, sf. mother.

molde, sf. mould, earth.

mōna, sm. moon.

mōna� sm. month—pl. mōna�333;na].

morgen, sm. morning.

mor� sn. (murder), crime.

mōste, see mōtan.

ġe·mōt, sn. meeting.

mōtan, swv. may; ne mōt, must not.

ġe·munan, swv. remember.

munt, sm. mountain, hill [Latin montem].

munuc, sm. monk [Latin monachus].

murcnian, wv. grumble, complain.

mū� sm. mouth.

mū�, sm. mouth of a river [mū�>

ġe·mynd, sf. memory, mind [ġemunan].

ġe·myndiġ, aj. w. gen. mindful.

mynet, sf. coin [Latin moneta].

mynetere, sm. money-changer.

mynster, sn. monastery [Latin monasterium].


, av. not, no [ = ne ā].

nabban = ne habban.

nǣddre, sf. snake.

n奤e, n女t, = ne h奤e, ne h女t.

nǣfre, av. never [ = ne ǣfre].

n䤣289;el, sm. nail.

n屼/b> = ne w屮

nāht, prn. w. gen. naught, nothing [ = nān wiht].

nāht-nes, sf. worthlessness, cowardice.

nam, see niman.

nama, sm. name.

nāmon, see niman.

nān, prn. none, no [ = ne ān].

nāt = ne wāt.

nāw�>, prn. neither [ = ne āhw罥r (either)].

ne, av. not—ne ... ne, neither ... not.


nēah, av. near; superl. nīehst—岠nīehstan, next, immediately, afterwards.

nearu, aj. narrow.

nēa-wist, sfm. neighbourhood [wesan].

nęmnan, wv. name [nama].

neom = ne eom.

nese, av. no.

nętt, sn. net.

nīed, sf. need.

nīedunga, av. needs, by necessity.

nīehst, see nēah.

nīeten, sn. animal.

nigon, num. nine.

nigo�, aj. ninth.

niht, sf. night.

niman, sv. 4, take, capture; take in marriage, marry.

nis = ne is.

ni�>, av. down.

nīwe, aj. new.

ġe·nōg, aj. enough.

nolde = ne wolde.

nor� av. north.

Nor�a-land, sn. Northumberland.

Nor�re, smpl. Northumbrians [Humbra].

nor�ard, aj. northward.

Nor�81;nn, pl. Norwegians.

, av. now, just now; cj. causal, now that, since.

nū·ġiet, av. still.

ġe·nyht-sum-nes, sf. sufficience, abundance.

nyle, = ne wile.

nyste, nyton = ne wiste, ne witon.


Of, prp. w. dat. of, from of place, origin, privation, release, &c.; partitive, sęlla�3;s of ēowrum ele, some of your oil.

of-·drǣdd, aj. afraid [past partic. of ofdrǣdan, dread].

ofer, prp. w. dat. and acc. over; on; of time, during, throughout, over.

ofer-gyld, aj. (past partic.), gilded over, covered with gold.

ofer-·hęrgian, wv. ravage, over-run.

ofer-·sāwan, sv. 2, sow over.

offrian, wv. offer, sacrifice [Latin offerre].

offrung, sf. offering, sacrifice.

of-·slēan, sv. 2, slay.

of-·snī�>, sv. 6, kill [snī�ut].

of-spring, sm. offspring [springan].

oft, av. often.

of-·tēon, sv. 7, w. dat. of pers. and gen. of thing, deprive.

of-·�/b>, aj. thirsty [past partic. of of�n, from �.

of-·wundrian, wv. w. gen. wonder.

ō-lǣċung, sf. flattery.

olfend, sm. camel [Latin elephas].

on, prp. w. dat. and acc. on; in; hostility, against, on hīe fuhton; of time, in.

on-·byrġan, wv. taste.

on-·cnāwan, sv. 1, know, recognize.

on·drǣdan, sv. 1, wv. dread, fear.

on-·fōn, sv. 1, receive.

on-·ġēan, prp. w. dat. and acc. towards; hostility, against.

on-·ġēan, av. back—ġewęnde on-ġēan, returned.

on-ġinn, sn. beginning.

on-·ġinnan, sv. 3, begin.

on-·liehtan, wv. illuminate, enlighten [leoht].

on·liehtung, sf. illumination, light.

on-·lūcan, sv. 7, unlock.

on-·middan, prp. w. dat. in the midst of.

on-sīen, sf. appearance, form.

on-sund, aj. sound, whole.

on-·uppan, prp. w. dat. upon.

on-weald, sm. rule, authority, power; territory.

on-·weġ, av. away.

open, aj. open.

openian, wv. open, reveal, disclose.

orgel-līce, av. proudly.


or-mǣte, aj. immense, boundless [metan].

or-sorg, aj. unconcerned, careless.

o� prp. w. acc. until—o� cj. until; up to, as far as.

ō�>, prn. (always strong), second; other.

o�>, cj. or—o�. o�ither ... or.

oxa, sm. ox.


Pāpa, sm. pope [Latin papa].

pęning, sm. penny.

Peohtas, smpl. Picts.

Philistēisc, aj. Philistine.

Pihtisc, aj. Pictish [Peohtas].

plegian, wv. play.

post, sm. post [Latin postis].

prēost, sm. priest [Latin presbyter].

pund, sn. pound [Latin pondus].

pytt, sm. pit [Latin puteus].


Racentēag, sf. chains.

rād, see rīdan.

ġe·rād, sn. reckoning, account; on �; ġerād �n condition that.

rǣd, sm. advice; what is advisable, plan of action—him rǣd �;hte, it seemed advisable to him.

ramm, sm. ram.

rāp, sm. rope.

rēaf, sn. robe, dress.

reahte, see reċċan.

rēċan, wv. w. gen. reck, care.

ręċċan, wv. tell, narrate.

ġe·ręċednes, sf. narrative.

ġe·rēfa, sm. officer, reeve, bailiff.

reġen, sm. rain.

rē�, aj. fierce, cruel.

rīċe, aj. powerful, of high rank.

rīċe, sn. kingdom, sovereignty, government.

rīċetere, sn. (ambition), pomp.

rīċsian, wv. rule.

rīdan, sv. 6, ride.

riftere, sm. reaper.

riht, aj. right; righteous.

riht-līce, av. rightly, correctly.

riht-wīs, aj. righteous.

riht-wīsnes, sf. righteousness.

rīm, sm. number.

rīman, wv. count.

rīnan, wv. rain [reġen].

rīpan, sv. 6, reap.

rīpere, sm. reaper.

rīp-tīma, sm. reaping-time, harvest.

rōhte, see rēċan.

Rōme-burg, sf. city of Rome.

rōwan, sv. 1, row.

ryne, sm. course.

ġe·rȳne, sn. mystery.


, sf. sea—dat. sǣ.

sǣd, sn. seed.

s䤣289;de, see sęċġan.

sǣl, sm. time, occasion.

ġe·sǣliġ, aj. happy, blessed.

ġe·sǣliġ-līce, av. happily, blessedly.

s岼/b>, sǣton, see sittan.

sagol, sm. rod, staff.

ġe·samnian, wv. collect, assemble.

samod, av. together, with.

sanct, sm. saint [Latin sanctus].

sand, sf. dish of food [sęndan].

sand-ċeosol, sm. sand (literally sand-gravel).

sār, sn. grief.

sār, aj. grievous.

sāriġ, aj. sorry, sad.

sāwan, sv. 1, sow.

sāwere, sm. sower.

sāwol, sf. soul.

scamu, sf. shame.

scand, sf. disgrace.

scand-lic, aj. shameful.

sċēaf, sm. sheaf [scūfan].

sċēaf-mǣlum, av. sheafwise.

ġe·sċeaft, sf. creature, created thing. sċeal, swv. ought to, must; shall.

sċēap, sn. sheep.

sċeatt, sm. (tribute); money.

sċēawere, sm. spy, witness.

sċēawian, wv. see; examine; read.

sċēawung, sf. seeing, examination.

sċēotan, sv. 7, shoot.


sċieppan, sv. 2, create.

sċieran, sv. 4, shear.

sċip, sn. ship.

sċip-hęre, sm. fleet.

sċip-hl岴, sm. (shipload), crew.

sċīr, sf. shire.

scolde, see sceal.

scōp, see sċieppan.

scort, aj. short.

scotian, wv. shoot [sċēotan].

Scot-land, sn. Ireland.

Scottas, smpl. the Irish.

scotung, sf. shot.

scr夼/b>, sn. cave.

scrīn, sn. shrine [Latin scrinium].

scrincan, sv. 3, shrink.

scrūd, sn. dress.

scrȳdan, wv. clothe [scrūd].

scūfan, sv. 7, push—scūfan ūt, launch (ship).

sculon, see sċeal.

scuton, see sċēotan.

scyld, sf. guilt [sculon, sceal].

scyldig, aj. guilty.

scylen, see sceal.

Scyttisc, aj. Scotch [Scottas].

se, , prn. that; the; he; who.

ġeseah, see ġesēon.

sealde, see sęllan.

sēa� sm. pit.

Seaxe, smpl. Saxons.

sēċan, wv. seek; visit, come to; attack.

sęċġan, wv. say.

self, prn. self.

sęllan, wv. give; sell.

sēlest, av. superl. best.

sęndan, wv. send, send message [sand].

sēo, see se.

seofon, num. seven.

seofo�, aj. seventh.

seolc, sf. silk.

seolcen, aj. silken.

seolfor, sn. silver.

ġe·sēon, sv. 5, see.

sēow, see sāwan.

ġe·sętnes, sf. narrative [sęttan].

sęttan, wv. set; appoint, institute—dōm sęttan w. dat. pass sentence on; compose, write; create [sittan].

sibb, sf. peace.

ġe·sibb-sum, aj. peaceful.

sīe, see wesan.

sīefer-līce, av. purely.

sīefre, aj. pure.

sierwung, sf. stratagem.

siex, num. six.

siexta, aj. sixth.

siextiġ, num. sixty.

siextiġ-feald, aj. sixtyfold.

siġe, sm. victory—siġe niman, gain the victory.

siġe-f岴, aj. victorious.

ġe·sih� sf. sight; vision, dream [ġesēon].

sifren, aj. silver.

simle, av. always.

sind, see wesan.

sinu, sf, sinew.

sittan, sv. 5, sit; settle, stay.

ġe·sittan, sv. 5, take possession of.

sī� sm. journey.

sī�b>, wv. journey, go.

si�b>, av. since, afterwards; cj. when.

slǣp, sm. sleep.

slǣpan, sv. 1, sleep,

slaga, sm. slayer. [slēan, past. partic. ġesl䤣289;en].

slāw, aj. slow, slothful, dull.

slēan, sv. 2, strike; slay, kill.

slęċġ, sm. hammer [slaga, slēan].

slęġe, sm. killing [slaga, slēan].

slēp, see slǣpan.

slōg, see slēan.

sm媼/b>, aj. narrow.

smēan, wv. consider, think; consult.

smēocan, sv. 7, smoke.

smē�, aj. smooth.

snotor, aj. wise, prudent.

sōna, av. soon; then.

sorg, sf. sorrow.

sō� aj. true.

sō� sn. truth.

sō�99;ce, av. truly, indeed.

spade, wf. spade [Latin spatha].


sprǣċ, sf. speech, language; conversation [sprecan].

sprecan, sv. 5, speak.

spręnġan, wv. (scatter); sow [springan].

springan, sv. 3, spring.

sprungen, see springan.

stǣnen, aj. of stone [stān].

stǣniht, sn. stony ground [originally adj. 'stony,' from stān].

stān, sm. stone; brick.

standan, sv. 2, stand.

stēap, aj. steep.

stęde, sm. place.

stefn, sf. voice.

stelan, sv. 4, steal.

stęnt, see standan.

stēor, sf. steering, rudder.

steorra, sm. star.

sticol, aj. rough.

stīepel, sm. steeple [stēap].

stīeran, wv. w. dat. restrain [stēor].

ġe·stillan, wv. stop, prevent.

stille, aj. still, quiet.

stōd, see standan.

stōl, sm. seat.

stōw, sf. place.

strǣt, sf. street, road [Latin strata via].

strand, sm. shore.

strang, aj. strong.

strēdan, wv. (scatter), sow.

stręnġ�, sf. strength [strang].

ġe·strēon, sn. possession.

ġe·strīenan, wv. gain [ġestrēon].

strūtian, wv. strut.

styċċe, sn. piece.

sum, prn. some, a certain (one), one; a.

ġe·sund, aj. sound, healthy.

ġe·sund-full. aj. safe and sound.

sundor, av. apart.

sunne, sf. sun.

sunu, sm. son.

sū� av. south, southwards.

sū�>, av. from the south.

sū�ard, aj. southward.

sū�83;l, sm. the South.

sū�/b>, aj. southern.

Sū�e, smpl. South-Saxons.

swā, av. so; swā, swā, as, like—swā ... swā, so ... as.

swāc, see swīcan.

swā-·�;ah, av. however.

swefn, sn. sleep; dream.

swelċ, prn. such.

swelċe, av. as if, as it were, as, like.

sweltan, sv. 3, die.

swęnċan, wv. afflict, molest [swincan].

swęnġ, sm. stroke, blow [swingan].

swēor, sm. pillar.

swēora, sm. neck.

sweord, sn. sword.

sweord-bora, sm. sword-bearer [beran].

sweotol, aj. clear, evident.

sweotolian, wv. display, show, indicate.

sweotolung, sf. manifestation, sign.

swęrian, sv. 2, swear.

swīc, sm. deceit.

ġe·swīcan, sv. 6 (fail, fall short); cease (betray).

swīc-dōm, sm. deceit [swīcan].

swicol, aj. deceitful, treacherous.

swicon, see swīcan.

swift, aj. swift.

swīgian, wv. be silent.

swincan, sv. 3, labour, toil.

swingan, sv. 3, beat.

swingle, sf. stroke [swingan].

swipe, sm. whip.

swī�, av. very, much, greatly, violently—cp. swī�ather, more.

swī�/b>, aj. excessive, great.

swī�>, sf. right hand [cp. of swī�with hand understood].

swulton, see sweltan.

swuncon, see swincan.

swungon, see swingan.

syndriġ, aj. separate [sundor].

syn-full, aj. sinful.

syngian, wv. sin.

synn, sf. sin.



Tācen, sn. sign, token; miracle.

tācnian, wv. signify.

ġe·tācnung, sf. signification, type.

tǣċan, wv. w. dat. show; teach.

talu, sf. number [getel].

tam, aj. tame.

tāwian, wv. ill-treat.

tēam, sm. progeny [tēon].

ġe·tel, sn. number.

tęllan, wv. count, account—tęllan tō nāhte, count as naught [talu].

Tęmes, sf. Thames [Tamisia].

tempel, sn. temple [Latin templum].

tēon, sv. 7, pull, drag.

tēona, sm. injury, insult.

tēon-rǣden, sf. humiliation.

tē� see tō�

tiċċen, sn. kid.

tīd, sf. time; hour.

tīeġan, wv. tie.

tīeman, wv. teem, bring forth [tēam].

tīen, num. ten.

tierwe, sf. tar.

tiġele, wf. tile [Latin tegula].

tīma, sm. time.

timbrian, wv. build.

ġe·timbrung, sf. building.

tintreġ, sn. torture.

tintregian, wv. torture.

, prp. w. dat. (av.) to—tō abbode ġesętt, made abbot; time, at—tō langum fierste, for a long time; adverbial, tō scande, ignominiously; fitness, purpose, for—�;m folce (dat.) tō dēa� the death of the people, so that the people were killed; tō �;m �j. in order that—tō �wī�. �o (greatly) ... that.

, av. too.

tō-·berstan, sv. 3, burst, break asunder.

tō-·brecan, sv. 4, break in pieces, break through.

tō-·breġdan, sv. 3, tear asunder.

tō-·cwīesan, wv. crush, bruise.

tō-cyme, sm. coming [cuman].

tō-·d䤣289;, av. to-day.

tō-·dǣlan, wv. disperse; separate, divide.

tō-·g売e, av. together.

tō-·ġēanes, prp. w. dat. towards—him tōġēanes, to meet him.

tōl, sn. tool.

tō-·līesan, wv. loosen [lēas].

tō-·middes, prp. w. dat. in the midst of.

tō-·teran, sv. 4, tear to pieces.

tō� sm. tooth.

tō-weard, aj. future.

tō-·weorpan, sv. 3, overthrow, destroy.

trēow, sn. tree.

ġe·trēowe, aj. true, faithful.

trum, aj. strong.

trymman, wv. strengthen [trum].

trymmung, sf. strengthening, encouragement.

tūcian, wv. ill-treat.

tugon, see tēon.

tūn, sm. village, town.

twā, twǣm, see twēġen.

twēġen, num. two.

twęlf, num. twelve.

twęntiġ, num. w. gen. twenty.


ܦ#257;, av. cj. then; when—�; �;, when, while—correlative �; ... �;, when ... (then).

�;, �;m, &c., see se.

�;r, av. there—�;rtō, &c. thereto, to it; where—�;r �;r, correl. where.

�;re, see se.

�;r-rihte, av. immediately.

�>, av. therefore; wherefore.

�>, �>, see se.

�>, cj. that.

ġe·�, wv. allow, permit.

�;-·ġiet, av. still, yet.

�b>, sm. thought; thanks.

�n, wv. w. gen. of thing and dat. of person, thank.


�/b>, av. thence, away.

�;s, see �>.

�, rel. prn. who—sē �o; av. when.

�;, see �;.

�;ah, av. cj. though, yet, however—�;ah �though.

�/b>, swv. need.

, av. very, greatly.

�;aw, sm. custom, habit; �;awas, virtues, morality.

�9;en, sm. thane; servant.

�9;nian, wv. w. dat. serve.

�9;nung, sf. service, retinue.

�;nċan, wv. think, expect [�

�;od, sf. people, nation.

ġe·�;ode, sn. language.

�;of, sm. thief.

�;os, see �>.

�;ostru, spl. darkness.

�;ow, sm. servant.

�;ow-dōm, sm. service.

�;owian, wv. w. dat. serve.

�;owot, sn. servitude.

�>, prn. this.

�7;ċe, aj. thick.

�7;ġan, sv. 5, take, receive; eat, drink.

�;n, see �;.

�b>, sn. thing.

�>, , &c., see �>.

ġe·pōht, sm. thought.

�;hte, see �;nċan.

�b>, see se.

�/b>, av. cj. then; when; because.

�/b>, av. than.

, see �/b>.

�b>, sm. thorn.

�3;d, sm. thread.

�5;o, see �9;e.

, aj. third.

�9;e, num. three.

�b>, see �9;e.

�#289;, num. thirty.

�#289;-feald, aj. thirtyfold.

�/b>, sm. glory.

�;, prn. thou.

�;hte, see �67;an.

ġe·�, aj. excellent, distinguished.

�b>, prp. w. acc. through; causal, through, by.

�wunian, wv. continue.

�/b>, sm. thirst.

�ġ, aj. thirsty.

�>, av. thus.

�;send, sn. thousand.

ġe·�3;r-lǣċan, wv. agree.

�;, instr. of se; av. because.

�;fel, sm. bush.

�;·lǣs, cj. lest.

�67;an, wv. impers. w. dat. mē �67;�hinks [�;nċan].

�;rel, sn. hole [�


Ufe-weard, aj. upward, at the top of.

un-ārīmed-lic, aj. innumerable.

unc, see ic.

un-ġecynd, aj. strange, of alien family.

un-dēad-lic-nes, sf. immortality.

under, prp. w. dat. and acc. under.

under-cyning, sm. under-king.

under-·delfan, sv. dig under.

under-·fōn, sv. 1, receive, take.

under-·ġietan, sv. 5, understand.

undern-tīd, sf. morning-time.

un-forht, aj. dauntless.

un-for-molsnod, aj. (past partic.) undecayed.

un-ġehīersum, aj. w. dat. disobedient.

un-hold, aj. hostile.

un-ġemetlic, aj. immense.

un-mihtiġ, aj. weak.

un-nytt, aj. useless.

un-rihtlīce, av. wrongly.

un-rihtwīs, aj. unrighteous.

un-ġerīm, sn. countless number or quantity.

un-ġerīm, aj. countless.

un-ġesǣliġ, aj. unhappy, accursed.

un-scyldiġ, aj. innocent.

un-tīemend, aj. barren [from pres. partic. of tīeman].


un-ġe�3;r-nes, sf. discord.

un-ġewittiġ, aj. foolish.

ūp, av. up.

ūp-āhafen-nes, sf. conceit, arrogance.

ūp-flōr, sf. (dat. sing. -a) upper floor, upper story.

uppan, prp. w. dat. on, upon.

urnon, see iernan.

ūs, see ic.

ūt, av. out.

ūtan, av. outside.

uton, defect. verb, w. infin. let us—uton gān, let us go!


Wacian, wv. be awake, watch.

wǣdla, sm. poor man.

w媼/b>, sn. slaughter—w媠ġe·slēan, make a slaughter.

w媭hrēow, aj. cruel.

w嫨rēow-līce, av. cruelly, savagely.

w嫨rēownes, sf. cruelty.

wǣpen, sn. weapon.

w尼/b>, aj. wary.

wǣron, w屼/b>, see wesan.

w岴m, sm. (growth); fruit.

w峥r, sn. water.

w峥r-sċipe, sm. piece of water, water.

wāfung, sf. (spectacle), display.

-ware, pl. (only in composition) dwellers, inhabitants [originally defenders, cp. węrian].

wāt, see witan.

ġewāt, see ġewītan.

, see ic.

ġe·weald, sn. power, command.

wealdan, sv. 1, w. gen. rule.

Wealh, sm. (pl. Wēalas), sm. Welshman, Briton (originally foreigner).

weall, sm. wall.

weall-līm, sm. (wall-lime), cement, mortar.

wearg, sm. felon, criminal [originally wolf, then proscribed man, outlaw].

weaxan, sv. 1, grow, increase.

weġ, sm. way, road.

weġ-fērende, aj. (pres. partic.) way-faring.

wel, av. well.

wel-willend-nes, sf. benevolence.

wēnan, wv. expect, think.

ġe·węndan, wv. turn; go [windan].

węnian, wv. accustom, wean [ġewuna].

weofod, sn. altar.

weorc, sn. work.

weorpan, sv. 3, throw.

weor� sn. worth.

weor� aj. worth, worthy.

weor�>, sv. 3, happen; become—w. 岠sprǣċe, enter into conversation.

ġe·weor�>, sv. 3, impers. w. dat.—him ġewear�y agreed on.

weor�, aj. worthy.

weor�b>, wv. honour, worship; make honoured, exalt.

weor�99;ce, aj. honourably.

weor�, sf. honour.

wēox, see weaxan.

wēpan, sv. 1, weep.

wer, sm. man.

węrian, wv. defend [w屝.

werod, sn. troop, army.

wesan, sv. be.

west, av. west.

West-seaxe, smpl. West-saxons.

wēste, aj. waste, desolate.

wīd, aj. wide.

wīde, av. widely, far and wide.

widewe, sf. widow.

ġe·wieldan, wv. overpower, conquer [wealdan].

wier�, aj. w. gen. worthy [weor�>

wīf, sn. woman; wife.

wīf-healf, sf. female side.

wīf-mann, sm. woman.

wiht, sf. wight, creature, thing.

Wiht, sf. Isle of Wight [Vectis].

Wiht-ware, pl. Wight-dwellers.

wilde, aj. wild.

wildēor, sn. wild beast.

willa, sm. will.


willan, swv. will, wish; of repetition, be used to.

ġe·wilnian, wv. w. gen. desire.

wīn, sn. wine.

wind, sm. wind.

windan, sv. 3, wind.

wīn-ġeard, sm. vineyard.

winnan, sv. 3, fight.

ġe·winnan, sv. 3, win, gain.

winter, (pl. winter), sm. winter; in reckoning = year.

winter-setl, sn. winter-quarters.

wīs, aj. wise.

wīs-dōm, sm. wisdom.

wīse, sf. (wise), way.

ġe·wiss, aj. certain.

ġe·wissian, wv. guide, direct.

ġe·wissung, sf. guidance, direction.

wiste, see witan.

wit, see ic.

wita, sm. councillor, sage.

witan, swv. know.

ġe·wītan, sv. 6, depart.

wīte, sn. punishment; torment.

wītega, sm. prophet.

witod-līce, av. truly, indeed, and [witan].

ġe·witt, sn. wits, intelligence, understanding [witan].

wi� prp. w. dat. and acc. towards; along—wi�289;, by the road; hostility, against—fuhton wi�tas, fought with the Britons; association, sharing, &c., with; defence, against; exchange, price, for—wi�83;m � consideration of, provided that.

wi�en-nes, sf. comparison.

wi�an, sv. 2, w. dat. deny.

wi�ndan, sv. 2, w. dat. withstand, resist.

wlite, sm. beauty.

wōd, aj. mad.

wōd-līce, av. madly.

wolde, see willan.

wōp, sm. weeping [wēpan].

word, sn. word, sentence; subject of talk, question, answer, report.

ġeworden, see weor�>.

worhte, see wyrċan.

woruld, sf. world.

woruld-�b>, sn. worldly thing.

wrecan, sv. 5, avenge.

wrēġan, wv. accuse.

ġe·writ, sn. writing [wrītan].

wrītan, sv. 6, write.

wudu, sm. wood.

wuldor, sn. glory.

wuldrian, wv. glorify, extol.

wulf, sm. wolf.

ġe·wuna, sm. habit, custom [wunian].

wund, sf. wound.

wundor, sn. wonder; miracle.

wundor-lic, aj. wonderful, wondrous.

wundor-līce, av. wonderfully, wondrously.

wundrian, wv. w. gen. wonder.

ġe·wunelic, aj. customary.

wunian, wv. dwell, stay, continue [ġewuna].

wunung, sf. dwelling.

ġewunnen, see ġewinnan.

wyrċan, wv. work, make; build; do, perform [weorc].

wyrhta, sm. worker.

wyrt, sf. herb, spice; crop.

wyrt-brǣ� sm. spice-fragrance, fragrant spice.

wyrtruma, sm. root.

wȳsċan, wv. wish.


Yfel, aj. evil, bad.

yfel, sn. evil.

ymbe, prp. w. acc. around; of time, about, at.

ymb-·scrȳdan, wv. clothe, array.

ymb-·ūtan, av. round about.

ȳterra, aj. comp. outer; superl. ȳtemest, outermost, last [ūt].



[1] Where no key-word is given for a long vowel, it must be pronounced exactly like the corresponding short one, only lengthened.

[2] Both vowels.

[3] Wherever the acc. is not given separately, it is the same as the nom.

[4] So also nāh = ne (not) āh.




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