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Beowulf Sailing to Daneland

Beowulf in Anglo-Saxon Text

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beowulf, by Unknown

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Title: Beowulf

Author: Unknown

Editor: James A. Harrison
        Robert Sharp

Posting Date: November 22, 2011 [EBook #9701]
Release Date: January, 2006
First Posted: October 12, 2003

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

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Produced by Karl Hagen and PG Distributed Proofreaders





Contents

Preface to the Project Gutenberg Edition of Beowulf

This text is a revised and corrected version of the fourth edition of Harrison and Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The base version (available in 8-bit (Latin-1) text and HTML) presents the original text as printed. It preserves the source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented vowels with the exception of y-circumflex (ŷ), which is replaced by y-acute (�fit within the Latin-1 character set. Manifestly unintentional errors in the text have been corrected. In general, this has only been done when the text is internally inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary does not match the main text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial choice have not been altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example, some of the markings of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly consensus.) Where an uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition, available in Unicode (UTF-8) and HTML. The file you are reading is this revised version. Notes from the source text that indicate changes adopted in later editions have been incorporated directly into the text and apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated with macrons, as is the common practice of most modern editions. Finally, the quantity of some words has been altered to the values currently accepted as correct. Quantities have not been changed when the difference is a matter of editorial interpretation (e.g., g岴 vs. gǣst in l. 102, etc.) A list of these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of corrections. Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use this file. To tell if your browser supports the necessary characters, check the table of vowel equivalents below. If you see any empty boxes or question marks in the "revised" columns, you should use the basic version.

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character '䥠represents the long vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (⧮ The long diphthongs (ēo, ēa, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the second vowel (e񪟥� etc.).

Vowel Equivalents in Different Versions:

Orig. Revised Orig. Revised
⺯TD> 亯TD> Ҽ/TD> Ō
¼/TD> ļ/TD> �> ū
亯TD> ǣ ټ/TD> Ū
ļ/TD> Ǣ
ຯTD> ā ۼ/TD>
Ā e�TD> ēa
躯TD> ē E�TD> Ēa
ȼ/TD> Ē e񺮔D> ēo
캯TD> ī E񺮔D> Ēo
̼/TD> Ī i纯TD> īe
򺮔D> ō i񺮔D> īo

I. BĒOWULF:

AN ANGLO-SAXON POEM.

II. THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURH:

A FRAGMENT.

WITH TEXT AND GLOSSARY ON THE

BASIS OF M. HEYNE.

EDITED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED, BY

JAMES A. HARRISON, LL.D., LITT. D.,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH AND MODERN LANGUAGES,

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY,

AND

ROBERT SHARP (PH.D. LIPS.),

PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND ENGLISH,

TULANE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA.

FOURTH EDITION. REVISED, WITH NOTES.

GINN & COMPANY

BOSTON—NEW YORK—CHICAGO—LONDON


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by

JAMES ALBERT HARRISON AND ROBERT SHARP

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


DEDICATED

TO

PROFESSOR F. A. MARCH,

OF LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, PA.,

AND

FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, ESQ.

FOUNDER OF THE "NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY,"

THE "CHAUCER SOCIETY," ETC., ETC.


PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

The favor with which the successive editions of "Bēowulf" have been received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings, with here and there grammatical, geographical, and arch宬ogical points that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition of "Bēowulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be presented.

October, 1893.

NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

This third edition of the American issue of Bēowulf will, the editors hope, be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions. Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of Bēowulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive essay on that subject (Beitr㦥, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's Bēowulf (called the fifth edition) has been utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. W�s new edition (in the Grein Bibliothek) is of the highest value, however one may dissent from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.' Paul and Braune's Beitr㦥 contain a varied miscellany of hints, corrections, and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge, Cosijn, Sievers, and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found in the appendices to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and Zupitza, Sarrazin and Hermann M�r (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d. Alterthum, X.), Gering (Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien, IX.), and the contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the textual and metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge (Beitr㦥, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (mē, wē, �;, �;, gē, hē); the adverb , etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms. has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of Bēowulf literature will be found in W�s Grundriss and in Garnett's translation of the poem.

JAMES A. HARRISON,

ROBERT SHARP.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., May, 1888.

NOTE TO THE SECOND REVISED EDITION.

The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition of Bēowulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had, notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,—errors in single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made, and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern single letters, or occupy very small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer, and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book. Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder, W� and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt passages.

The objectionable ⟡nd 䪠for the short and the long diphthong, have been retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided in the correction of the text,—particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott, Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.

NOTE I.

The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn, 1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal text. The need of an American edition of "Bēowulf" has long been felt, as, hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867 and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the same text.

So many important contributions to the "Bēowulf" literature were, however, made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique "Bēowulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as made by E. K�ng in Herrig's Archiv (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed wherever the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the researches of Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use of. The discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in the second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old English Metrik is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until W�s text and the photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each "fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., June, 1882.

NOTE II.

The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete text and a tolerably complete glossary of "Bēowulf." The edition is the first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the co�ation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation). Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation, correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many places,—"Bēowulf" is a most difficult poem,—but their view may at least be defended by a reference to the original text, which they have faithfully and constantly consulted.

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

JAMES A. HARRISON, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

ROBERT SHARP, University of Louisiana, New Orleans.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the Text, and for the Glossary from hrīnan on; S. for the List of Names, and for the Glossary as far as hrīnan.


ARGUMENT.

The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is Bēowulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:—The poem opens with a few verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf. His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hro�. Hro�, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hro� and his retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of Hro�'s men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go on for twelve years. Bēowulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths, hearing of Hro�'s calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen warriors—to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an animated parley with Hro�'s coastguard, who at first takes them for pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well received by Hro�. A banquet ensues, during which Bēowulf is taunted by the envious Hunferh�out his swimming-match with Breca, King of the Brondings. Bēowulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences Hunferh�t night-fall the King departs, leaving Bēowulf in charge of the hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of Bēowulf's companions; is attacked by Bēowulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn off by Bēowulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hro� and the Danes, and their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and Bēowulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's mother revenges her son by carrying off AEschere, the friend and councillor of Hro�, during the absence of Bēowulf. Hro� appeals to Bēowulf for vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in it, are described. Bēowulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the heads to Hro�. He then takes leave of Hro�, sails back to Sweden, and relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends. The second begins with the accession of Bēowulf to the throne, after the fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the country, and destroys Bēowulf's palace with fire. Bēowulf sets out in quest of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits. He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against Bēowulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under Bēowulf's shield of iron. Bēowulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and Bēowulf cuts it in two with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to Bēowulf, and receives his last commands. Bēowulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of Bēowulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.—H. Sweet, in Warton's History of English Poetry, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf. also Ten Brink's History of English Literature.

BĒOWULF.

I. THE PASSING OF SCYLD.

†
Hw岡 wē Gār-Dena      in geār-dagum
�;od-cyninga      � gefrūnon,
hū �; 篥lingas      ellen fremedon.
†
Oft Scyld Scēfing      scea� �5;atum,
5
monegum mǣg�nbsp;     meodo-setla oftēah.
†
Egsode eorl,      sy񯠮 ǣrest wear�IV>
fēa-sceaft funden:      hē �ōfre gebād,
wēox under wolcnum,      weor�ndum �57;h,
o�t him ǣghwylc      �;ra ymb-sittendra
10
ofer hron-rāde      hȳran scolde,
gomban gyldan:      �s gōd cyning!
�;m eafera w屦nbsp;     奴er cenned
geong in geardum,      �od sende
folce tō frōfre;      fyren-� ongeat,
†15
�#299;e ǣr drugon      aldor-ase
lange hwīle.      Him �#299;f-frēa,
wuldres wealdend,      worold-āre forgeaf;
†
Bēowulf w屠 brēme      (blǣd wīde sprang),
†
Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20
Swā sceal geong guma,      gōde gewyrcean,
†
fromum feoh-giftum      on f壥r wine,
†
�ne on ylde      eft gewunigen
wil-gesī�      �wīg cume,
lēode gelǣsten:      lof-dǣdum sceal
25
in mǣg�ehwǣre      man ge�;on.
†
Him �; Scyld gewāt      tō gesc宭hwīle
fela-hrōr fēran      on frēan wǣre;
hī hyne �; 峢ǣron      tō brimes faro�/DIV>
swǣse gesī�      swā hē selfa b墬
30
� wordum wēold      wine Scyldinga,
†
lēof land-fruma      lange āhte.
†
ܦ#483;r 岠hȳ� stōd      hringed-stefna,
īsig and ūtfūs,      篥linges f尻
†
ā-lēdon �;      lēofne �;oden,
†35
bēaga bryttan      on bearm scipes,
mǣrne be m岴e.      ܦ#483;r w屠mādma fela,
of feor-wegum      fr峷a gelǣded:
ne hȳrde ic cȳmlīcor      cēol gegyrwan
hilde-wǣpnum      and hea�ǣdum,
40
billum and byrnum;      him on bearme l奼/DIV>
mādma m孩go,      �; him mid scoldon
on flōdes ǣht      feor gewītan.
Nalas hī hine lǣssan      lācum tēodan,
�;od-gestrēonum,      ��; dydon,
45
�; hine 岠frumsceafte      for�onsendon
ǣnne ofer ȳ�bsp;     umbor wesende:
�; gȳt hīe him āsetton      segen gyldenne
hēah ofer hēafod,      lēton holm beran,
†
gēafon on gār-secg:      him w屠geōmor sefa,
50
murnende mōd.      Men ne cunnon
†
secgan tō so�bsp;     sele-rǣdende,
h嫥�der heofenum,      hwā �;m hl岴e onfēng.

II. THE HALL HEOROT.

†
ܦ#257; w屠on burgum      Bēowulf Scyldinga,
lēof lēod-cyning,      longe �7;ge
55
folcum gefrǣge      (f壥r ellor hwearf,
aldor of earde),      o�t him eft onwōc
hēah Healfdene;      hēold � lifde,
†
gamol and gū�#275;ow,      gl壥 Scyldingas.
ܦ#483;m fēower bearn      for�rīmed
†60
in worold wōcun,      weoroda rǣswan,
Heorogār and Hrō�257;r      and Hālga til;
†
hȳrde ic, �an cwēn      Ongen�;owes w屼/I>
Hea�ilfinges      heals-gebedde.
ܦ#257; w屠 Hrō�257;re      here-spēd gyfen,
65
wīges weor�nd,      �m his wine-māgas
georne hȳrdon,      o�t sēo geogo�wēox,
mago-driht micel.      Him on mōd bearn,
†
�heal-reced      hātan wolde,
medo-屮 micel      men gewyrcean,
†70
�ldo bearn      ǣfre gefrūnon,
and �;r on innan      eall gedǣlan
geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
†
būton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
ܦ#257; ic wīde gefr妮      weorc gebannan
75
manigre mǣg�bsp;     geond � middan-geard,
folc-stede fr峷an.      Him on fyrste gelomp
ǣdre mid yldum,      �t wear�l gearo,
†
heal-屮a mǣst;      scōp him Heort naman,
sē � wordes geweald      wīde h奤e.
80
Hē bēot ne ālēh,      bēagas dǣlde,
sinc 岠 symle.      Sele hlīfade
hēah and horn-gēap:      hea�ylma bād,
lā� līges;      ne w屠hit lenge �; gēn
†
� ecg-hete      ā�swerian
85
奴er w媭nī�bsp;     w墮an scolde.
ܦ#257; se ellen-gǣst      earfo�299;ce
�7;ge ge�,      sē ��2;strum bād,
†
�#275; dōgora gehwām      drēam gehȳrde
hlūdne in healle;      �;r w屠hearpan swēg,
†90
swutol sang scopes.      S妤e sē �363;�DIV>
frum-sceaft fīra      feorran reccan,
†
cw箠� 嫭ihtiga      eor�worhte,
wlite-beorhtne wang,      swā w峥r bebūge�DIV>
gesette sige-hrē�nbsp;     sunnan and mōnan
95
lēoman tō lēohte      land-būendum,
and gefr峷ade      foldan scēatas
leomum and lēafum;      līf ēac gesceōp
cynna gehwylcum,      �;ra �ce hwyrfa�DIV>
Swā �; driht-guman      drēamum lifdon
†100
ēadiglīce,      o�t ān ongan
†
fyrene fremman,      fēond on helle:
†
w屠se grimma g岴      Grendel hāten,
†
mǣre mearc-stapa,      sē �333;ras hēold,
fen and f岴en;      fīfel-cynnes eard
†105
won-sǣlig wer      weardode hwīle,
†
si񯠮 him scyppend      forscrifen h奤e.
In Caines cynne      �wealm gewr塬
†
ēce drihten,      � hē Ābel slōg;
ne gefeah hē �;re fǣh�nbsp;     ac hē hine feor forwr塬
110
metod for �2; māne      man-cynne fram.
ݡnon untȳdras      ealle onwōcon,
eotenas and ylfe      and orcnēas,
swylce gīgantas,      �; wi�de wunnon
lange �7;ge;      hē him �#275;an forgeald.

III. GRENDEL'S VISITS.

115
Gewāt �; nēosian,      sy񯠮 niht becōm,
hēan hūses,      hū hit Hring-Dene
奴er bēor-�bsp;     gebūn h奤on.
Fand �; �;r inne      篥linga gedriht
†
swefan 奴er symble;      sorge ne cū�
†120
won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhǣlo
grim and grǣdig      gearo sōna w屬
rēoc and rē�nbsp;     and on r岴e genam
�9;tig �      �eft gewāt
hū� hrēmig      tō hām faran,
125
mid �;re w媭fylle      wīca nēosan.
ܦ#257; w屠on ūhtan      mid ǣr-d妥
Grendles gū�奴      gumum undyrne:
�; w屠奴er wiste      wōp up āhafen,
micel morgen-swēg.      Mǣre �;oden,
130
篥ling ǣr-gōd,      unblī� s岬
†
� �72;�ȳ�bsp;     �orge drēah,
sy񯠮 hīe �lā�nbsp;     lāst scēawedon,
wergan gāstes;      w屠�win tō strang,
lā�d longsum.      N屠hit lengra fyrst,
135
ac ymb āne niht      eft gefremede
mor�ala māre      and nō mearn fore
fǣh�nd fyrene;      w屠tō f岴 on �;m.
ܦ#257; w屠 ēa�nde,      �; him elles hwǣr
gerūmlīcor      r岴e sōhte,
140
bed 奴er būrum,      �; him gebēacnod w屬
ges妤 sō�299;ce      sweotolan tācne
†
heal-� hete;      hēold hine sy񯠮
fyr and f岴or,      sē �;m fēonde 峷and.
†
Swā rīxode      and wi�hte wan
145
āna wi�llum,      o�t īdel stōd
†
hūsa sēlest.      W屠sēo hwīl micel:
twelf wintra tīd      torn ge�
wine Scyldinga,      wēana gehwelcne,
†
sīdra sorga;      for�;m sy񯠮 wear�IV>150
ylda bearnum      undyrne cū�DIV>
gyddum geōmore,      �Grendel wan,
hwīle wi�Hrō�257;r;—      hete-nī�w奬
fyrene and fǣh�bsp;     fela missēra,
†
singāle s墥,      sibbe ne wolde
155
wi�nna hwone      m妥nes Deniga
feorh-bealo feorran,      fēo �n,
nē �;r nǣnig witena      wēnan �
beorhtre bōte      tō banan folmum;
†
atol ǣglǣca      ēhtende w屬
160
deorc dēa�ūa      dugu�nd geogo�DIV>
seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte hēold
mistige mōras;      men ne cunnon,
hwyder hel-rūnan      hwyrftum scrī�
Swā fela fyrena      fēond man-cynnes,
165
atol ān-gengea,      oft gefremede
heardra hȳn�nbsp;     Heorot eardode,
sinc-fāge sel      sweartum nihtum
†
(nō hē � gif-stōl      grētan mōste,
†
mā񯴭 for metode,      nē his myne wisse);
170
�s wrǣc micel      wine Scyldinga,
mōdes brec�nbsp;     Monig-oft ges岼/DIV>
rīce tō rūne;      rǣd eahtedon,
hw岠 swī�rh�nbsp;     sēlest wǣre
†
wi�fǣr-gryrum      tō gefremmanne.
†175
Hwīlum hīe gehēton      岠 h屧-trafum
wīg-weor�a,      wordum bǣdon,
†
�m gāst-bona      gēoce gefremede
wi��;od-�5;aum.      Swylc w屠�;aw hyra,
hǣ�a hyht;      helle gemundon
180
in mōd-sefan,      metod hīe ne cū�
dǣda dēmend,      ne wiston hīe drihten god,
nē hīe hūru heofena helm      herian ne cū�
wuldres waldend.      Wā bi�#483;m �al
�lī� nī�sp;     sāwle bescūfan
185
in fȳres f篭,      frōfre ne wēnan,
wihte gewendan;      wēl bi�#483;m �333;t
奴er dēa�ge      drihten sēcean
and tō f壥r f篭um      freo�ilnian.

IV. HYGELAC'S THANE.

†
Swā �; mǣl-ceare      maga Healfdenes
†190
singāla sēa�bsp;     ne mihte snotor h嫥�IV>
wēan onwendan:      w屠�win tō swȳ�DIV>
lā�d longsum,      �; on �; lēode becōm,
nȳd-wracu nī�im,      niht-bealwa mǣst.
†
ߦt fram hām gefr妮      Higelāces �/DIV>195
gōd mid Gēatum,      Grendles dǣda:
sē w屠 mon-cynnes      m妥nes strengest
†
on �;m d妥      � līfes,
篥le and ēacen.      Hēt him ȳ�dan
gōdne gegyrwan;      cw箠hē gū�ning
†200
ofer swan-rāde      sēcean wolde,
mǣrne �;oden,      �; him w屠manna �
ݯne sī�t him      snotere ceorlas
†
lȳt-hwōn lōgon,      �;ah hē him lēof wǣre;
†
hwetton higerōfne,      hǣl scēawedon.
205
H奤e se gōda      Gēata lēoda
cempan gecorone,      �;ra �275; cēnoste
†
findan mihte;      fīftȳna sum
sund-wudu sōhte;      secg wīsade,
lagu-cr奴ig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210
Fyrst for�wāt:      flota w屠 on ȳ�
bāt under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
on stefn stigon;      strēamas wundon
sund wi�sande;      secgas bǣron
on bearm nacan      beorhte fr峷e,
215
gū�aro geatolīc;      guman ūt scufon,
weras on wil-sī�sp;     wudu bundenne.
†
Gewāt �; ofer wǣg-holm      winde gefȳsed
†
flota fāmig-heals      fugle gelīcost,
†
o�t ymb ān-tīd      ō� dōgores
220
wunden-stefna      gewaden h奤e,
�#257; lī�e      land gesāwon,
brim-clifu blīcan,      beorgas stēape,
sīde sǣ-n岳as:      �; w屠sund liden,
†
eoletes 岠 ende.      ݡnon up hra�DIV>225
Wedera lēode      on wang stigon,
sǣ-wudu sǣldon      (syrcan hrysedon,
gū�wǣdo);      gode �on,
� him ȳ�#257;de      ēa�urdon.
†
ܦ#257; of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230
sē �m-clifu      healdan scolde,
beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
fyrd-searu fūslīcu;      hine fyrwyt br塼/DIV>
mōd-gehygdum,      hw岠�; men wǣron.
Gewāt him �; tō waro�bsp;     wicge rīdan
235
�rō�257;res,      �m cwehte
m妥n-wudu mundum,      me�wordum fr妮:
"Hw岠syndon gē      searo-h塢endra
"byrnum werede,      �; �ontne cēol
†
"ofer lagu-strǣte      lǣdan cwōmon,
†240
"hider ofer holmas      helmas bǣron?
"Ic w屠 ende-sǣta,      ǣg-wearde hēold,
"� land Dena      lā�nǣnig
"mid scip-herge      sce񯠮 ne meahte.
"Nō hēr cū�299;cor      cuman ongunnon
†245
"lind-h塢ende;      nē gē lēafnes-word
"gū�emmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
"māga gemēdu.      Nǣfre ic māran geseah
"eorla ofer eor�      �is ēower sum,
†
"secg on searwum;      nis �ld-guma
†250
"wǣpnum geweor�      n奮e him his wlite lēoge,
"ǣnlīc an-sȳn.      Nū ic ēower sceal
†
"frum-cyn witan,      ǣr gē fyr heonan
†
"lēase scēaweras      on land Dena
"fur� fēran.      Nū gē feor-būend,
255
"mere-lī�e,      mīnne gehȳra�IV>†
"ān-fealdne ge�;ht:      ofost is sēlest
"tō gecȳ�e,      hwanan ēowre cyme syndon."

V. THE ERRAND.

†
Him se yldesta      andswarode,
werodes wīsa,      word-hord onlēac:
260
"Wē synt gum-cynnes      Gēata lēode
"and Higelāces      heor�nēatas.
"W屠mīn f壥r      folcum gecȳ�
"篥le ord-fruma      Ecg�;ow hāten;
"gebād wintra worn,      ǣr hē on weg hwurfe,
265
"gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
"witena wēl-hwylc      wīde geond eor�—
"Wē �oldne hige      hlāford �
"sunu Healfdenes,      sēcean cwōmon,
"lēod-gebyrgean:      wes �; ūs lārena gōd!
270
"Habba�#275; tō �;m mǣran      micel ǣrende
"Deniga frēan;      ne sceal �;r dyrne sum
"wesan, � wēne.      ܦ#363; wāst, gif hit is,
†
"swā wē sō�e      secgan hȳrdon,
"�d Scyldingum      scea�c nāt hwylc,
†275
"dēogol dǣd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
"ēawe�rh egsan      uncū�nī�DIV>
"hȳn�nd hrā-fyl.      Ic �ō�257;r m奼/DIV>
"�ūmne sefan      rǣd gelǣran,
"hū hē frōd and gōd      fēond oferswȳ�
†280
"gyf him ed-wendan      ǣfre scolde
"bealuwa bisigu,      bōt eft cuman
"and �; cear-wylmas      cōlran wur�
"o񯣠ā sy񯠮      earfo�āge,
"�5;a-nȳd �      � �;r wuna�IV>285
"on hēah-stede      hūsa sēlest."
Weard ma�de,      �;r on wicge s岼/DIV>†
ombeht unforht:      "Ǣghw篲es sceal
"scearp scyld-wiga      gescād witan,
"worda and worca,      sē �275;l �.
290
"Ic �hȳre,      �s is hold weorod
"frēan Scyldinga.      Gewīta�r�ran
†
"wǣpen and gewǣdu,      ic ēow wīsige:
"swylce ic magu-�      mīne hāte
"wi�#275;onda gehwone      flotan ēowerne,
295
"nīw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
"ārum healdan,      o�t eft byre�IV>
"ofer lagu-strēamas      lēofne mannan
"wudu wunden-hals      tō Weder-mearce.
†
"Gū�emmendra      swylcum gife�i�DIV>300
"�ne hilde-rǣs      hāl gedīge�/DIV>
Gewiton him �; fēran      (flota stille bād,
seomode on sāle      sīd-f篭ed scyp,
†
on ancre f岴);      eofor-līc scionon
†
ofer hlēor-beran      gehroden golde
†305
fāh and fȳr-heard,      ferh wearde hēold.
Gū�333;de grummon,      guman ōnetton,
sigon 峳omne,      o�t hȳ s媠timbred
geatolīc and gold-fāh      ongytan mihton;
�s fore-mǣrost      fold-būendum
310
receda under roderum,      on �;m se rīca bād;
†
līxte se lēoma      ofer landa fela.
Him �; hilde-dēor      hof mōdigra
torht getǣhte,      �#299;e him tō mihton
gegnum gangan;      gū�orna sum
315
wicg gewende,      word 奴er cw箺
"Mǣl is mē tō fēran;      f壥r alwalda
"mid ār-stafum      ēowic gehealde
†
"sī� gesunde!      ic tō sǣ wille,
"wi�ā�werod      wearde healdan."

VI. BĒOWULF'S SPEECH.

†320
Strǣt w屠stān-fāh,      stīg wīsode
gumum 峧壥re.      Gū�rne scān
†
heard hond-locen,      hring-īren scīr
song in searwum,      �; hīe tō sele fur�/DIV>
in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwōmon.
†325
Setton sǣ-mē�bsp;     sīde scyldas,
rondas regn-hearde      wi�s recedes weal,
bugon �; tō bence;      byrnan hringdon,
gū�aro gumena;      gāras stōdon,
sǣ-manna searo,      samod 峧壥re,
330
岣-holt ufan grǣg:      w屠se īren-�5;at
wǣpnum gewur�      ܦ#257; �;r wlonc h嫥�IV>
ōret-mecgas      奴er 篥lum fr妮:
†
"Hwanon ferigea�gē      fǣtte scyldas,
"grǣge syrcan      and grīm-helmas,
335
"here-sceafta hēap?—      Ic eom Hrō�257;res
†
"ār and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-�;odige
"�nige men      mōdiglīcran.
†
"Wēn' ic �#275; for wlenco,      nalles for wr塭sī�
"ac for hige-�m      Hrō�257;r sōhton."
340
Him �; ellen-rōf      andswarode,
wlanc Wedera lēod      word 奴er spr塬
heard under helme:      "Wē synt Higelāces
†
"bēod-genēatas;      Bēowulf is mīn nama.
†
"Wille ic āsecgan      suna Healfdenes,
345
"mǣrum �;odne      mīn ǣrende,
"aldre �;num,      gif hē ūs geunnan wile,
"�#275; hine swā gōdne      grētan mōton."
Wulfgār ma�de      (�s Wendla lēod,
w屠his mōd-sefa      manegum gecȳ�
350
wīg and wīs-dōm):      "ic �wine Deniga,
"frēan Scildinga      frīnan wille,
"bēaga bryttan,      swā �; bēna eart,
†
"�;oden mǣrne      ymb �;nne sī�/DIV>
"and �; �; andsware      ǣdre gecȳ�
355
"�; mē se gōda      āgifan �."
Hwearf �; hr壬īce,      �;r Hrō�257;r s岬
†
eald and unhār      mid his eorla gedriht;
†
ēode ellen-rōf,      �#275; for eaxlum gestōd
Deniga frēan,      cū�ē dugu�ēaw.
360
Wulfgār ma�de      tō his wine-drihtne:
"Hēr syndon geferede      feorran cumene
"ofer geofenes begang      Gēata lēode:
"� yldestan      ōret-mecgas
"Bēowulf nemna�bsp;     Hȳ bēnan synt,
365
"�#299;e, �;oden mīn,      wi��; mōton
"wordum wrixlan;      nō �; him wearne getēoh,
†
"�;nra gegn-cwida      gl壮ian, Hrō�257;r!
"Hȳ on wīg-geatwum      wyr�incea�IV>†
"eorla ge姴lan;      hūru se aldor dēah,
370
"sē �;m hea�incum      hider wīsade."

VII. HROTHGAR'S WELCOME.

Hrō�257;r ma�de,      helm Scyldinga:
†
"Ic hine cū�bsp;     cniht-wesende.
†
"W屠his eald-f壥r      Ecg�;o hāten,
"�;m tō hām forgeaf      Hrē�Gēata
375
"āngan dōhtor;      is his eafora nū
"heard hēr cumen,      sōhte holdne wine.
"�s妤on �sp;     sǣ-lī�e,
†
"�; �if-sceattas      Gēata fyredon
"�tō �      �#275; �9;ttiges
†380
"manna m妥n-cr奴      on his mund-grīpe
"hea�ōf h塢e.      Hine hālig god
"for ār-stafum      us onsende,
"tō West-Denum,      � wēn h塢e,
"wi�endles gryre:      ic �;m gōdan sceal
385
"for his mōd-�nbsp;     mādmas bēodan.
†
"Bēo �; on ofeste,      hāt hig in gān,
†
"sēon sibbe-gedriht      samod 峧壥re;
"gesaga him ēac wordum,      �#299;e sint wil-cuman
"Deniga lēodum."      ܦ#257; wi�ru healle
390
Wulfgār ēode,      word inne ābēad:
"Ēow hēt secgan      sige-drihten mīn,
"aldor Ēast-Dena,      �#275; ēower 篥lu can
"and gē him syndon      ofer sǣ-wylmas,
"heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395
"Nū gē mōton gangan      in ēowrum gu�atawum,
"under here-grīman,      Hrō�257;r gesēon;
"lǣta�hilde-bord      hēr onbidian,
"wudu w媭sceaftas,      worda ge�."
Ārās �; se rīca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400
�72;�299;c �hēap;      sume �;r bidon,
hea�ēaf hēoldon,      swā him se hearda bebēad.
Snyredon 峳omne,      �; secg wīsode
under Heorotes hrōf;      hyge-rōf ēode,
†
heard under helme,      �#275; on heo�estōd.
†405
Bēowulf ma�de      (on him byrne scān,
searo-net sēowed      smi�or-�):
†
"Wes �; Hrō�257;r hāl!      ic eom Higelāces
"mǣg and mago-�nbsp;     h塢e ic mǣr�ela
"ongunnen on geogo�nbsp;     Mē wear�endles �DIV>410
"on mīnre ē�tyrf      undyrne cū�DIV>
"secga�sǣ-lī�,      �s sele stande,
"reced sēlesta,      rinca gehwylcum
"īdel and unnyt,      si񯠮 ǣfen-lēoht
†
"under heofenes hādor      beholen weor�
415
"ܦ#257; mē �lǣrdon      lēode mīne,
"�; sēlestan,      snotere ceorlas,
"�;oden Hrō�257;r,      � �; sōhte;
"for�#299;e m妥nes cr奴      mīnne cū�
"selfe ofersāwon,      �; ic of searwum cwōm,
†420
"fāh from fēondum,      �;r ic fīfe geband,
"ȳ�eotena cyn,      and on ȳ�slōg
"niceras nihtes,      nearo-� drēah,
"wr塠Wedera nī�sp;     (wēan āhsodon)
"forgrand gramum;      and nū wi�endel sceal,
†425
"wi�#257;m āglǣcan,      āna gehegan
"�i��      Ic �; nū �;,
"brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
"eodor Scyldinga,      ānre bēne;
"�#363; mē ne forwyrne,      wīgendra hlēo,
430
"frēo-wine folca,      nū ic �feorran cōm,
"� mōte āna      and mīnra eorla gedryht,
"�arda hēap,      Heorot fǣlsian.
"H塢e ic ēac geāhsod,      � ǣglǣca
"for his won-hȳdum      wǣpna ne rēce�DIV>435
"ic �nne forhicge,      swā mē Higelāc sīe,
"mīn mon-drihten,      mōdes blī�/DIV>
"� sweord bere      o񯣠sīdne scyld
"geolo-rand tō gū�nbsp;     ac ic mid grāpe sceal
"fōn wi�fēonde      and ymb feorh sacan,
440
"lā��#257;�      �;r gelȳfan sceal
†
"dryhtnes dōme      sē �e dēa�me�DIV>
"Wēn' ic �#275; wille,      gif hē wealdan mōt,
†
"in �;m gū�le      Gēatena lēode
†
"etan unforhte,      swā hē oft dyde
445
"m妥n Hrē�na.      Nā �; mīnne �
†
"hafalan hȳdan,      ac hē mē habban wile
†
"drēore fāhne,      gif mec dēa�me�DIV>
"byre�ōdig w媬      byrgean �,
"ete�ān-genga      unmurnlīce,
450
"mearca�#333;r-hopu:      nō �; ymb mīnes ne �
†
"līces feorme      leng sorgian.
†
"Onsend Higelāce,      gif mec hild nime,
"beadu-scrūda betst,      �#299;ne brēost were�DIV>
"hr妬a sēlest;      � Hrē� lāf,
†455
"Wēlandes geweorc.      Gǣ�257; Wyrd swā hīo scel!"

VIII. HROTHGAR TELLS OF GRENDEL.

Hrō�257;r ma�de,      helm Scyldinga:
†
"for were-fyhtum �;,      wine mīn Bēowulf,
"and for ār-stafum      ūsic sōhtest.
"Geslōh �f壥r      fǣh�ǣste,
460
"wear�#275; Hea�#257;fe      tō hand-bonan
"mid Wilfingum;      �; hine Wedera cyn
"for here-brōgan      habban ne mihte.
"ݡnon hē gesōhte      Sū�na folc
"ofer ȳ� gewealc,      Ār-Scyldinga;
465
"�; ic fur�wēold      folce Deninga,
"and on geogo� hēold      gimme-rīce
"hord-burh h嫥�nbsp;     �; w屠Heregār dēad,
"mīn yldra mǣg      unlifigende,
"bearn Healfdenes.      Sē w屠betera �ic!
470
"Si񯠮 �; fǣh�bsp;     fēo �e;
"sende ic Wylfingum      ofer w峥res hrycg
"ealde mādmas:      hē mē ā�swōr.
"Sorh is mē tō secganne      on sefan mīnum
"gumena ǣngum,      hw岠mē Grendel hafa�IV>475
"hȳn�n Heorote      mid his hete-�,
"fǣr-nī� gefremed.      Is mīn flet-werod,
"wīg-hēap gewanod;      hīe Wyrd forswēop
"on Grendles gryre.      God ēa�奼/DIV>
"� dol-sca�nbsp;     dǣda getwǣfan!
†480
"Ful oft gebēotedon      bēore druncne
"ofer ealo-wǣge      ōret-mecgas,
"�#299;e in bēor-sele      bīdan woldon
"Grendles gū�bsp;     mid gryrum ecga.
"ݯnne w屠�;os medo-heal      on morgen-tīd,
485
"driht-sele drēor-fāh,      �d奠līxte,
"eal benc-�bsp;     blōde bestȳmed,
"heall heoru-drēore:      āhte ic holdra �2; lǣs,
†
"dēorre dugu�nbsp;     �; �; dēa�rnam.
†
"Site nū tō symle      and onsǣl meoto,
490
"sige-hrē�cgum,      swā �;n sefa hwette!"
ܦ#257; w屠 Gēat-m墧um      geador 峳omne
on bēor-sele      benc gerȳmed;
�;r swī�rh�bsp;     sittan ēodon
†
�72;� dealle.      ݥgn nytte behēold,
495
sē �handa b尦nbsp;     hroden ealo-wǣge,
scencte scīr wered.      Scop hwīlum sang
hādor on Heorote;      �;r w屠h嫥�rēam,
dugu�unlȳtel      Dena and Wedera.

IX. HUNFERTH OBJECTS TO BĒOWULF.

†
Unfer�ma�de,      Ecglāfes bearn,
500
�; 岠fōtum s岦nbsp;     frēan Scyldinga;
†
onband beadu-rūne      (w屠him Bēowulfes sī�DIV>
mōdges mere-faran,      micel 夭�
for� hē ne ū�nbsp;     �483;nig ō�man
†
ǣfre mǣr�on mā      middan-geardes
505
gehēdde under heofenum      �hē sylfa):
†
"Eart �; sē Bēowulf,      sē � Brecan wunne,
"on sīdne sǣ      ymb sund flite,
"�;r git for wlence      wada cunnedon
†
"and for dol-gilpe      on dēop w峥r
510
"aldrum nē�?      Nē inc ǣnig mon,
"nē lēof nē lā�bsp;     belēan mihte
"sorh-fullne sī�bsp;     �; git on sund rēon,
†
"�;r git ēagor-strēam      earmum �,
"mǣton mere-strǣta,      mundum brugdon,
515
"glidon ofer gār-secg;      geofon ȳ�wēol,
"wintres wylme.      Git on w峥res ǣht
"seofon niht swuncon;      hē �; 岠sunde oferflāt,
"h奤e māre m妥n.      ܦ#257; hine on morgen-tīd
"on Hea�ǣmas      holm up 峢尬
520
"�hē gesōhte      swǣsne ē�/DIV>
"lēof his lēodum      lond Brondinga,
"freo�urh f妥re,      �;r hē folc āhte,
"burg and bēagas.      Bēot eal wi�#275;
†
"sunu Bēanstānes      sō�elǣste.
†525
"ݯnne wēne ic tō �;      wyrsan ge�,
"�;ah �; hea�ǣsa      gehwǣr dohte,
"grimre gū�nbsp;     gif �; Grendles dearst
"niht-longne fyrst      nēan bīdan!"
Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
530
"Hw岡 �; worn fela,      wine mīn Unfer�DIV>
"bēore druncen      ymb Brecan sprǣce,
"s妤est from his sī�nbsp;     Sō� talige,
"� mere-strengo      māran āhte,
"earfe�n ȳ�      �ǣnig ō�man.
535
"Wit �gecwǣdon      cniht-wesende
"and gebēotedon      (wǣron bēgen �; gīt
"on geogo�ore)      �t on gār-secg ūt
"aldrum nē�;      and �奮don swā.
"H奤on swurd nacod,      �; wit on sund rēon,
540
"heard on handa,      wit unc wi�on-fixas
"werian �;hton.      Nō hē wiht fram mē
"flōd-ȳ� feor      flēotan meahte,
"hra�on holme,      nō ic fram him wolde.
"ܦ#257; wit 峳omne      on sǣ wǣron
†545
"fīf nihta fyrst,      o�t unc flōd tōdrāf,
"wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
"nīpende niht      and nor�wind
"hea�rim andhwearf;      hrēo wǣron ȳ�/DIV>
"W屠 mere-fixa      mōd onhrēred:
550
"�;r mē wi�#257;�nbsp;     līc-syrce mīn,
"heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
"beado-hr妬 brōden      on brēostum l奬
"golde gegyrwed.      Mē tō grunde tēah
"fāh fēond-sca�nbsp;     f岴e h奤e
555
"grim on grāpe:      hw篲e mē gyfe�ear�DIV>
"� āglǣcan      orde gerǣhte,
"hilde-bille;      hea�ǣs fornam
"mihtig mere-dēor      �īne hand.

X. BĒOWULF'S CONTEST WITH BRECA.—THE FEAST.

"Swā mec gelōme      lā�tēonan
560
"�5;atedon �.      Ic him �;node
"dēoran sweorde,      swā hit gedēfe w屻
"n屠hīe �;re fylle      gefēan h奤on,
"mān-fordǣdlan,      �#299;e mē �;gon,
"symbel ymb-sǣton      sǣ-grunde nēah,
565
"ac on mergenne      mēcum wunde
"be ȳ�#257;fe      uppe lǣgon,
"sweordum āswefede,      �񯠮 nā
"ymb brontne ford      brim-lī�e
"lāde ne letton.      Lēoht ēastan cōm,
570
"beorht bēacen godes;      brimu swa�on,
"� sǣ-n岳as      gesēon mihte,
"windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nere�IV>
"unfǣgne eorl,      �e his ellen dēah!
†
"Hw篥re mē gesǣlde,      � mid sweorde ofslōh
575
"niceras nigene.      Nō ic on niht gefr妮
"under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
"nē on ēg-strēamum      earmran mannan;
"hw篥re ic fāra feng      fēore gedīgde,
"si� wērig.      ܦ#257; mec sǣ o�,
580
"flōd 奴er faro�nbsp;     on Finna land,
"wadu weallendu.      Nō ic wiht fram �;
"swylcra searo-nī�bsp;     secgan hȳrde,
"billa brōgan:      Breca nǣfre gīt
"岠 hea�āce,      nē gehw篥r incer
585
"swā dēorlīce      dǣd gefremede
†
"fāgum sweordum      . . . . . . .
". . . . . . .      nō ic �lpe;
"�;ah �; �;num brō�      tō banan wurde,
"hēafod-mǣgum;      �#363; in helle scealt
590
"werh�rēogan,      �;ah �;n wit duge,
"Secge ic �; tō sō�nbsp;     sunu Ecglāfes,
"�#483;fre Grendel swā fela      gryra gefremede,
"atol ǣglǣca      ealdre �;num,
"hȳn�n Heorote,      gif �;n hige wǣre,
595
"sefa swā searo-grim,      swā �; self talast.
"Ac hē hafa�onfunden,      �#275; �; fǣh�e �
"atole ecg-�nbsp;     ēower lēode
"swī� onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
†
"nyme�nȳd-bāde,      nǣnegum āra�IV>600
"lēode Deniga,      ac hē on lust wīge�DIV>†
"swefe�d sende�bsp;     secce ne wēne�IV>
"tō Gār-Denum.      Ac him Gēata sceal
"eafo�d ellen      ungeāra nū
"gū� gebēodan.      Gǣ�t sē �333;t
605
"tō medo mōdig,      si񯠮 morgen-lēoht
"ofer ylda bearn      ō� dōgores,
"sunne swegl-wered      sū�scīne�/DIV>
ܦ#257; w屠on sālum      sinces brytta
gamol-feax and gū�#333;f,      gēoce gelȳfde
610
brego Beorht-Dena;      gehȳrde on Bēowulfe
folces hyrde      f岴-rǣdne ge�;ht.
†
ܦ#483;r w屠h嫥� hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
word wǣron wynsume.      Ēode Wealh�;ow for�DIV>
cwēn Hrō�257;res,      cynna gemyndig,
615
grētte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
and �; frēolīc wīf      ful gesealde
ǣrest Ēast-Dena      ē�wearde,
b墠hine blī�nbsp;     岠�;re bēor-�/DIV>
lēodum lēofne;      hē on lust ge�DIV>†620
symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rōf kyning.
Ymb-ēode �;      ides Helminga
†
dugu�nd geogo�bsp;     dǣl ǣghwylcne;
†
sinc-fato sealde,      o�t sǣl ālamp,
�#299;o Bēowulfe,      bēag-hroden cwēn,
625
mōde ge�,      medo-ful 峢尻
grētte Gēata lēod,      gode �e
wīs-f岴 wordum,      � hire se willa gelamp,
�#275;o on ǣnigne      eorl gelȳfde
fyrena frōfre.      Hē �l ge�/DIV>630
w媭rēow wiga      岠 Wealh�;on,
†
and �; gyddode      gū�efȳsed,
Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
"Ic �hogode,      �; ic on holm gestāh,
"sǣ-bāt ges岦nbsp;     mid mīnra secga gedriht,
635
"� ānunga      ēowra lēoda
"willan geworhte,      o񯣠on w媠crunge,
"fēond-grāpum f岴.      Ic gefremman sceal
"eorlīc ellen,      o񯣠ende-d奼/DIV>
"on � meodu-healle      mīnne gebīdan."
640
ܦ#257;m wīfe �; word      wēl līcodon,
gilp-cwide Gēates;      ēode gold-hroden
frēolīcu folc-cwēn      tō hire frēan sittan.
ܦ#257; w屠eft swā ǣr      inne on healle
�72;�rd sprecen,      �;od on sǣlum,
645
sige-folca swēg,      o�t semninga
sunu Healfdenes      sēcean wolde
ǣfen-r岴e;      wiste 岼/I> �;m āhlǣcan
†
tō �;m hēah-sele      hilde ge�,
si񯠮 hīe sunnan lēoht      gesēon ne meahton,
†650
o񯣠nīpende      niht ofer ealle,
†
scadu-helma gesceapu      scrī�cwōman,
wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall ārās.
Grētte �; giddum      guma ō�e,
Hrō�257;r Bēowulf,      and him hǣl ābēad,
655
wīn-屮es geweald      and �word ācw箺
"Nǣfre ic ǣnegum men      ǣr ālȳfde,
"si񯠮 ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
"�72;�n Dena      būton �; nū �;.
†
"Hafa nū and geheald      hūsa sēlest;
660
"gemyne mǣr�nbsp;     m妥n-ellen cȳ�DIV>
"waca wi�wrā�      Ne bi�#275; wilna gād,
"gif �; �ellen-weorc      aldre gedīgest."

XI. THE WATCH FOR GRENDEL.

ܦ#257; him Hrō�257;r gewāt      mid his h嫥�edryht,
eodur Scyldinga      ūt of healle;
665
wolde wīg-fruma      Wealh�;o sēcan,
cwēn tō gebeddan      H奤e kyninga wuldor
Grendle tō-gēanes,      swā guman gefrungon,
sele-weard āseted,      sundor-nytte behēold
ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard ābēad;
670
hūru Gēata lēod      georne truwode
mōdgan m妮es,      metodes hyldo.
ܦ#257; hē him of dyde      īsern-byrnan,
helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
īrena cyst      ombiht-�
675
and gehealdan hēt      hilde-geatwe.
Gespr塠�; se gōda      gylp-worda sum
Bēowulf Gēata,      ǣr hē on bed stige:
"Nō ic mē an here-wǣsmum      hnāgran talige
"gū�weorca,      �Grendel hine;
680
"for� hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
†
"aldre benēotan,      �;ah ic eal mǣge.
†
"Nāt hē �;ra gōda,      �#275; mē on-gēan slēa,
"rand gehēawe,      �;ah �275; rōf sīe
"nī�weorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685
"secge ofersittan,      gif hē gesēcean dear
"wīg ofer wǣpen,      and si񯠮 wītig god
"on swā hw篥re hond      hālig dryhten
"mǣr� dēme,      swā him gemet �"
Hylde hine �; hea�ēor,      hlēor-bolster onfēng
690
eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
snellīc sǣ-rinc      sele-reste gebēah.
Nǣnig heora �;hte      �#275; �scolde
eft eard-lufan      ǣfre gesēcean,
folc o񯣠 frēo-burh,      �;r hē āfēded w屬
†695
ac hīe h奤on gefrūnen,      �hīe ǣr tō fela micles
in �;m wīn-sele      w媭dēa�rnam,
Denigea lēode.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
†
wīg-spēda gewiofu,      Wedera lēodum
frōfor and fultum,      �#299;e fēond heora
700
�#257;nes cr奴      ealle ofercōmon,
selfes mihtum:      sō� gecȳ�
�htig god      manna cynnes
wēold wīde-ferh�bsp;     Cōm on wanre niht
scrī� sceadu-genga.      Scēotend swǣfon,
705
�; �rn-reced      healdan scoldon,
ealle būton ānum.      ߦt w屠yldum cū�DIV>
�#299;e ne mōste,      �; metod nolde,
se syn-sca�bsp;     under sceadu bregdan;
ac hē w墣ende      wrā�on andan
710
bād bolgen-mōd      beadwa ge�.

XII. GRENDEL'S RAID.

†
ܦ#257; cōm of mōre      under mist-hleo�/DIV>
Grendel gongan,      godes yrre b尮
Mynte se mān-sca�bsp;     manna cynnes
sumne besyrwan      in sele �;m hēan;
715
wōd under wolcnum,      tō ��275; wīn-reced,
gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
†
fǣttum fāhne.      Ne w屠�rma sī�DIV>
�#275; Hrō�257;res      hām gesōhte:
nǣfre hē on aldor-dagum      ǣr nē si񯠮
†720
heardran h嫥,      heal-� fand!
Cōm �; tō recede      rinc sī�
drēamum bedǣled.      Duru sōna onarn
†
fȳr-bendum f岴,      sy񯠮 hē hire folmum hrān;
onbr墠�; bealo-hȳdig,      �; ābolgen w屬
725
recedes mū�      Ra�fter �IV>
on fāgne flōr      fēond treddode,
†
ēode yrre-mōd;      him of ēagum stōd
līge gelīcost      lēoht unfǣger.
Geseah hē in recede      rinca manige,
730
swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod 峧壥re,
mago-rinca hēap:      �; his mōd āhlōg,
mynte �#275; gedǣlde,      ǣr �g cwōme,
atol āglǣca,      ānra gehwylces
līf wi�līce,      �; him ālumpen w屼/DIV>735
wist-fylle wēn.      Ne w屠�wyrd �; gēn,
�#275; mā mōste      manna cynnes
�n ofer �; niht.      ݲȳ�ȳ�hēold
mǣg Higelāces,      hū se mān-sca�DIV>
under fǣr-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740
Nē � āglǣca      yldan �;hte,
ac hē gefēng hra�bsp;     forman si�DIV>
slǣpendne rinc,      slāt unwearnum,
bāt bān-locan,      blōd ēdrum dranc,
syn-snǣdum swealh:      sōna h奤e
745
unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
fēt and folma.      For�#275;ar 峳tōp,
nam �; mid handa      hige-�;htigne
rinc on r岴e;      rǣhte ongēan
fēond mid folme,      hē onfēng hra�DIV>750
inwit-�      and wi�rm ges岮
Sōna �onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
�#275; ne mētte      middan-geardes
eor� scēata      on elran men
mund-gripe māran:      hē on mōde wear�IV>755
forht on ferh�nbsp;     nō �2; ǣr fram meahte;
hyge w屠him hin-fūs,      wolde on heolster flēon,
†
sēcan dēofla gedr奺      ne w屠his drohto�#483;r,
swylce hē on ealder-dagum      ǣr gemētte.
†
Gemunde �; se gōda      mǣg Higelāces
760
ǣfen-sprǣce,      up-lang āstōd
and him f岴e wi�275;ng.      Fingras burston;
†
eoten w屠 ūt-weard,      eorl fur�stōp.
Mynte se mǣra,      �;r hē meahte swā,
wīdre gewindan      and on weg �/DIV>765
flēon on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
on grames grāpum.      ߦt w屠gēocor sī�DIV>
� hearm-sca�bsp;     tō Heorute ātēah:
dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wear�DIV>†
ceaster-būendum,      cēnra gehwylcum,
†770
eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wǣron bēgen,
†
rē� rēn-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
�; w屠wundor micel,      � wīn-sele
wi�de hea�ēorum,      �#275; on hrūsan ne fēol,
fǣger fold-bold;      ac hē �ste w屼/DIV>775
innan and ūtan      īren-bendum
searo-� besmi�      ܦ#483;r fram sylle ābēag
medu-benc monig      mīne gefrǣge,
golde geregnad,      �;r �; graman wunnon;
� wēndon ǣr      witan Scyldinga,
780
�t ā mid gemete      manna ǣnig
betlīc and bān-fāg      tōbrecan meahte,
listum tōlūcan,      nym�īges f篭
swulge on swa�.      Swēg up āstāg
nīwe geneahhe;      Nor�num stōd
785
atelīc egesa      ānra gehwylcum
�;ra � wealle      wōp gehȳrdon,
gryre-lēo�galan      godes andsacan,
sige-lēasne sang,      sār wānigean
helle h奴an.      Hēold hine tō f岴e
790
sē �na w屦nbsp;     m妥ne strengest
on �;m d妥      � līfes.

XIII. BĒOWULF TEARS OFF GRENDEL'S ARM.

†
Nolde eorla hlēo      ǣnige �/DIV>
� cwealm-cuman      cwicne forlǣtan,
nē his līf-dagas      lēoda ǣnigum
795
nytte tealde.      ܦ#483;r genehost br妤
eorl Bēowulfes      ealde lāfe,
wolde frēa-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
mǣres �;odnes,      �;r hīe meahton swā;
hīe � wiston,      �; hīe gewin drugon,
800
heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
and on healfa gehwone      hēawan �;hton,
sāwle sēcan,      �> �yn-sca�/DIV>
ǣnig ofer eor�nbsp;     īrenna cyst,
gū�lla nān      grētan nolde;
805
ac hē sige-wǣpnum      forsworen h奤e,
ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-gedāl
on �;m d妥      � līfes
earmlīc wur�nbsp;     and se ellor-gāst
on fēonda geweald      feor sī�.
810
ܦ#257; �funde      sē �a ǣror
†
mōdes myr�bsp;     manna cynne
fyrene gefremede      (hē w屼/I> fāg wi�d)
�m se līc-homa      lǣstan nolde,
ac hine se mōdega      mǣg Hygelāces
815
h奤e be honda;      w屠 gehw篥r ō�
lifigende lā�bsp;     Līc-sār gebād
atol ǣglǣca,      him on eaxle wear�IV>
syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
burston bān-locan.      Bēowulfe wear�IV>820
gū�ē�fe�nbsp;     scolde Grendel �/DIV>
feorh-sēoc flēon      under fen-hleo�/DIV>
sēcean wyn-lēas wīc;      wiste �; geornor,
�s aldres w屦nbsp;     ende gegongen,
dōgera d奭rīm.      Denum eallum wear�IV>825
奴er �;m w媭rǣse      willa gelumpen.
H奤e �; gefǣlsod,      sē �83;r feorran cōm,
snotor and swȳ�rh�sp;     sele Hrō�257;res,
genered wi�nī�nbsp;     Niht-weorce gefeh,
ellen-mǣr�      h奤e Ēast-Denum
830
Gēat-mecga lēod      gilp gelǣsted,
swylce oncȳ񯣦nbsp;     ealle gebētte,
inwid-sorge,      �; hīe ǣr drugon
and for �5;a-nȳdum      � scoldon,
torn unlȳtel.      ߦt w屠tācen sweotol,
835
sy񯠮 hilde-dēor      hond ālegde,
earm and eaxle      (�;r w屠eal geador
Grendles grāpe)      under gēapne hrōf.

XIV. THE JOY AT HEOROT.

ܦ#257; w屠on morgen      mīne gefrǣge
ymb �; gif-healle      gū�nc monig:
840
fērdon folc-togan      feorran and nēan
geond wīd-wegas      wundor scēawian,
lā� lāstas.      Nō his līf-gedāl
sārlīc �;hte      secga ǣnegum,
�;ra �īr-lēases      trode scēawode,
845
hū hē wērig-mōd      on weg �
nī� ofercumen,      on nicera mere
fǣge and geflȳmed      feorh-lāstas b尮
ܦ#483;r w屠on blōde      brim weallende,
atol ȳ� geswing      eal gemenged
†850
hātan heolfre,      heoro-drēore wēol;
dēa�#483;ge dēog,      si񯠮 drēama lēas
in fen-freo�bsp;     feorh ālegde
hǣ� sāwle,      �;r him hel onfēng.
ݡnon eft gewiton      eald-gesī�
855
swylce geong manig      of gomen-wā�/DIV>
fram mere mōdge,      mēarum rīdan,
†
beornas on blancum.      ܦ#483;r w屠Bēowulfes
mǣr� mǣned;      monig oft gecw箬
†
�sū�#275; nor�sp;     be sǣm tweonum
860
ofer eormen-grund      ō� nǣnig
under swegles begong      sēlra nǣre
rond-h塢endra,      rīces wyr�
Nē hīe hūru wine-drihten      wiht ne lōgon,
gl壮e Hrō�257;r,      ac �s gōd cyning.
†865
Hwīlum hea�ōfe      hlēapan lēton,
on geflīt faran      fealwe mēaras,
�;r him fold-wegas      f妥re �;hton,
†
cystum cū�nbsp;     hwīlum cyninges �/DIV>
guma gilp-hl壥n      gidda gemyndig,
870
sē �al-fela      eald-gesegena
†
worn gemunde,      word ō�fand
†
sō� gebunden:      secg eft ongan
sī�Bēowulfes      snyttrum styrian
and on spēd wrecan      spel gerāde,
875
wordum wrixlan,      wēl-hwylc gecw箬
�#275; fram Sigemunde      secgan hȳrde,
ellen-dǣdum,      uncū� fela,
†
W嫳inges gewin,      wīde sī�
�;ra �ena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880
fǣh�nd fyrene,      būton Fitela mid hine,
�hē swylces hw岦nbsp;     secgan wolde
ēam his nefan,      swā hīe ā wǣron
岠nī� gehwām      nȳd-gesteallan:
h奤on eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885
sweordum gesǣged.      Sigemunde gesprong
奴er dēa�ge      dōm unlȳtel,
sy񯠮 wīges heard      wyrm ācwealde,
hordes hyrde;      hē under hārne stān,
篥linges bearn,      āna genē�/DIV>890
frēcne dǣde;      ne w屠him Fitela mid.
Hw篲e him gesǣlde,      �t swurd �#333;d
wrǣtlīcne wyrm,      �t on wealle 峳tōd,
dryhtlīc īren;      draca mor�swealt.
†
H奤e āglǣca      elne gegongen,
†895
�#275; bēah-hordes      brūcan mōste
selfes dōme:      sǣ-bāt gehlōd,
b尠on bearm scipes      beorhte fr峷a,
†
W嫳es eafera;      wyrm hāt gemealt.
Sē w屠 wreccena      wīde mǣrost
900
ofer wer-�;ode,      wīgendra hlēo
†
ellen-dǣdum:      hē �257;ron �;h.
†
Si񯠮 Heremōdes      hild swe�e
eafo�d ellen.      Hē mid eotenum wear�IV>
on fēonda geweald      for�rlācen,
905
snūde forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
†
lemede tō lange,      hē his lēodum wear�DIV>
eallum 篥lingum      tō aldor-ceare;
swylce oft bemearn      ǣrran mǣlum
swī�rh� sī�sp;     snotor ceorl monig,
910
sē � bealwa tō      bōte gelȳfde,
�t �;odnes bearn      ge�;on scolde,
f壥r-篥lum onfōn,      folc gehealdan,
hord and hlēo-burh,      h嫥�īce,
ē� Scyldinga.      Hē �;r eallum wear�DIV>915
mǣg Higelāces      manna cynne,
frēondum gef妲a;      hine fyren onwōd.
†
Hwīlum flītende      fealwe strǣte
mēarum mǣton.      ܦ#257; w屠morgen-lēoht
scofen and scynded.      Ēode scealc monig
920
swī�cgende      tō sele �;m hēan,
searo-wundor sēon,      swylce self cyning,
of brȳd-būre      bēah-horda weard,
tryddode tīr-f岴      getrume micle,
cystum gecȳ�      and his cwēn mid him
†925
medo-stīg gem岦nbsp;     m娰a hōse.

XV. HROTHGAR'S GRATULATION.

Hrō�257;r ma�de      (hē tō healle gēong,
†
stōd on stapole,      geseah stēapne hrōf
golde fāhne      and Grendles hond):
"� ansȳne      al-wealdan �DIV>930
"lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic lā�gebād,
†
"grynna 岠 Grendle:      ā m奠god wyrcan
"wunder 奴er wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
"ߦt w屠 ungeāra,      � ǣnigra mē
"wēana ne wēnde      tō wīdan feore
935
"bōte gebīdan      �blōde fāh
"hūsa sēlest      heoro-drēorig stōd;
†
"wēa wīd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
"�;ra � wēndon,      �#299;e wīde-ferh�IV>
"lēoda land-geweorc      lā�beweredon
†940
"scuccum and scinnum.      Nū scealc hafa�IV>
"�rihtnes miht      dǣd gefremede,
"�; wē ealle      ǣr ne meahton
"snyttrum besyrwan.      Hw岡 �cgan m奼/DIV>
"efne swā hwylc m娰a,      swā �agan cende
945
"奴er gum-cynnum,      gyf hēo gȳt lyfa�DIV>
"�re eald-metod      ēste wǣre
"bearn-gebyrdo.      Nū ic Bēowulf
"�ecg betsta,      mē for sunu wylle
"frēogan on ferh�nbsp;     heald for�la
950
"nīwe sibbe.      Ne bi�#275; nǣnigra gād
"worolde wilna,      �; ic geweald h塢e.
"Ful-oft ic for lǣssan      lēan teohhode
"hord-weor�e      hnāhran rince,
"sǣmran 岠 s墣e.      ܦ#363; �; self hafast
955
"dǣdum gefremed,      �#299;n dōm lyfa�IV>
"āwa tō aldre.      Alwalda �IV>
"gōde forgylde,      swā hē nū gȳt dyde!"
Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
†
"Wē �ellen-weorc      ēstum miclum,
960
"feohtan fremedon,      frēcne genē�
"eafo�uncū�      ū�c swī�
"�#363; hinc selfne      gesēon mōste,
†
"fēond on fr峥wum      fyl-wērigne!
"Ic hine hr壬īce      heardan clammum
965
"on w媭bedde      wrī� �;hte,
"�#275; for mund-gripe      mīnum scolde
"licgean līf-bysig,      būtan his līc swice;
"ic hine ne mihte,      �; metod nolde,
"ganges getwǣman,      nō ic him �orne 峦ealh,
970
"feorh-genī�;      w屠tō fore-mihtig
"fēond on fē�nbsp;     Hw篥re hē his folme forlēt
"tō līf-wra�bsp;     lāst weardian,
"earm and eaxle;      nō �;r ǣnige swā �;ah
"fēa-sceaft guma      frōfre gebohte:
975
"nō �2; leng leofa�sp;     lā�tēona
†
"synnum geswenced,      ac hyne sār hafa�IV>
"in nȳd-gripe      nearwe befongen,
"balwon bendum:      �;r ābīdan sceal
"maga māne fāh      miclan dōmes,
980
"hū him scīr metod      scrīfan wille."
ܦ#257; w屠swīgra secg,      sunu Ecglāfes,
on gylp-sprǣce      gū�weorca,
si񯠮 篥lingas      eorles cr奴e
ofer hēahne hrōf      hand scēawedon,
985
fēondes fingras,      foran ǣghwylc;
†
w屠stēde n妬a gehwylc,      stȳle gelīcost,
†
hǣ�s hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
†
egle unhēoru;      ǣg-hwylc gecw箬
�m heardra nān      hrīnan wolde
990
īren ǣr-gōd,      �s āhlǣcan
blōdge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.

XVI. THE BANQUET AND THE GIFTS.

†
ܦ#257; w屠hāten hre�bsp;     Heort innan-weard
folmum gefr峷od:      fela �;ra w屼/DIV>
wera and wīfa,      �; �#299;n-reced,
†995
gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-fāg scinon
web 奴er wāgum,      wundor-sīona fela
†
secga gehwylcum      �;ra �swylc stara�IV>†
W屠�orhte bold      tōbrocen swī�DIV>
eal inne-weard      īren-bendum f岴,
†1000
heorras tōhlidene;      hrōf āna gen屼/DIV>
ealles ansund,      �; se āglǣca
fyren-dǣdum fāg      on flēam gewand,
aldres or-wēna.      Nō �#772;�y�IV>
tō beflēonne      (fremme sē �le!)
†1005
ac gesacan sceal      sāwl-berendra
nȳde genȳdde      ni񯟠bearna
grund-būendra      gearwe stōwe,
�;r his līc-homa      leger-bedde f岴
†
swefe�ter symle.      ܦ#257; w屠sǣl and mǣl,
1010
�#333; healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
wolde self cyning      symbel �.
†
Ne gefr妥n ic �; mǣg�bsp;     māran weorode
ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sēl gebǣran.
†
Bugon �; tō bence      blǣd-āgende,
†1015
fylle gefǣgon.      F妥re ge�;gon
medo-ful manig      māgas �;ra
swī�cgende      on sele �;m hēan,
Hrō�257;r and Hrō�.      Heorot innan w屼/DIV>
frēondum āfylled;      nalles fācen-stafas
1020
ܦ#275;od-Scyldingas      � fremedon.
Forgeaf �; Bēowulfe      bearn Healfdenes
segen gyldenne      sigores tō lēane,
hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
†
mǣre mā񯴭-sweord      manige gesāwon
1025
beforan beorn beran.      Bēowulf ge�IV>
ful on flette;      nō hē �;re feoh-gyfte
for scēotendum      scamigan �,
ne gefr妮 ic frēondlīcor      fēower mādmas
golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030
in ealo-bence      ō� gesellan.
Ymb �lmes hrōf      hēafod-beorge
wīrum bewunden      walan ūtan hēold,
�m fēla lāfe      frēcne ne meahton
†
scūr-heard sce񯠮,      �scyld-freca
1035
ongēan gramum      gangan scolde.
Heht �; eorla hlēo      eahta mēaras,
fǣted-hlēore,      on flet tēon
in under eoderas;      �;ra ānum stōd
†
sadol searwum fāh      since gewur�
1040
�s hilde-setl      hēah-cyninges,
�sweorda gelāc      sunu Healfdenes
efnan wolde;      nǣfre on ōre l奼/DIV>†
wīd-cū� wīg,      �walu fēollon.
†
And �; Bēowulfe      bēga gehw篲es
1045
eodor Ingwina      onweald getēah,
wicga and wǣpna;      hēt hine wēl brūcan.
Swā manlīce      mǣre �;oden,
hord-weard h嫥�bsp;     hea�ǣsas geald
mēarum and mādmum,      swā hȳ nǣfre man lyh�DIV>1050
sē �gan wile      sō�ter rihte.

XVII. SONG OF HROTHGAR'S POET—THE LAY OF HNAEF AND HENGEST.

ܦ#257; gȳt ǣghwylcum      eorla drihten
�;ra � Bēowulfe      brim-lāde tēah,
on �;re medu-bence      mā񯴭 gesealde,
yrfe-lāfe,      and �#483;nne heht
1055
golde forgyldan,      �e Grendel ǣr
māne ācwealde,      swā hē hyra mā wolde,
nefne him wītig god      wyrd forstōde
and �nnes mōd:      metod eallum wēold
gumena cynnes,      swā hē nū gīt dē�DIV>1060
for��dgit      ǣghwǣr sēlest,
ferh� fore-�nbsp;     fela sceal gebīdan
lēofes and lā�      sē �ge hēr
on � win-dagum      worolde brūce�DIV>
ܦ#483;r w屠sang and swēg      samod 峧壥re
†1065
fore Healfdenes      hilde-wīsan,
gomen-wudu grēted,      gid oft wrecen,
� heal-gamen      Hrō�257;res scop
奴er medo-bence      mǣnan scolde
†
Finnes eaferum,      �; hīe se fǣr begeat:
†1070
"H嫥�alfdenes,      Hn夠 Scyldinga,
"in Fr..es w嫥      feallan scolde.
"Nē hūru Hildeburh      herian �
†
"Eotena trēowe:      unsynnum wear�IV>
"beloren lēofum      岠�;m lind-plegan
1075
"bearnum and brō�;      hīe on gebyrd hruron
"gāre wunde;      �s geōmuru ides.
"Nalles hōlinga      Hōces dōhtor
"meotod-sceaft bemearn,      sy񯠮 morgen cōm,
"�; hēo under swegle      gesēon meahte
1080
"mor�bealo māga,      �;r hēo ǣr mǣste hēold
"worolde wynne:      wīg ealle fornam
"Finnes �,      nemne fēaum ānum,
"�#275; ne mehte      on �;m me�stede
†
"wīg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
†1085
"nē �; wēa-lāfe      wīge for�n
"�;odnes �       ac hig him ge�budon,
"�#299;e him ō� flet      eal gerȳmdon,
"healle and hēah-setl,      �#299;e healfre geweald
"wi�tena bearn      āgan mōston,
1090
"and 岠 feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
"dōgra gehwylce      Dene weor�,
"Hengestes hēap      hringum wenede,
"efne swā swī�bsp;     sinc-gestrēonum
"fǣttan goldes,      swā hē Frēsena cyn
1095
"on bēor-sele      byldan wolde.
"ܦ#257; hīe getruwedon      on twā healfa
"f岴e frio�ǣre;      Fin Hengeste
†
"elne unflitme      ā�benemde,
"�#275; �; wēa-lāfe      weotena dōme
1100
"ārum heolde,      �#483;r ǣnig mon
"wordum nē worcum      wǣre ne brǣce,
"nē � inwit-searo      ǣfre gemǣnden,
"�;ah hīe hira bēag-gyfan      banan folgedon
"�;oden-lēase,      �; him swā ge�d w屺
1105
"gyf �Frȳsna hwylc      frēcnan sprǣce
†
"�mor�hetes      myndgiend wǣre,
"�hit sweordes ecg      sy񯠮 scolde.
†
"Ā�s ge奮ed      and icge gold
"āh奥n of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110
"betst beado-rinca      w屠on bǣl gearu;
"岠�;m āde w屦nbsp;     ē�sȳne
"swāt-fāh syrce,      swȳn eal-gylden,
"eofer īren-heard,      篥ling manig
"wundum āwyrded;      sume on w嫥 crungon.
†1115
"Hēt �; Hildeburh      岠Hn奥s āde
†
"hire selfre sunu      sweolo�ef岴an,
"bān-fatu b屮an      and on bǣl dōn.
"Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
†
"geōmrode giddum;      gū�nc āstāh.
1120
"Wand tō wolcnum      w媭fȳra mǣst,
"hlynode for hlāwe;      hafelan multon,
†
"ben-geato burston,      �blōd 峳pranc
"lā�te līces.      Līg ealle forswealg,
"gǣsta gīfrost,      �;ra �483;r gū�rnam
1125
"bēga folces;      w屠hira blǣd scacen.

XVIII. THE GLEEMAN'S TALE IS ENDED.

"Gewiton him �; wīgend      wīca nēosian,
"frēondum befeallen      Frȳsland gesēon,
"hāmas and hēa-burh.      Hengest �; gȳt
"w媭fāgne winter      wunode mid Finne
†1130
"ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
"�;ah �275; ne meahte      on mere drīfan
"hringed-stefnan;      holm storme wēol,
"won wi�winde;      winter ȳ�elēac
"īs-gebinde      o�t ō� cōm
1135
"geār in geardas,      swā nū gȳt dē�DIV>
"�; �yngales      sēle bewitia�DIV>†
"wuldor-torhtan weder.      ܦ#257; w屠winter scacen,
"f妥r foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
"gist of geardum;      hē tō gyrn-wr墥
1140
"swī��;hte,      �tō sǣ-lāde,
"gif hē torn-gemōt      �#275;on mihte,
†
"�#275; Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
†
"Swā hē ne forwyrnde      worold-rǣdenne,
†
"�him Hūnlāfing      hilde-lēoman,
1145
"billa sēlest,      on bearm dyde:
"�#483;ron mid Eotenum      ecge cū�/DIV>
"Swylce ferh�ecan      Fin eft begeat
"sweord-bealo slī�nbsp;     岠his selfes hām,
"si񯠮 grimne gripe      Gū� ond Ōslāf
1150
"奴er sǣ-si�bsp;     sorge mǣndon,
"峷iton wēana dǣl;      ne meahte wǣfre mōd
†
"forhabban in hre�      ܦ#257; w屠heal hroden
"fēonda fēorum,      swilce Fin sl妥n,
"cyning on cor�      and sēo cwēn numen.
1155
"Scēotend Scyldinga      tō scypum feredon
"eal in-gesteald      eor�ninges,
"swylce hīe 岠Finnes hām      findan meahton
"sigla searo-gimma.      Hīe on sǣ-lāde
"drihtlīce wīf      tō Denum feredon,
†1160
"lǣddon tō lēodum."      Lēo�w屠āsungen,
glēo-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft āstāh,
†
beorhtode benc-swēg,      byrelas sealdon
†
wīn of wunder-fatum.      ܦ#257; cwōm Wealh�;o for�IV>
gān under gyldnum bēage,      �;r �; gōdan twēgen
†1165
sǣton suhter-gef壥ran;      �; gȳt w屠hiera sib 峧壥re
ǣghwylc ō� trȳwe.      Swylce �;r Unfer�le
†
岠fōtum s岠frēan Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferh� trēowde,
�#275; h奤e mōd micel,      �;ah �275; his māgum nǣre
ārf岴 岠ecga gelācum.      Spr塠�; ides Scyldinga:
1170
"Onfōh � fulle,      frēo-drihten mīn,
"sinces brytta;      �; on sǣlum wes,
"gold-wine gumena,      and tō Gēatum sprec
"mildum wordum!      Swā sceal man dōn.
"Bēo wi�#275;atas gl墬      geofena gemyndig;
1175
"nēan and feorran      �; nū fri�I> hafast.
"Mē man s妤e,      �#363; �; for sunu wolde
"here-rinc habban.      Heorot is gefǣlsod,
"bēah-sele beorhta;      brūc � �; mōte
"manigra mēda      and �;num māgum lǣf
1180
"folc and rīce,      ��; for�yle
"metod-sceaft sēon.      Ic mīnne can
"gl壮e Hrō�,      �#275; �; geogo�ile
"ārum healdan,      gyf �; ǣr �hē,
"wine Scildinga,      worold oflǣtest;
1185
"wēne ic, �#275; mid gōde      gyldan wille
"uncran eaferan,      gif hē �l gemon,
"hw岠wit tō willan      and tō wor�ndum
"umbor wesendum ǣr      ārna gefremedon."
Hwearf �; bī bence,      �;r hyre byre wǣron,
1190
Hrē�299;c and Hrō�d,      and h嫥�earn,
†
giogo�峧壥re;      �;r se gōda s岼/DIV>†
Bēowulf Gēata      be �;m gebrō� twǣm.

XIX. BĒOWULF'S JEWELLED COLLAR. THE HEROES REST.

Him w屠ful boren      and frēond-la�DIV>†
wordum bew妮ed      and wunden gold
1195
ēstum geēawed,      earm-hrēade twā,
†
hr妬 and hringas,      heals-bēaga mǣst
�;ra �on foldan      gefr妥n h塢e.
Nǣnigne ic under swegle      sēlran hȳrde
†
hord-mā񯴭 h嫥�nbsp;     sy񯠮 Hāma 峷奼/DIV>†1200
tō �;re byrhtan byrig      Brōsinga mene,
sigle and sinc-f岬      searo-nī�fealh
†
Eormenrīces,      gecēas ēcne rǣd.
ݯne hring h奤e      Higelāc Gēata,
nefa Swertinges,      nȳhstan sī�/DIV>1205
si񯠮 hē under segne      sinc ealgode,
w媭rēaf werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
sy񯠮 hē for wlenco      wēan āhsode,
fǣh�ō Frȳsum;      hē �; fr峷e w奬
eorclan-stānas      ofer ȳ� ful,
1210
rīce �;oden,      hē under rande gecranc;
†
gehwearf �; in Francna f篭      feorh cyninges,
brēost-gewǣdu      and se bēah somod:
†
wyrsan wīg-frecan      w媠rēafedon
奴er gū�eare,      Gēata lēode
†1215
hreā-wīc hēoldon.      Heal swēge onfēng.
Wealh�;o ma�de,      hēo fore �;m werede spr塺
"Brūc � bēages,      Bēowulf, lēofa
"hyse, mid hǣle,      and � hr妬es nēot
"�;od-gestrēona,      and ge�;oh tela,
1220
"cen �d cr奴e      and � cnyhtum wes
"lāra lī�nbsp;     ic �; �#275;an geman.
"Hafast �; gefēred,      �#275; feor and nēah
"ealne wīde-ferh�sp;     weras ehtiga�DIV>
"efne swā sīde      swā sǣ bebūge�IV>1225
"windige weallas.      Wes, � �; lifige,
"篥ling ēadig!      ic �; an tela
†
"sinc-gestrēona.      Bēo �; suna mīnum
"dǣdum gedēfe      drēam healdende!
†
"Hēr is ǣghwylc eorl      ō� getrȳwe,
1230
"mōdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
"� syndon ge�3;re,      �;od eal gearo:
†
"druncne dryht-guman,      dō�ā ic bidde!"
Ēode �; tō setle.      ܦ#483;r w屠symbla cyst,
druncon wīn weras:      wyrd ne cū�
†1235
geō-sceaft grimme,      swā hit āgangen wear�IV>
eorla manegum,      sy񯠮 ǣfen cwōm
and him Hrō�257;r gewāt      tō hofe sīnum,
rīce tō r岴e.      Reced weardode
unrīm eorla,      swā hīe oft ǣr dydon:
1240
benc-�eredon,      hit geond-brǣded wear�IV>
beddum and bolstrum.      Bēor-scealca sum
fūs and fǣge      flet-r岴e gebēag.
Setton him tō hēafdum      hilde-randas,
bord-wudu beorhtan;      �;r on bence w屼/DIV>1245
ofer 篥linge      ȳ�sēne
†
hea�tēapa helm,      hringed byrne,
�udu �#299;c.      W屠�;aw hyra,
†
�#299;e oft wǣron      an wīg gearwe,
gē 岠hām gē on herge,      gē gehw篥r �;ra
1250
efne swylce mǣla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
� gesǣlde;      w屠sēo �;od tilu.

XX. GRENDEL'S MOTHER ATTACKS THE RING-DANES.

†
Sigon �; tō slǣpe.      Sum sāre angeald
ǣfen-r岴e,      swā him ful-oft gelamp,
†
si񯠮 gold-sele      Grendel warode,
†1255
unriht 奮de,      o�t ende becwōm,
swylt 奴er synnum.      ߦt gesȳne wear�DIV>
wīd-cū�werum,      �wrecend �; gȳt
lifde 奴er lā�      lange �7;ge
†
奴er gū�are;      Grendles mōdor,
1260
ides āglǣc-wīf      yrm� gemunde,
†
sē �峥r-egesan      wunian scolde,
cealde strēamas,      si񯠮 Cain wear�IV>
tō ecg-banan      āngan brē�
f壥ren-mǣge;      hē �; fāg gewāt,
1265
mor�gemearcod      man-drēam flēon,
wēsten warode.      ݡnon wōc fela
geōsceaft-gāsta;      w屠�;ra Grendel sum,
heoro-wearh hetelīc,      sē 岠Heorote fand
w墣endne wer      wīges bīdan,
†1270
�;r him āglǣca      岭grǣpe wear�DIV>
hw篲e hē gemunde      m妥nes strenge,
gim-f岴e gife,      �; him god sealde,
†
and him tō anwaldan      āre gelȳfde,
frōfre and fultum:      �2; hē �ēond ofercwōm,
1275
gehnǣgde helle gāst:      �; hē hēan gewāt,
drēame bedǣled      dēa�#299;c sēon,
man-cynnes fēond.      And his mōdor �; gȳt
gīfre and galg-mōd      gegān wolde
†
sorh-fulne sī�bsp;     suna dēa�ecan.
1280
Cōm �; tō Heorote,      �;r Hring-Dene
†
geond �ld swǣfun.      ܦ#257; �;r sōna wear�IV>
ed-hwyrft eorlum,      si񯠮 inne fealh
Grendles mōdor;      w屠se gryre lǣssa
efne swā micle,      swā bi�g�r奴,
1285
wīg-gryre wīfes      be wǣpned-men,
†
�heoru bunden,      hamere ge�
sweord swāte fāh      swīn ofer helme,
ecgum dyhtig      andweard scire�DIV>
ܦ#257; w屠on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290
sweord ofer setlum,      sīd-rand manig
hafen handa f岴;      helm ne gemunde,
†
byrnan sīde,      �e se brōga angeat.
Hēo w屠on ofste,      wolde ūt �/DIV>
fēore beorgan,      �; hēo onfunden w屻
1295
hra�ēo 篥linga      ānne h奤e
f岴e befangen,      �; hēo tō fenne gang;
sē w屠 Hrō�257;re      h嫥�ēofost
†
on gesī� hād      be sǣm tweonum,
rīce rand-wiga,      �e hēo on r岴e ābrēat,
1300
blǣd-f岴ne beorn.      N屠 Bēowulf �;r,
†
ac w屠ō� in      ǣr geteohhod
奴er mā񯴭-gife      mǣrum Gēate.
†
Hrēam wear� Heorote.      Hēo under heolfre genam
cū� folme;      cearu w屠genīwod
1305
geworden in wīcum:      ne w屠 �wrixle til,
�#299;e on bā healfa      bicgan scoldon
frēonda fēorum.      ܦ#257; w屠frōd cyning,
hār hilde-rinc,      on hrēon mōde,
sy񯠮 hē aldor-�bsp;     unlyfigendne,
1310
�ēorestan      dēadne wisse.
Hra�屠tō būre      Bēowulf fetod,
sigor-ēadig secg.      Samod ǣr-d妥
ēode eorla sum,      篥le cempa
self mid gesī�      �;r se snottra bād,
1315
hw篲e him al-walda      ǣfre wille
奴er wēa-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
Gang �; 奴er flōre      fyrd-wyr�an
mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
†
�#275; � wīsan      wordum hnǣgde
1320
frēan Ingwina;      fr妮 gif him wǣre
†
奴er nēod-la�bsp;     niht getǣse.

XXI. SORROW AT HEOROT: AESCHERE'S DEATH

Hrō�257;r ma�de,      helm Scildinga:
"Ne frīn �; 奴er sǣlum!      Sorh is genīwod
"Denigea lēodum.      Dēad is ųc-here,
1325
"Yrmenlāfes      yldra brō�
"mīn rūn-wita      and mīn rǣd-bora,
"eaxl-gestealla,      �wē on orlege
"hafelan weredon,      �hniton fē�
"eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330
"篥ling ǣr-gōd,      swylc ųc-here w屮
"Wear�m on Heorote      tō hand-banan
"w媭gǣst wǣfre;      ic ne wāt hw壥r
"atol ǣse wlanc      eft-sī�tēah,
†
"fylle gefrǣgnod.      Hēo �; fǣh�r塬
1335
"�; �; gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
"�ǣstne hād      heardum clammum,
"for�#275; tō lange      lēode mīne
"wanode and wyrde.      Hē 岠wīge gecrang
"ealdres scyldig,      and nū ō�cwōm
†1340
"mihtig mān-sca�nbsp;     wolde hyre mǣg wrecan,
"gē feor hafa�sp;     fǣh�estǣled,
"� �n m奦nbsp;     �monegum,
"sē �er sinc-gyfan      on sefan grēote�DIV>
"hre�bealo hearde;      nū sēo hand lige�DIV>†1345
"sē �75;ow wēl-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
†
"Ic �lond-būend      lēode mīne
†
"sele-rǣdende      secgan hȳrde,
"�#299;e gesāwon      swylce twēgen
"micle mearc-stapan      mōras healdan,
1350
"ellor-gǣstas:      �;ra ō� w屬
†
"� hīe gewislīcost      gewitan meahton,
†
"idese onlīcnes,      ō�earm-sceapen
"on weres w岴mum      wr塭lāstas tr墬
"n奮e hē w屠 māra      �ǣnig man ō�
1355
"�n geār-dagum      Grendel nemdon
"fold-būende:      nō hīe f壥r cunnon,
"hw篥r him ǣnig w屦nbsp;     ǣr ācenned
"dyrnra gāsta.      Hīe dȳgel lond
"warigea� wulf-hleo�nbsp;     windige n岳as,
†1360
"frēcne fen-gelād,      �;r fyrgen-strēam
"under n岳a genipu      ni�gewīte�DIV>
"flōd under foldan;      nis �or heonon
†
"mīl-gemearces,      � mere stande�DIV>†
"ofer �;m hongia�sp;     hrīmge bearwas,
1365
"wudu wyrtum f岴,      w峥r oferhelma�DIV>†
"ܦ#483;r m奠nihta gehwǣm      nī�ndor sēon,
"fȳr on flōde;      nō �ōd leofa�IV>
"gumena bearna,      �ne grund wite;
"�;ah �ǣ�apa      hundum geswenced,
†1370
"heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sēce,
†
"feorran geflȳmed,      ǣr hē feorh sele�DIV>†
"aldor on ōfre,      ǣr hē in wille,
†
"hafelan hȳdan.      Nis �#275;oru stōw:
"� ȳ�blond      up āstīge�IV>1375
"won tō wolcnum,      �wind styre�IV>
"lā�gewidru,      o�t lyft drysma�DIV>
"roderas rēota�bsp;     Nū is rǣd gelang
"eft 岠�; ānum!      Eard gīt ne const,
"frēcne stōwe,      �;r �; findan miht
1380
"sinnigne secg:      sēc gif �; dyrre!
"Ic �; �; fǣh�bsp;     fēo lēanige,
"eald-gestrēonum,      swā ic ǣr dyde,
"wundnum golde,      gyf �; on weg cymest."

XXII. BĒOWULF SEEKS THE MONSTER IN THE HAUNTS OF THE NIXIES.

Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
1385
"Ne sorga, snotor guma!      sēlre bi�483;ghwǣm,
"�#275; his frēond wrece,      �hē fela murne;
"ūre ǣghwylc sceal      ende gebīdan
"worolde līfes;      wyrce sē �333;te
"dōmes ǣr dēa�nbsp;     ��iht-guman
1390
"unlifgendum      奴er sēlest.
†
"Ārīs, rīces weard;      uton hra�ēran,
"Grendles māgan      gang scēawigan!
"Ic hit �; gehāte:      nō hē on helm losa�DIV>
"nē on foldan f篭,      nē on fyrgen-holt,
1395
"nē on gyfenes grund,      gā �;r hē wille.
"ݹ̄s dōgor �;      ge�afa
"wēana gehwylces,      swā ic �; wēne tō!"
Āhlēop �; se gomela,      gode �e,
mihtigan drihtne,      � man gespr塮
†1400
ܦ#257; w屠Hrō�257;re      hors gebǣted,
wicg wunden-feax.      Wīsa fengel
†
geatolīc gengde;      gum-fē�tōp
lind-h塢endra.      Lāstas wǣron
奴er wald-swa�nbsp;     wīde gesȳne,
†1405
gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fōr �;
ofer myrcan mōr,      mago-�b尼/DIV>
� sēlestan      sāwol-lēasne,
�;ra � Hrō�257;re      hām eahtode.
Ofer-ēode �;      篥linga bearn
1410
stēap stān-hli�nbsp;     stīge nearwe,
†
enge ān-pa�      un-cū�lād,
neowle n岳as,      nicor-hūsa fela;
hē fēara sum      beforan gengde
wīsra monna,      wong scēawian,
1415
o�t hē fǣringa      fyrgen-bēamas
ofer hārne stān      hleonian funde,
wyn-lēasne wudu;      w峥r under stōd
drēorig and gedrēfed.      Denum eallum w屬
winum Scyldinga,      weorce on mōde,
1420
tō ge�ne      � monegum,
†
oncȳ�rla gehwǣm,      sy񯠮 ųc-heres
on �;m holm-clife      hafelan mētton.
Flōd blōde wēol      (folc tō sǣgon)
hātan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
†1425
fūslīc fyrd-lēo�bsp;     Fē�al ges岻
gesāwon �; 奴er w峥re      wyrm-cynnes fela,
sellīce sǣ-dracan      sund cunnian,
†
swylce on n屭hleo�nbsp;     nicras licgean,
�; on undern-mǣl      oft bewitiga�IV>1430
sorh-fulne sī�sp;     on segl-rāde,
wyrmas and wil-dēor;      hīe on weg hruron
bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm ongeāton,
gū�rn galan.      Sumne Gēata lēod
of flān-bogan      fēores getwǣfde,
1435
ȳ�winnes,      �m on aldre stōd
here-strǣl hearda;      hē on holme w屼/DIV>
sundes �; sǣnra,      �; hyne swylt fornam.
Hr篥 wear� ȳ�nbsp;     mid eofer-sprēotum
heoro-hōcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
†1440
nī�enǣged      and on n屠 togen
†
wundorlīc wǣg-bora;      weras scēawedon
gryrelīcne gist.      Gyrede hine Bēowulf
eorl-gewǣdum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
scolde here-byrne      hondum gebrōden,
1445
sīd and searo-fāh,      sund cunnian,
sēo �ān-cofan      beorgan cū�/DIV>†
�m hilde-grāp      hre�ne mihte,
eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gesce񯠮;
ac se hwīta helm      hafelan werede,
1450
sē �e-grundas      mengan scolde,
sēcan sund-gebland      since geweor�
befongen frēa-wrāsnum,      swā hine fyrn-dagum
worhte wǣpna smi�bsp;     wundrum tēode,
besette swīn-līcum,      �ne sy񯠮 nō
†1455
brond nē beado-mēcas      bītan ne meahton.
N屠�nne mǣtost      m妥n-fultuma,
†
�m on � lāh      �rō�257;res;
†
w屠�;m h奴-mēce      Hrunting nama,
†
�s ān foran      eald-gestrēona;
†1460
ecg w屠īren      āter-tēarum fāh,
āhyrded hea�wāte;      nǣfre hit 岠hilde ne swāc
manna ǣngum      �;ra � mid mundum bewand,
sē �ryre-sī�nbsp;     gegān dorste,
folc-stede fāra;      n屠�rma sī�DIV>1465
�t ellen-weorc      奮an scolde.
Hūru ne gemunde      mago Ecglāfes
†
eafo� cr奴ig,      �#275; ǣr gespr塼/DIV>
wīne druncen,      �; hē �#483;pnes onlāh
sēlran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470
under ȳ�ewin      aldre genē�
driht-scype drēogan;      �;r hē dōme forlēas,
ellen-mǣr�      Ne w屠�;m ō� swā,
sy񯠮 hē hine tō gū�bsp;     gegyred h奤e.

XXIII. THE BATTLE WITH THE WATER-DRAKE.

Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
1475
"ge�ū, se mǣra      maga Healfdenes,
"snottra fengel,      nū ic eom sī�fūs,
"gold-wine gumena,      hw岠wit geō sprǣcon,
"gif ic 岠 �      �;nre scolde
"aldre linnan,      �#363; mē ā wǣre
†1480
"for�witenum      on f壥r stǣle;
"wes �; mund-bora mīnum      mago-�,
†
"hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
"swylce �; �; mādmas,      �; �; mē sealdest,
"Hrō�257;r lēofa,      Higelāce onsend.
1485
"M奠�on �;m golde ongitan      Gēata dryhten,
"gesēon sunu Hrē�,      �hē on �nc stara�DIV>†
"� gum-cystum      gōdne funde
"bēaga bryttan,      brēac �mōste.
"And �; Unfer�lǣt      ealde lāfe,
†1490
"wrǣtlīc wǣg-sweord      wīd-cū�man
"heard-ecg habban;      ic mē mid Hruntinge
"dōm gewyrce,      o񯣠mec dēa�me�/DIV>
Ŧter �;m wordum      Weder-Gēata lēod
efste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495
bīdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfēng
hilde-rince.      ܦ#257; w屠hwīl d妥s,
ǣr hē � grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
Sōna �onfunde,      sē �#333;da begong
heoro-gīfre behēold      hund missēra,
1500
grim and grǣdig,      �#483;r gumena sum
媭wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
Grāp �; tōgēanes,      gū�nc gefēng
atolan clommum;      nō �2; ǣr in gescōd
hālan līce:      hring ūtan ymb-bearh,
1505
�#275;o � fyrd-hom      �ōn ne mihte,
locene leo�yrcan      lā�fingrum.
†
B尠�; sēo brim-wylf,      �; hēo tō botme cōm,
hringa �      tō hofe sīnum,
swā hē ne mihte nō      (hē �#333;dig w屩
1510
wǣpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra �la
swencte on sunde,      sǣ-dēor monig
hilde-tūxum      here-syrcan br塬
ēhton āglǣcan.      ܦ#257; se eorl ongeat,
†
�#275; in ni�le      nāt-hwylcum w屬
1515
�;r him nǣnig w峥r      wihte ne sce�,
nē him for hrōf-sele      hrīnan ne mehte
fǣr-gripe flōdes:      fȳr-lēoht geseah,
blācne lēoman      beorhte scīnan.
Ongeat �; se gōda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520
mere-wīf mihtig;      m妥n-rǣs forgeaf
hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne oftēah,
�re on hafelan      hring-mǣl āgōl
grǣdig gū�#275;o�bsp;     ܦ#257; se gist onfand,
� beado-lēoma      bītan nolde,
1525
aldre sce񯠮,      ac sēo ecg geswāc
�;odne 岠 �:      � ǣr fela
hond-gemōta,      helm oft gesc尬
fǣges fyrd-hr妬:      �s forma sī�IV>
dēorum mā�      �s dōm āl奮
1530
Eft w屠ān-rǣd,      nalas elnes l岬
mǣr� gemyndig      mǣg Hygelāces;
wearp �; wunden-mǣl      wrǣttum gebunden
yrre ōretta,      �t on eor�l奬
stī�d stȳl-ecg;      strenge getruwode,
1535
mund-gripe m妥nes.      Swā sceal man dōn,
�hē 岠 gū�bsp;     gegān �
longsumne lof,      nā ymb his līf ceara�DIV>†
Gefēng �; be eaxle      (nalas for fǣh�earn)
Gū�#275;ata lēod      Grendles mōdor;
1540
br妤 �; beadwe heard,      �; hē gebolgen w屬
feorh-genī�,      �#275;o on flet gebēah.
Hēo him eft hra�bsp;     and-lēan forgeald
†
grimman grāpum      and him tōgēanes fēng;
oferwearp �; wērig-mōd      wigena strengest,
1545
fē�empa,      �#275; on fylle wear�DIV>†
Ofs岠�; � sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe getēah,
brād and brūn-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
āngan eaferan.      Him on eaxle l奼/DIV>
brēost-net brōden;      �bearh fēore,
1550
wi�d and wi�ge      ingang forstōd.
H奤e �; forsī�nbsp;     sunu Ecg�;owes
under gynne grund,      Gēata cempa,
nemne him hea�yrne      helpe gefremede,
here-net hearde,      and hālig god
1555
gewēold wīg-sigor,      wītig drihten;
rodera rǣdend      hit on ryht gescēd,
†
ȳ�#299;ce      sy񯠮 hē eft āstōd.

XXIV. BĒOWULF SLAYS THE SPRITE.

Geseah �; on searwum      sige-ēadig bil,
eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum �2;htig,
1560
wigena weor�nd:      �w屼/I> wǣpna cyst,
būton hit w屠 māre      �ǣnig mon ō�/DIV>
tō beadu-lāce      峢eran meahte
gōd and geatolīc      gīganta geweorc.
Hē gefēng �; fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565
hrēoh and heoro-grim      hring-mǣl gebr妤,
aldres orwēna,      yrringa slōh,
�re wi�halse      heard grāpode,
bān-hringas br塬      bil eal �ōd
fǣgne flǣsc-homan,      hēo on flet gecrong;
1570
sweord w屠swātig,      secg weorce gefeh.
Līxte se lēoma,      lēoht inne stōd,
efne swā of hefene      hādre scīne�IV>
rodores candel.      Hē 奴er recede wlāt,
hwearf �; be wealle,      wǣpen hafenade
1575
heard be hiltum      Higelāces �/DIV>
yrre and ān-rǣd.      N屠sēo ecg fracod
hilde-rince,      ac hē hra� wolde
Grendle forgyldan      gū�#483;sa fela
�;ra �275; geworhte      tō West-Denum
1580
oftor micle      �on ǣnne sī�DIV>
�hē Hrō�257;res      heor�nēatas
slōh on sweofote,      slǣpende fr岼/DIV>
folces Denigea      fȳf-tȳne men
†
and ō� swylc      ūt of-ferede,
1585
lā�299;cu lāc.      Hē him �lēan forgeald,
rē� cempa,      tō � hē on r岴e geseah
gū�#275;rigne      Grendel licgan,
aldor-lēasne,      swā him ǣr gescōd
hild 岠 Heorote;      hrā wīde sprong,
1590
sy񯠮 hē 奴er dēa�bsp;     drepe �e,
heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine �; hēafde becearf,
†
Sōna �gesāwon      snottre ceorlas,
�; � Hrō�257;re      on holm wliton,
�s ȳ�blond      eal gemenged,
†1595
brim blōde fāh:      blonden-feaxe
gomele ymb gōdne      ongeador sprǣcon,
�g �篥linges      eft ne wēndon,
�#275; sige-hrē�nbsp;     sēcean cōme
†
mǣrne �;oden;      �; �nige gewear�DIV>1600
�ne sēo brim-wylf      ābroten h奤e.
ܦ#257; cōm nōn d妥s.      N屠ofgēafon
hwate Scyldingas; gewāt him hām �/DIV>
gold-wine gumena.      Gistas sētan,
mōdes sēoce,      and on mere staredon,
†1605
wiston and ne wēndon,      �hīe heora wine-drihten
selfne gesāwon.      ܦ#257; �eord ongan
†
奴er hea�wāte      hilde-gicelum
wīg-bil wanian;      �s wundra sum,
�t eal gemealt      īse gelīcost,
1610
�forstes bend      f壥r onlǣte�DIV>†
onwinde�w媭rāpas,      sē �eald hafa�IV>
sǣla and mǣla;      � sō�tod.
Ne nom hē in �;m wīcum,      Weder-Gēata lēod,
mā�#483;hta mā,      �;h hē �;r monige geseah,
1615
būton �afelan      and �; hilt somod,
since fāge;      sweord ǣr gemealt,
forbarn brōden mǣl:      w屠�ōd tō �#257;t,
ǣttren ellor-gǣst,      sē �;r inne swealt.
Sōna w屠on sunde,      sē �83;r 岠s墣e gebād
1620
wīg-hryre wrā�      w峥r up �ēaf;
wǣron ȳ�bland      eal gefǣlsod,
†
ēacne eardas,      �; se ellor-gāst
oflēt līf-dagas      and �;s lǣnan gesceaft.
Cōm �; tō lande      lid-manna helm
1625
swī�#333;d swymman,      sǣ-lāce gefeah,
m妥n-byr�e      �;ra �275; him mid h奤e.
Ēodon him �; tōgēanes,      gode �on,
�72;�299;c � hēap,      �;odnes gefēgon,
� hī hyne gesundne      gesēon mōston.
1630
ܦ#257; w屠of �;m hrōran      helm and byrne
lungre ālȳsed:      lagu drūsade,
w峥r under wolcnum,      w媭drēore fāg.
Fērdon for��nbsp;     fē�āstum
ferh� f妮e,      fold-weg mǣton,
†1635
cū�trǣte;      cyning-balde men
from �;m holm-clife      hafelan bǣron
earfo�299;ce      heora ǣghw篲um
fela-mōdigra:      fēower scoldon
on 񥫠 w媭stenge      weorcum geferian
1640
tō �;m gold-sele      Grendles hēafod,
o�t semninga      tō sele cōmon
frome fyrd-hwate      fēower-tȳne
Gēata gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
mōdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas tr墮
1645
ܦ#257; cōm in gān      ealdor �
dǣd-cēne mon      dōme gewur�
h嫥 hilde-dēor.      Hrō�257;r grētan:
ܦ#257; w屠be feaxe      on flet boren
Grendles hēafod,      �;r guman druncon,
†1650
egeslīc for eorlum      and �;re idese mid:
†
wlite-sēon wrǣtlīc      weras onsāwon.

XXV. HROTHGAR'S GRATITUDE: HE DISCOURSES.

Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
"Hw岡 wē �; �;s sǣ-lāc,      sunu Healfdenes,
"lēod Scyldinga,      lustum brōhton,
1655
"tīres tō tācne,      �; �; hēr tō lōcast.
"Ic �unsōfte      ealdre gedīgde:
"wigge under w峥re      weorc genē�/DIV>
"earfo�299;ce,      岭rihte w屼/DIV>
"gū�getwǣfed,      nym�ec god scylde.
1660
"Ne meahte ic 岠hilde      mid Hruntinge
"wiht gewyrcan,      �;ah �#483;pen duge,
"ac mē geū�bsp;     ylda waldend,
"� on wāge geseah      wlitig hangian
†
"eald sweord ēacen      (oftost wīsode
1665
"winigea lēasum)      � �2; wǣpne gebrǣ.
"Ofslōh �; 岠�;re s墣e      (�; mē sǣl āgeald)
"hūses hyrdas.      ܦ#257; �lde-bil
"forbarn, brogden mǣl,      swā �ōd gesprang,
"hātost hea�wāta:      ic �lt �/DIV>1670
"fēondum 峦erede;      fyren-dǣda wr塬
"dēa�ealm Denigea,      swā hit gedēfe w屮
"Ic hit �; � gehāte,      �#363; on Heorote mōst
"sorh-lēas swefan      mid �;nra secga gedryht,
"and � gehwylc      �;nra lēoda,
†1675
"dugu�nd iogo�nbsp;     �#363; him ondrǣdan ne �,
"�;oden Scyldinga,      on �; healfe,
"aldor-bealu eorlum,      swā �; ǣr dydest."
ܦ#257; w屠gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
hārum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
†1680
enta ǣr-geweorc,      hit on ǣht gehwearf
奴er dēofla hryre      Denigea frēan,
wundor-smi� geweorc,      and �; �;s worold ofgeaf
grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
mor� scyldig,      and his mōdor ēac;
1685
on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
�;m sēlestan      be sǣm twēonum
†
�;ra � Sceden-igge      sceattas dǣlde.
Hrō�257;r ma�de,      hylt scēawode,
ealde lāfe,      on �;m w屠ōr writen
1690
fyrn-gewinnes:      sy񯠮 flōd ofslōh,
gifen gēotende,      gīganta cyn,
frēcne gefērdon:      �s fremde �;od
ēcean dryhtne,      him �de-lēan
�峥res wylm      waldend sealde.
1695
Swā w屠on �;m scennum      scīran goldes
� rūn-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
geseted and gesǣd,      hwām �eord geworht,
īrena cyst      ǣrest wǣre,
wreo�hilt and wyrm-fāh.      �; se wīsa spr塼/DIV>1700
sunu Healfdenes      (swīgedon ealle):
"ߦt lā m奠 secgan,      sē �333;�d riht
"freme� folce,      (feor eal gemon
†
"eald ē�weard),      �s eorl wǣre
"geboren betera!      Blǣd is ārǣred
1705
"geond wīd-wegas,      wine mīn Bēowulf,
"�;n ofer �;oda gehwylce.      Eal �; hit ge� healdest,
"m妥n mid mōdes snyttrum.      Ic �; sceal mīne gelǣstan
"frēode, swā wit fur� sprǣcon;      �; scealt tō frōfre weor�/DIV>
"eal lang-twidig      lēodum �;num,
1710
"h嫥�tō helpe.      Ne wear�Heremōd swā
"eaforum Ecgwelan,      Ār-Scyldingum;
"ne gewēox hē him tō willan,      ac tō w媭fealle
"and tō dēa�alum      Deniga lēodum;
"brēat bolgen-mōd      bēod-genēatas,
†1715
"eaxl-gesteallan,      o�t hē āna hwearf,
"mǣre �;oden.      mon-drēamum from:
"�;ah �e mihtig god      m妥nes wynnum,
"eafe� stēpte,      ofer ealle men
"for�gefremede,      hw篥re him on ferh� grēow
1720
"brēost-hord blōd-rēow:      nallas bēagas geaf
"Denum 奴er dōme;      drēam-lēas gebād,
"�#275; �gewinnes      weorc �e,
†
"lēod-bealo longsum.      ܦ#363; �; lǣr be �DIV>
"gum-cyste ongit!      ic �d be �;
1725
"āwr塠wintrum frōd.      Wundor is tō secganne,
"hū mihtig god      manna cynne
"�īdne sefan      snyttru brytta�DIV>
"eard and eorl-scipe,      hē āh ealra geweald.
†
"Hwīlum hē on lufan      lǣte�orfan
†1730
"monnes mōd-ge�bsp;     mǣran cynnes,
"sele�m on ē�nbsp;     eor�wynne,
"tō healdanne      hlēo-burh wera,
"gedē�m swā gewealdene      worolde dǣlas,
"sīde rīce,      �#275; his selfa ne m奼/DIV>1735
"for his un-snyttrum      ende ge�n;
"wuna�#275; on wiste,      nō hine wiht dwele�DIV>
"ādl nē yldo,      nē him inwit-sorh
"on sefan sweorce�bsp;     nē gesacu ōhwǣr,
"ecg-hete ēowe�bsp;     ac him eal worold
1740
"wende� willan;      hē �wyrse ne con,
†
"o�t him on innan      ofer-hygda dǣl
"weaxe�d wrida�bsp;     �se weard swefe�DIV>
"sāwele hyrde:      bi� slǣp tō f岴,
"bisgum gebunden,      bona swī�ēah,
†1745
"sē � flān-bogan      fyrenum scēote�DIV>

XXVI. THE DISCOURSE IS ENDED.—BĒOWULF PREPARES TO LEAVE.

"ݯnne bi� hre�nbsp;     under helm drepen
"biteran strǣle:      him bebeorgan ne con
†
"wom wundor-bebodum      wergan gāstes;
"� him tō lȳtel,      �#275; tō lange hēold,
†1750
"gȳtsa�grom-hȳdig,      nallas on gylp sele�IV>
"fǣtte bēagas      and hē �; for�sceaft
"forgyte�d forgȳme�bsp;     � him ǣr god sealde
"wuldres waldend,      weor�nda dǣl.
"Hit on ende-st夦nbsp;     eft gelimpe�DIV>1755
"� līc-homa      lǣne gedrēose�DIV>
"fǣge gefealle�bsp;     fēh�333;�tō,
"sē �nmurnlīce      mādmas dǣle�DIV>
"eorles ǣr-gestrēon,      egesan ne gȳme�DIV>
"Bebeorh �; � bealo-nī�bsp;     Bēowulf lēofa,
1760
"secg se betsta,      and �; �#275;lre gecēos,
"ēce rǣdas;      oferhȳda ne gȳm,
"mǣre cempa!      Nū is �;nes m妮es blǣd
"āne hwīle;      eft sōna bi�DIV>
"�c ādl o񯣠 ecg      eafo�getwǣfe�DIV>1765
"o񯣠fȳres feng      o񯣠 flōdes wylm,
"o񯣠gripe mēces      o񯣠gāres fliht,
†
"o񯣠atol yldo,      o񯣠ēagena bearhtm
"forsite�d forsworce�bsp;     semninga bi�DIV>
"�c, dryht-guma,      dēa�erswȳ�
1770
"Swā ic Hring-Dena      hund missēra
"wēold under wolcnum,      and hig wigge belēac
"manigum mǣg�bsp;     geond �middan-geard,
"岣um and ecgum,      � mē ǣnigne
"under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775
"Hw岡 mē � ē�nbsp;     edwenden cwōm,
"gyrn 奴er gomene,      seo񯠮 Grendel wear�DIV>
"eald-gewinna,      in-genga mīn:
"ic �;re sōcne      singāles w奼/DIV>
"mōd-ceare micle.      ߦs sig metode �/DIV>1780
"ēcean drihtne,      � ic on aldre gebād,
"� on � hafelan      heoro-drēorigne
"ofer eald gewin      ēagum starige!
"Gā nū tō setle,      symbel-wynne drēoh
†
"wīgge weor�      unc sceal worn fela
†1785
"mā�gemǣnra,      si񯠮 morgen bi�/DIV>
Gēat w屠 gl墭mōd,      gēong sōna tō,
setles nēosan,      swā se snottra heht.
ܦ#257; w屠eft swā ǣr      ellen-rōfum,
flet-sittendum      f妥re gereorded
1790
nīowan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Dugu�l ārās;
wolde blonden-feax      beddes nēosan,
gamela Scylding.      Gēat ungemetes wēl,
†
rōfne rand-wigan      restan lyste:
1795
sōna him sele-�bsp;     sī� wērgum,
feorran-cundum      for�wīsade,
se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
� �,      swylce �2; dōgore
hēa�ī�e      habban scoldon.
1800
Reste hine �; rūm-heort;      reced hlīfade
gēap and gold-fāh,      g岴 inne sw夬
†
o�t hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
†
blī�ort bodode.      ܦ#257; cōm beorht sunne
scacan ofer grundas;      sca�ōnetton,
1805
wǣron 篥lingas      eft tō lēodum
fūse tō farenne,      wolde feor �/DIV>
cuma collen-ferh�sp;     cēoles nēosan.
†
Heht �; se hearda      Hrunting beran,
sunu Ecglāfes,      heht his sweord niman,
1810
lēoflīc īren;      s妤e him �lēanes �/DIV>
cw箠hē � gū�ne      gōdne tealde,
wīg-cr奴igne,      nales wordum lōg
mēces ecge:      �s mōdig secg.
And �; sī�ome      searwum gearwe
1815
wīgend wǣron,      ēode weor�Denum
篥ling tō yppan,      �;r se ō�w屼/DIV>
h嫥 hilde-dēor,      Hrō�257;r grētte.

XXVII. THE PARTING WORDS.

Bēowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
"Nū wē sǣ-lī�      secgan wylla�IV>1820
"feorran cumene,      �#275; fundia�IV>
"Higelāc sēcan.      Wǣron hēr tela
"willum bewenede;      �; ūs wēl dohtest.
†
"Gif ic �on eor�nbsp;     ōwihte m奼/DIV>
"�;nre mōd-lufan      māran tilian,
1825
"gumena dryhten,      �ic gȳt dyde,
"gū�weorca      ic bēo gearo sōna.
"Gif ic �gefricge      ofer flōda begang,
"�c ymbe-sittend      egesan �2;wa�DIV>
"swā �hetende      hwīlum dydon,
1830
"ic �; �;senda      � bringe,
"h嫥�ō helpe.      Ic on Higelāce wāt,
†
"Gēata dryhten,      �;ah �275; geong sȳ,
"folces hyrde,      �#275; mec fremman wile
"wordum and worcum,      � �; wēl herige,
†1835
"and �; tō gēoce      gār-holt bere
"m妥nes fultum,      �;r �; bi�nna �
"gif him � Hrē�299;c      tō hofum Gēata
"ge�, �;odnes bearn,      hē m奠�;r fela
"frēonda findan:      feor-cȳ񯣠bēo�IV>1840
"sēlran gesōhte      �;m � selfa dēah."
Hrō�257;r ma�de      him on andsware:
"ܦ#275; �; word-cwydas      wittig drihten
"on sefan sende!      ne hȳrde ic snotorlīcor
"on swā geongum feore      guman �n:
1845
"�; eart m妥nes strang      and on mōde frōd,
"wīs word-cwida.      Wēn ic talige,
"gif �gegange�bsp;     � gār nyme�DIV>
"hild heoru-grimme      Hrē� eaferan,
"ādl o񯣠 īren      ealdor �;nne,
1850
"folces hyrde,      and �; �;n feorh hafast,
"� Sǣ-Gēatas      sēlran n塢en
"tō gecēosenne      cyning ǣnigne,
"hord-weard h嫥�nbsp;     gif �; healdan wylt
"māga rīce.      Mē �;n mōd-sefa
†1855
"līca�ng swā wēl,      lēofa Bēowulf:
"hafast �; gefēred,      �#257;m folcum sceal,
"Gēata lēodum      and Gār-Denum
†
"sib gemǣnum      and sacu restan,
"inwit-nī�      �; hīe ǣr drugon;
1860
"wesan, � ic wealde      wīdan rīces,
"mā� gemǣne,      manig ō�e
†
"gōdum gegrētan      ofer ganotes b箻
†
"sceal hring-naca      ofer hēa�ringan
"lāc and luf-tācen.      Ic �; lēode wāt
†1865
"gē wi�#275;ond gē wi�frēond      f岴e geworhte
"ǣghw屠 untǣle      ealde wīsan."
ܦ#257; gīt him eorla hlēo      inne gesealde,
mago Healfdenes      mā� twelfe,
hēt hine mid �;m lācum      lēode swǣse
1870
sēcean on gesyntum,      snūde eft cuman.
Gecyste �;      cyning 篥lum gōd,
�;oden Scildinga,      �betstan
and be healse genam;      hruron him tēaras,
blonden-feaxum:      him w屠 bēga wēn,
1875
ealdum infrōdum,      ō� swī�
†
�#299; seo񯠮      gesēon mōston
mōdige on me�      W屠him se man tō �#275;of,
�#275; � brēost-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
ac him on hre�nbsp;     hyge-bendum f岴
1880
奴er dēorum men      dyrne langa�IV>†
beorn wi�blōde.      Him Bēowulf �
gū�nc gold-wlanc      gr屭moldan tr墬
since hrēmig:      sǣ-genga bād
āgend-frēan,      sē �ancre rād.
1885
ܦ#257; w屠on gange      gifu Hrō�257;res
oft ge姴ed:      �s ān cyning
†
ǣghw屠 orleahtre,      o�t hine yldo benam
m妥nes wynnum,      sē � manegum scōd.

XXVIII. BĒOWULF RETURNS TO GEATLAND.—THE QUEENS HYGD AND THRYTHO.

Cwōm �; tō flōde      fela-mōdigra
1890
h奭stealdra hēap;      hring-net bǣron,
locene leo�yrcan.      Land-weard onfand
eft-sī�eorla,      swā hē ǣr dyde;
nō hē mid hearme      of hlī�nosan
g屼I>tas grētte,      ac him tōgēanes rād;
1895
cw箠�lcuman      Wedera lēodum
†
scawan scīr-hame      tō scipe fōron.
†
ܦ#257; w屠on sande      sǣ-gēap naca
hladen here-wǣdum,      hringed-stefna
mēarum and mā�:      m岴 hlīfade
1900
ofer Hrō�257;res      hord-gestrēonum.
Hē �;m bāt-wearde      bunden golde
swurd gesealde,      �#275; sy񯠮 w屼/DIV>
on meodu-bence      mā��2; weor�
†
yrfe-lāfe.      Gewāt him on ȳ�>-nacan,
1905
drēfan dēop w峥r,      Dena land ofgeaf.
ܦ#257; w屠be m岴e      mere-hr妬a sum,
segl sāle f岴.      Sund-wudu �,
nō �;r wēg-flotan      wind ofer ȳ�/DIV>
sī� getwǣfde;      sǣ-genga fōr,
1910
flēat fāmig-heals      for�er ȳ�/DIV>
bunden-stefna      ofer brim-strēamas,
�#299;e Gēata clifu      ongitan meahton,
†
cū� n岳as.      Cēol up ge�
†
lyft-geswenced      on lande stōd.
1915
Hra�屠岠 holme      hȳ�ard gearo,
†
sē �83;r lange tīd,      lēofra manna
fūs, 岠 faro�bsp;     feor wlātode;
sǣlde tō sande      sīd-f篭e scip
oncer-bendum f岴,      �2; lǣs hym ȳ�rym
1920
wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
Hēt �; up beran      篥linga gestrēon,
fr峷e and fǣt-gold;      n屠him feor �/DIV>
tō gesēcanne      sinces bryttan:
†
Higelāc Hrē�g      �;r 岠hām wuna�DIV>1925
selfa mid gesī�nbsp;     sǣ-wealle nēah;
bold w屠 betlīc,      brego-rōf cyning,
†
hēa on healle,      Hygd swī�eong,
wīs, wēl-�,      �;ah �tra lȳt
under burh-locan      gebiden h塢e
1930
H履�dōhtor:      n屠hīo hnāh swā �;ah,
nē tō gnēa�gifa      Gēata lēodum,
†
mā�estrēona.      Mod ݲȳ� w奬
†
fremu folces cwēn,      firen ondrysne:
nǣnig �dorste      dēor genē�/DIV>1935
swǣsra gesī�nbsp;     nefne sin-frēa,
†
�re an d妥s      ēagum starede;
ac him w媭bende      weotode tealde,
hand-gewri�:      hra� seo񯠮 w屼/DIV>
奴er mund-gripe      mēce ge�,
1940
�t scea�mǣl      scȳran mōste,
cwealm-bealu cȳ�      Ne bi�ylc cwēnlīc �;aw
idese tō efnanne,      �;ah �299;o ǣnlīcu sȳ,
†
� freo�ebbe      fēores ons墥
奴er līge-torne      lēofne mannan.
1945
Hūru �onhōhsnode      Heminges mǣg;
ealo drincende      ō�sǣdan,
�#299;o lēod-bealewa      lǣs gefremede,
inwit-nī�nbsp;     sy񯠮 ǣrest wear�IV>
gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950
篥lum dīore,      sy񯠮 hīo Offan flet
ofer fealone flōd      be f壥r lāre
sī� gesōhte,      �;r hīo sy񯠮 wēl
in gum-stōle,      gōde mǣre,
līf-gesceafta      lifigende brēac,
1955
hīold hēah-lufan      wi�le� brego,
ealles mon-cynnes      mīne gefrǣge
� sēlestan      bī sǣm twēonum
eormen-cynnes;      for�;m Offa w屼/DIV>
geofum and gū�nbsp;     gār-cēne man,
1960
wīde geweor�      wīsdōme hēold
ē� sīnne,      �Ēomǣr wōc
h嫥�tō helpe,      Heminges mǣg,
nefa Gārmundes,      nī�r奴ig.

XXIX. HIS ARRIVAL. HYGELAC'S RECEPTION.

Gewāt him �; se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965
sylf 奴er sande      sǣ-wong tredan,
†
wīde waro�      Woruld-candel scān,
sigel sū� fūs:      hī sī�ugon,
elne geēodon,      tō � eorla hlēo,
†
bonan Ongen�;owes      burgum on innan,
1970
geongne gū�ning      gōdne gefrūnon
hringas dǣlan.      Higelāce w屼/DIV>
sī�Bēowulfes      snūde gecȳ�
�#483;r on wor�nbsp;     wīgendra hlēo,
lind-gestealla      lifigende cwōm,
1975
hea�āces hāl      tō hofe gongan.
Hra�屠 gerȳmed,      swā se rīca bebēad,
fē�estum      flet innan-weard.
Ges岠�; wi�sylfne,      sē �; s墣e gen屬
mǣg wi�mǣge,      sy񯠮 man-dryhten
1980
�lēo�cwyde      holdne gegrētte
†
mēaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
†
hwearf geond �reced      H履�dōhtor:
lufode �; lēode,      lī�#483;ge b尼/DIV>†
hǣlum tō handa.      Higelāc ongan
†1985
sīnne geseldan      in sele �;m hēan
f妲e fricgean,      hyne fyrwet br塬
hwylce Sǣ-Gēata      sī�wǣron:
"Hū lomp ēow on lāde,      lēofa Bīowulf,
"�; �; fǣringa      feorr gehogodest,
1990
"s墣e sēcean      ofer sealt w峥r,
"hilde tō Hiorote?      Ac �; Hrō�257;re
"wīd-cū� wēan      wihte gebēttest,
"mǣrum �;odne?      Ic �#333;d-ceare
†
"sorh-wylmum sēa�bsp;     sī�e truwode
1995
"lēofes mannes;      ic �; lange b墬
"�#363; � w媭gǣst      wihte ne grētte,
"lēte Sū�ne      sylfe geweor�/DIV>
"gū�i�Grendel.      Gode ic �ecge,
"� ic �; gesundne      gesēon mōste."
2000
Bīowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
"ߦt is undyrne,      dryhten Higelāc,
"mǣre gemēting      monegum fīra,
"hwylc orleg-hwīl      uncer Grendles
"wear� �;m wange,      �;r hē worna fela
2005
"Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
"yrm�ō aldre;      ic �l gewr塬
"swā ne gylpan �nbsp;     Grendeles māga
"ǣnig ofer eor�nbsp;     ūht-hlem �/DIV>
"sē �gest leofa�sp;     lā�cynnes,
†2010
"fenne bifongen.      Ic �;r fur�cwōm,
"tō �;m hring-sele      Hrō�257;r grētan:
"sōna mē se mǣra      mago Healfdenes,
"sy񯠮 hē mōd-sefan      mīnne cū�/DIV>
"wi�s sylfes sunu      setl getǣhte.
2015
"Weorod w屠on wynne;      ne seah ic wīdan feorh
"under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
"medu-drēam māran.      Hwīlum mǣru cwēn,
"fri�ibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
"bǣdde byre geonge;      oft hīo bēah-wri�/DIV>2020
"secge sealde,      ǣr hīo tō setle gēong.
"Hwīlum for dugu�bsp;     dōhtor Hrō�257;res
†
"eorlum on ende      ealu-wǣge b尬
"�; ic Frēaware      flet-sittende
"nemnan hȳrde,      �;r hīo n妬ed sinc
†2025
"h嫥�sealde:      sīo gehāten w屼/I>,
"geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna Frōdan;
†
"hafa�s geworden      wine Scyldinga
"rīces hyrde      and �#483;d tala�DIV>
"�#275; mid �2; wīfe      w媭fǣh�ǣl,
†2030
"s墣a gesette.      Oft seldan hwǣr
"奴er lēod-hryre      lȳtle hwīle
"bon-gār būge�bsp;     �;ah sēo brȳd duge!

XXX. BĒOWULF'S STORY OF THE SLAYINGS.

"M奠�nne of�      �;oden Hea�ardna
"and � gehwām      �;ra lēoda,
2035
"�hē mid fǣmnan      on flett gǣ�DIV>†
"dryht-bearn Dena      dugu�iwenede:
"on him gladia�sp;     gomelra lāfe
"heard and hring-mǣl,      Hea�ardna gestrēon,
"� hīe �;m wǣpnum      wealdan mōston,
2040
"o�t hīe forlǣddan      tō �;m lind-plegan
"swǣse gesī�nbsp;     ond hyra sylfra feorh.
†
"ݯnne cwi� bēore,      sē �275;ah gesyh�DIV>
"eald 岣-wiga,      sē �l geman
"gār-cwealm gumena      (him bi�im sefa),
2045
"onginne�geōmor-mōd      geongne cempan
"�re� gehygd      higes cunnian,
"wīg-bealu weccean      and �rd ācwy�DIV>
"'Meaht �;, mīn wine,      mēce gecnāwan,
"'�in f壥r      tō gefeohte b尼/DIV>2050
"'under here-grīman      hindeman sī�/DIV>
"'dȳre īren,      �;r hyne Dene slōgon,
"'wēoldon w媭stōwe,      sy񯠮 wi�gyld l奬
"'奴er h嫥� hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
"'Nu hēr �;ra banena      byre nāt-hwylces,
2055
"'fr峷um hrēmig      on flet gǣ�DIV>
"'mor� gylpe�sp;     and �ā񯴭 byre�DIV>
"'�e �; mid rihte      rǣdan sceoldest!'"
"Mana�ā and myndga�sp;     mǣla gehwylce
"sārum wordum,      o�t sǣl cyme�DIV>2060
"� fǣmnan �bsp;     fore f壥r dǣdum
"奴er billes bite      blōd-fāg swefe�DIV>
"ealdres scyldig;      him se ō��/DIV>†
"losa�lifigende,      con him land geare.
"ݯnne bīo�brocene      on bā healfe
2065
"ā�eord eorla;      sy�>�Ingelde
"wealla�w媭nī�nbsp;     and him wīf-lufan
"奴er cear-w嫭um      cōlran weor�
†
"ݹ̄ ic Hea�ardna      hyldo ne telge,
"dryht-sibbe dǣl      Denum unfǣcne,
2070
"frēond-scipe f岴ne.      Ic sceal for�recan
"gēn ymbe Grendel,      �#363; geare cunne,
"sinces brytta,      tō hwan sy񯠮 wear�IV>
"hond-rǣs h嫥�nbsp;     Sy񯠮 heofones gim
"glād ofer grundas,      g岴 yrre cwōm,
2075
"eatol ǣfen-grom,      ūser nēosan,
"�;r wē gesunde      s媠weardodon;
"�;r w屠 Hondscīo      hild onsǣge,
"feorh-bealu fǣgum,      hē fyrmest l奬
"gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wear�DIV>2080
"mǣrum magu-�nbsp;     tō mū�nan,
"lēofes mannes      līc eall forswealg.
"Nō �2; ǣr ūt �; gēn      īdel-hende
"bona blōdig-tō�sp;     bealewa gemyndig,
"of �;m gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085
"ac hē m妮es rōf      mīn costode,
"grāpode gearo-folm.      Glōf hangode
"sīd and syllīc      searo-bendum f岴,
"sīo w屠 or�      eall gegyrwed
"dēofles cr奴um      and dracan fellum:
2090
"hē mec �;r on innan      unsynnigne,
"dīor dǣd-fruma,      gedōn wolde,
"manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte swā,
"sy񯠮 ic on yrre      upp-riht āstōd.
"Tō lang ys tō reccenne,      hū ic �;m lēod-scea�/DIV>†2095
"yfla gehwylces      ond-lēan forgeald;
"�;r ic, �;oden mīn,      �;ne lēode
"weor� weorcum.      Hē on weg losade,
"lȳtle hwīle      līf-wynna brēac;
"hw篲e him sīo swī�nbsp;     swa�eardade
2100
"hand on Hiorte      and hē hēan �
"mōdes geōmor      mere-grund gefēoll.
"Mē � w媭rǣs      wine Scildunga
"fǣttan golde      fela lēanode,
"manegum mā�,      sy񯠮 mergen cōm
2105
"and wē tō symble      geseten h奤on.
"ܦ#483;r w屠gidd and glēo;      gomela Scilding
"fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
"hwīlum hilde-dēor      hearpan wynne,
"gomen-wudu grētte;      hwīlum gyd āwr塼/DIV>2110
"sō�d sārlīc;      hwīlum syllīc spell
"rehte 奴er rihte      rūm-heort cyning.
"Hwīlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
"gomel gū�ga      giogu�wī�/DIV>
"hilde-strengo;      hre�inne wēoll,
†2115
"�hē wintrum frōd      worn gemunde.
"Swā wē �;r inne      andlangne d奼/DIV>
"nīode nāman,      o�t niht becwōm
"ō�tō yldum.      ܦ#257; w屠eft hra�DIV>
"gearo gyrn-wr墥      Grendeles mōdor,
2120
"sī� sorh-full;      sunu dēa�rnam,
"wīg-hete Wedra.      Wīf unhȳre
"hyre bearn gewr塬      beorn ācwealde
"ellenlīce;      �;r w屠 ųc-here,
"frōdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ū�ge;
2125
"nō�hȳ hine ne mōston,      sy񯠮 mergen cwōm,
"dēa�#275;rigne      Denia lēode
"bronde forb屮an,      nē on bǣl hladan
"lēofne mannan:      hīo �#299;c 峢尼/DIV>†
"fēondes f箼I>mum      under firgen-strēam.
2130
"ߦt w屠Hrō�257;re      hrēowa tornost
"�;ra �ēod-fruman      lange begeāte;
†
"�; se �;oden mec      �;ne līfe
"healsode hrēoh-mōd,      � on holma ge�/DIV>
"eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genē�
2135
"mǣr�remede:      hē mē mēde gehēt.
"Ic �; �w嫭es,      �; is wīde cū�DIV>
"grimne gryrelīcne      grund-hyrde fond.
"ܦ#483;r unc hwīle w屦nbsp;     hand gemǣne;
"holm heolfre wēoll      and ic hēafde becearf
2140
"in �;m grund-sele      Grendeles mōdor
"ēacnum ecgum,      unsōfte �/DIV>
"feorh o�ede;      n屠ic fǣge �; gȳt,
"ac mē eorla hlēo      eft gesealde
"mā� menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.

XXXI. HE GIVES PRESENTS TO HYGELAC. HYGELAC REWARDS HIM. HYGELAC'S DEATH. BĒOWULF REIGNS.

2145
"Swā se �;od-kyning      �;awum lyfde;
"nealles ic �;m lēanum      forloren h奤e,
"m妮es mēde,      ac hē mē mā�I>as geaf,
"sunu Healfdenes,      on sīnne sylfes dōm;
"�; ic �;, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
†2150
"ēstum geȳwan.      Gēn is eall 岠�;
†
"lissa gelong:      ic lȳt hafo
"hēafod-māga,      nefne Hygelāc �/DIV>†
Hēt �; in beran      eafor, hēafod-segn,
hea�tēapne helm,      hāre byrnan,
2155
gū�eord geatolīc,      gyd 奴er wr塺
"Mē �hilde-sceorp      Hrō�257;r sealde,
†
"snotra fengel,      sume worde hēt,
†
"� his ǣrest      �; eft ges妤e,
"cw箠�t h奤e      Hiorogār cyning,
2160
"lēod Scyldunga      lange hwīle:
"nō �2; ǣr suna sīnum      syllan wolde,
"hwatum Heorowearde,      �;ah hē him hold wǣre,
"brēost-gewǣdu.      Brūc ealles well!"
Hȳrde ic �#257;m fr峷um      fēower mēaras
2165
lungre gelīce      lāst weardode,
寰el-fealuwe;      hē him ēst getēah
mēara and mā�      Swā sceal mǣg dōn,
nealles inwit-net      ō� bregdan,
dyrnum cr奴e      dēa�#275;nian
2170
hond-gesteallan.      Hygelāce w屬
nī� heardum,      nefa swȳ�old
and gehw篥r ō�      hrō�gemyndig.
Hȳrde ic �#275; � heals-bēah      Hygde gesealde,
wrǣtlīcne wundur-mā񯴭,      �e him Wealh�;o geaf,
2175
�;odnes dōhtor,      �9;o wicg somod
swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre sy񯠮 w屼/DIV>
奴er bēah-�bsp;     brēost geweor�
Swā bealdode      bearn Ecg�;owes,
guma gū� cū�bsp;     gōdum dǣdum,
2180
drēah 奴er dōme,      nealles druncne slōg
heor�nēatas;      n屠him hrēoh sefa,
ac hē man-cynnes      mǣste cr奴e
gin-f岴an gife,      �; him god sealde,
hēold hilde-dēor.      Hēan w屠lange,
2185
swā hyne Gēata bearn      gōdne ne tealdon,
nē hyne on medo-bence      micles wyr�/DIV>
drihten wereda      gedōn wolde;
†
swȳ�I>oft s奼/I>don,      �#275; slēac wǣre,
篥ling unfrom:      edwenden cwōm
2190
tīr-ēadigum menn      torna gehwylces.
Hēt �; eorla hlēo      in gefetian,
hea�ōf cyning,      Hrē� lāfe,
golde gegyrede;      n屠mid Gēatum �;
sinc-mā񯴭 sēlra      on sweordes hād;
2195
�#275; on Bīowulfes      bearm ālegde,
†
and him gesealde      seofan �;sendo,
bold and brego-stōl.      Him w屠bām samod
on �;m lēod-scipe      lond gecynde,
eard ē�riht,      ō� swī�/DIV>2200
sīde rīce,      �;m �;r sēlra w屮
Eft �geīode      ufaran dōgrum
hilde-hl嬭um,      sy񯠮 Hygelāc l奼/DIV>
and Heardrēde      hilde-mēceas
under bord-hrēo�nbsp;     tō bonan wurdon,
2205
�; hyne gesōhtan      on sige-�;ode
hearde hilde-frecan,      Hea�cilfingas,
nī� genǣgdan      nefan Hererīces.
Sy񯠮 Bēowulfe      brāde rīce
on hand gehwearf:      hē gehēold tela
†2210
fīftig wintru      (w屠�; frōd cyning,
†
eald ē�weard),      o�t ān ongan
deorcum nihtum      draca rīcsian,
†
sē �hēare hǣ�bsp;     hord beweotode,
stān-beorh stēapne:      stīg under l奬
†2215
eldum uncū�bsp;     ܦ#483;r on innan gīong
†
ni� nāt-hwylces      nēode gefēng
hǣ� horde      hond . d . . ge�hwylc
since fāhne,      hē �񯠮 . . . . .
. . . �. l��l . g
2220
slǣpende be fȳre,      fyrena hyrde
�;ofes cr奴e,      �e . . . . � . . . . .
. idh . folc-beorn,      �#275; gebolgen w屮

XXXII. THE FIRE-DRAKE. THE HOARD.

†
Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . cr奴
†
sōhte sylfes willum,      sē � re gesceōd,
†2225
ac for �5;a-nēdlan      �275;ow nāt-hwylces
h嫥� bearna      hete-swengeas flēah,
†
for ofer-�>fe      and �;r inne fealh
secg syn-bysig.      Sōna in �; tīde
†
�. . . . �;m gyste      . . . . br . g . stōd,
2230
hw篲e earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
. . �. . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fǣs begeat,
†
sinc-f岠 geseah:      �;r w屠swylcra fela
†
in �;m eor�>scr亯I>fe      ǣr-gestrēona,
swā hȳ on geār-dagum      gumena nāt-hwylc
2235
eormen-lāfe      篥lan cynnes
�ycgende      �;r gehȳdde,
dēore mā�.      Ealle hīe dēa�rnam
ǣrran mǣlum,      and se ān �; gēn
lēoda dugu�nbsp;     sē �;r lengest hwearf,
2240
weard wine-geōmor      wīscte �dan,
†
�#275; lȳtel f塦nbsp;     long-gestrēona
brūcan mōste.      Beorh eal gearo
wunode on wonge      w峥r-ȳ�nēah,
nīwe be n岳e      nearo-cr奴um f岴:
2245
�;r on innan b尦nbsp;     eorl-gestrēona
†
hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dǣl
†
fǣttan goldes,      fēa worda cw箺
"Heald �; nū, hrūse,      nū h嫥� mōston,
"eorla ǣhte.      Hw岡 hit ǣr on �;
2250
"gōde begeāton;      gū�#275;a�fornam,
"feorh-bealo frēcne      fȳra gehwylcne,
"lēoda mīnra,      �;ra � līf ofgeaf,
"gesāwon sele-drēam.      Nāh hwā sweord wege
†
"o񯣠 fetige      fǣted wǣge,
2255
"drync-f岠 dēore:      dugu�> ellor scōc.
"Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
"fǣtum befeallen:      feormiend swefa�DIV>
"�; �eado-grīman      bȳwan sceoldon,
"gē swylce sēo here-pād,      sīo 岠hilde gebād
2260
"ofer borda gebr塦nbsp;     bite īrena,
†
"brosna�ter beorne.      Ne m奠byrnan hring
"奴er wīg-fruman      wīde fēran
†
"h嫥�be healfe;      n屠hearpan wyn,
†
"gomen glēo-bēames,      nē gōd hafoc
2265
"geond s媠swinge�bsp;     nē se swifta mearh
"burh-stede bēate�bsp;     Bealo-cwealm hafa�IV>
"fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
Swā giōmor-mōd      gioh�ǣnde,
ān 奴er eallum      unblī�wēop,
2270
d妥s and nihtes,      o�t dēa�wylm
hrān 岠 heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
eald ūht-scea�bsp;     opene standan,
sē �yrnende      biorgas sēce�IV>
nacod nī�aca,      nihtes flēoge�IV>2275
fȳre befangen;      hyne fold-būend
†
wīde gesāwon.      Hē gēwunian sceall
†
hlāw under hrūsan,      �;r hē hǣ�gold
wara�ntrum frōd;      ne by�m wihte �; sēl.
Swā se �;od-scea�bsp;     �5;o hund wintra
2280
hēold on hrūsan      hord-屮a sum
ēacen-cr奴ig,      o�t hyne ān ābealh
mon on mōde:      man-dryhtne b尼/DIV>
fǣted wǣge,      frio�ǣre b墼/DIV>
hlāford sīnne.      ܦ#257; w屠hord rāsod,
†2285
onboren bēaga hord,      bēne getī�/DIV>
fēa-sceaftum men.      Frēa scēawode
fīra fyrn-geweorc      forman sī�/DIV>
ܦ#257; se wyrm onwōc,      wrōht w屠genīwad;
stonc �; 奴er stāne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290
fēondes fōt-lāst;      hē tō for�stōp,
dyrnan cr奴e,      dracan hēafde nēah.
Swā m奠 unfǣge      ēa�edīgan
wēan and wr塭sī�bsp;     sē �dendes
hyldo gehealde�bsp;     Hord-weard sōhte
2295
georne 奴er grunde,      wolde guman findan,
�e him on sweofote      sāre getēode:
hāt and hrēoh-mōd      hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf,
ealne ūtan-weardne;      nē �;r ǣnig mon
†
w屼/I> on �;re wēstenne.      Hw篲e hilde gefeh,
2300
beado-weorces:      hwīlum on beorh 峨wearf,
sinc-f岠 sōhte;      hē �#333;na onfand,
�fde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
hēah-gestrēona.      Hord-weard onbād
earfo�299;ce,      o�t ǣfen cwōm;
2305
w屠�; gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
wolde se lā�bsp;     līge forgyldan
drinc-f岠 dȳre.      ܦ#257; w屠d奠sceacen
wyrme on willan,      nō on wealle leng
bīdan wolde,      ac mid bǣle fōr,
2310
fȳre gefȳsed.      W屠se fruma egeslīc
lēodum on lande,      swā hyt lungre wear�IV>
on hyra sinc-gifan      sāre geendod.

XXXIII. BEOWULF RESOLVES TO KILL THE FIRE-DRAKE.

ܦ#257; se g岴 ongan      glēdum spīwan,
beorht hofu b屮an;      bryne-lēoma stōd
2315
eldum on andan;      nō �;r āht cwices
lā�lyft-floga      lǣfan wolde.
W屠�rmes wīg      wīde gesȳne,
nearo-fāges nī�sp;     nēan and feorran,
hū se gū�ea�bsp;     Gēata lēode
2320
hatode and hȳnde:      hord eft gescēat,
dryht-sele dyrnne      ǣr d妥s hwīle.
H奤e land-wara      līge befangen,
bǣle and bronde;      beorges getruwode,
wīges and wealles:      him sēo wēn gelēah.
2325
ܦ#257; w屠Bīowulfe      brōga gecȳ�/DIV>†
snūde tō sō�nbsp;     �s sylfes him
bolda sēlest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
gif-stōl Gēata.      ߦt �;m gōdan w屼/DIV>
hrēow on hre�      hyge-sorga mǣst:
2330
wēnde se wīsa,      �#275; wealdende,
ofer ealde riht,      ēcean dryhtne
bitre gebulge:      brēost innan wēoll
�;ostrum ge�,      swā him ge�2;we ne w屮
H奤e līg-draca      lēoda f岴en,
†2335
ēa-lond ūtan,      eor�ard �DIV>
glēdum forgrunden.      Him �#363;�ning,
Wedera �;oden,      wr墥 leornode.
Heht him �; gewyrcean      wīgendra hlēo
eall-īrenne,      eorla dryhten
2340
wīg-bord wrǣtlīc;      wisse hē gearwe,
�m holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
lind wi�līge.      Sceolde lǣn-daga
篥ling ǣr-gōd      ende gebīdan
worulde līfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345
�;ah �d-welan      hēolde lange.
†
Oferhogode �;      hringa fengel,
�#275; � wīd-flogan      weorode gesōhte,
sīdan herge;      nō hē him �; s墣e ondrēd,
nē him �rmes wīg      for wiht dyde,
2350
eafo�d ellen;      for�#275; ǣr fela
nearo nē�e      nī�edīgde,
hilde-hlemma,      sy񯠮 hē Hrō�257;res,
sigor-ēadig secg,      sele fǣlsode
and 岠gū� forgrāp      Grendeles mǣgum,
†2355
lā�cynnes.      Nō �#483;sest w屼/DIV>
hond-gemota,      �;r mon Hygelāc slōh,
sy񯠮 Gēata cyning      gū�ǣsum,
frēa-wine folces      Frēslondum on,
Hrē� eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
†2360
bille gebēaten;      � Bīowulf cōm
sylfes cr奴e,      sund-nytte drēah;
†
h奤e him on earme      ... XXX
hilde-geatwa,      �; hē tō holme stāg.
†
Nealles Hetware      hrēmge �n
2365
fē�īges,      �; him foran ongēan
linde bǣron:      lȳt eft becwōm
fram �;m hild-frecan      hāmes nīosan.
†
Oferswam �; siole� bigong      sunu Ecg�;owes,
earm ān-haga      eft tō lēodum,
2370
�;r him Hygd gebēad      hord and rīce,
bēagas and brego-stōl:      bearne ne truwode,
�#275; wi�媭fylcum      ē�stōlas
healdan cū�nbsp;     �; w屠Hygelāc dēad.
Nō �2; ǣr fēa-sceafte      findan meahton
2375
岠�;m 篥linge      ǣnige �
�#275; Heardrēde      hlāford wǣre,
o񯣠� cyne-dōm      cīosan wolde;
hw篲e hē him on folce      frēond-lārum hēold,
ēstum mid āre,      o�t hē yldra wear�DIV>†2380
Weder-Gēatum wēold.      Hyne wr塭m墧as
ofer sǣ sōhtan,      suna Ōhteres:
h奤on hȳ forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
� sēlestan      sǣ-cyninga,
†
�;ra � Swīo-rīce      sinc brytnade,
2385
mǣrne �;oden.      Him �#333; mearce wear�DIV>†
hē �;r orfeorme      feorh-wunde hlēat
sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygelāces;
and him eft gewāt      Ongen�;owes bearn
hāmes nīosan,      sy񯠮 Heardrēd l奻
2390
lēt �rego-stōl      Bīowulf healdan,
†
Gēatum wealdan:      �s gōd cyning.

XXXIV. RETROSPECT OF BĒOWULF.—STRIFE BETWEEN SWEONAS AND GEATAS.

Sē �lēod-hryres      lēan gemunde
uferan dōgrum,      Ēadgilse wear�IV>†
fēa-sceaftum fēond.      Folce gestepte
†2395
ofer sǣ sīde      sunu Ōhteres
wigum and wǣpnum:      hē gewr塠sy񯠮
cealdum cear-sī�      cyning ealdre binēat.
Swā hē nī� gehwane      genesen h奤e,
slī� geslyhta,      sunu Ecg�;owes,
2400
ellen-weorca,      o�ne ānne d奬
�; hē wi�#257;m wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
†
Gewāt �; twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
dryhten Gēata      dracan scēawian;
h奤e �; gefrūnen,      hwanan sīo fǣh�257;rās,
2405
bealo-nī�orna;      him tō bearme cwōm
mā񯴭-f岠 mǣre      �屠meldan hond,
Sē w屠on �;m �5;ate      �eo�ecg,
sē �orleges      ōr onstealde,
h奴 hyge-giōmor,      sceolde hēan �/DIV>2410
wong wīsian:      hē ofer willan gīong
tō � hē eor�le      ānne wisse,
hlǣw under hrūsan      holm-wylme nēh,
ȳ�winne,      sē w屠innan full
wrǣtta and wīra:      weard unhīore,
2415
gearo gū�eca,      gold-mā� hēold,
eald under eor�      n屠�#772;�ēap,
tō gegangenne      gumena ǣnigum.
Ges岠�; on n岳e      nī�ard cyning,
� hǣlo ābēad      heor�nēatum
2420
gold-wine Gēata:      him w屠 geōmor sefa,
wǣfre and w媭fūs,      Wyrd ungemete nēah,
sē � gomelan      grētan sceolde,
sēcean sāwle hord,      sundur gedǣlan
līf wi�līce:      nō �nge w屼/DIV>2425
feorh 篥linges      flǣsce bewunden.
Bīowulf ma�de,      bearn Ecg�;owes:
"Fela ic on giogo�bsp;     gu�#483;sa gen屬
"orleg-hwīla:      ic �ll gemon.
"Ic w屠 syfan-wintre,      �; mec sinca baldor,
2430
"frēa-wine folca      岠mīnum f壥r genam,
"hēold mec and h奤e      Hrē�cyning,
"geaf mē sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
"n屠ic him tō līfe      lā�ōwihte
"beorn in burgum,      �his bearna hwylc,
2435
"Herebeald and H篣yn,      o񯣠 Hygelāc mīn.
"W屠�;m yldestan      ungedēfelīce
†
"mǣges dǣdum      mor�bed strēd,
"sy񯠮 hyne H篣yn      of horn-bogan,
†
"his frēa-wine      flāne geswencte,
2440
"miste mercelses      and his mǣg ofscēt,
"brō� ō�e,      blōdigan gāre:
†
"�s feoh-lēas gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
"hre� hyge-mē�nbsp;     sceolde hw篲e swā �;ah
"篥ling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
†2445
"Swā bi�ōmorlīc      gomelum ceorle
"tō gebīdanne,      �s byre rīde
†
"giong on galgan,      �hē gyd wrece,
"sārigne sang,      �his sunu hanga�IV>†
"hrefne tō hrō�nbsp;     and hē him helpe ne m奬
2450
"eald and in-frōd,      ǣnige gefremman.
"Symble bi�gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
"eaforan ellor-sī�bsp;     ō� ne gȳme�IV>
"tō gebīdanne      burgum on innan
†
"yrfe-weardes,      �se ān hafa�IV>2455
"�ēa�nȳd      dǣda gefondad.
"Gesyh�sorh-cearig      on his suna būre
"wīn-sele wēstne,      wind-gereste,
†
"rēote berofene;      rīdend swefa�IV>
"h嫥� ho�;      nis �;r hearpan swēg,
2460
"gomen in geardum,      swylce �;r iū wǣron.

XXXV. MEMORIES OF PAST TIME.—THE FEUD WITH THE FIRE-DRAKE.

"Gewīte�nne on sealman,      sorh-lēo�le�IV>
"ān 奴er ānum:      �;hte him eall tō rūm,
"wongas and wīc-stede.      Swā Wedra helm
"奴er Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465
"weallende w奬      wihte ne meahte
"on �;m feorh-bonan      fǣh�ebētan:
"nō �2; ǣr hē � hea�inc      hatian ne meahte
"lā� dǣdum,      �;ah him lēof ne w屮
"Hē �; mid �;re sorge,      �; him sīo sār belamp,
2470
"gum-drēam ofgeaf,      godes lēoht gecēas;
"eaferum lǣfde,      swā dē�275;adig mon,
"lond and lēod-byrig,      �; hē of līfe gewāt.
"ܦ#257; w屠synn and sacu      Swēona and Gēata,
†
"ofer wīd w峥r      wrōht gemǣne,
2475
"here-nī�arda,      sy񯠮 Hrē�swealt,
"o񯣠him Ongen�;owes      eaferan wǣran
†
"frome fyrd-hwate,      frēode ne woldon
"ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hrēosna-beorh
"eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480
"ߦt mǣg-wine      mīne gewrǣcan,
"fǣh�nd fyrene,      swā hyt gefrǣge w屬
"�;ah �33;� hit      ealdre gebohte,
"heardan cēape:      H篣ynne wear�DIV>
"Gēata dryhtne,      gū�sǣge.
2485
"ܦ#257; ic on morgne gefr妮      mǣg ō�e
"billes ecgum      on bonan stǣlan,
"�;r Ongen�;ow      Eofores nīosade:
"gū�lm tōglād,      gomela Scylfing
†
"hrēas heoro-blāc;      hond gemunde
2490
"fǣh�enōge,      feorh-sweng ne oftēah.
"Ic him �; mā�,      �; hē mē sealde,
"geald 岠 gū�nbsp;     swā mē gife�屬
"lēohtan sweorde:      hē mē lond forgeaf,
†
"eard ē�wyn.      N屠him ǣnig �
2495
"�#275; tō Gif�nbsp;     o񯣠tō Gār-Denum
"o񯣠in Swīo-rīce      sēcean �/DIV>
"wyrsan wīg-frecan,      weor�ecȳpan;
"symle ic him on fē�nbsp;     beforan wolde,
"āna on orde,      and swā tō aldre sceall
2500
"s墣e fremman,      � �sweord �
"�c ǣr and sī�sp;     oft gelǣste,
†
"sy񯠮 ic for duge�nbsp;     D妨refne wear�IV>
"tō hand-bonan,      Hūga cempan:
"nalles hē �; fr峷e      Frēs-cyninge,
2505
"brēost-weor�e      bringan mōste,
"ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
"篥ling on elne.      Ne w屠ecg bona,
"ac him hilde-grāp      heortan wylmas,
"bān-hūs gebr塮      Nū sceall billes ecg,
2510
"hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wīgan."
Bēowulf ma�de,      bēot-wordum spr塼/DIV>
nīehstan sī�nbsp;     "Ic genē�fela
"gū�n geogo�nbsp;     gȳt ic wylle,
"frōd folces weard,      fǣh�ēcan,
2515
"mǣr�fremman,      gif mec se mān-scea�DIV>
"of eor�le      ūt gesēce�/DIV>
Gegrētte �;      gumena gehwylcne,
hwate helm-berend      hindeman sī�/DIV>
swǣse gesī�      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520
"wǣpen tō wyrme,      gif ic wiste hū
"wi�#257;m āglǣcean      elles meahte
"gylpe wi�#299;pan,      swā ic giō wi�endle dyde;
"ac ic �;r hea�ȳres      hātes wēne,
†
"rē� and-hāttres:      for� mē on hafu
2525
"bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
†
"oferflēon fōtes trem,      fēond unhȳre,
"ac unc sceal weor�岠 wealle,      swā unc Wyrd getēo�DIV>
"metod manna gehw屮      Ic eom on mōde from,
"� wi�ne gū�ogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530
"Gebīde gē on beorge      byrnum werede,
"secgas on searwum,      hw篥r sēl mǣge
"奴er w媭rǣse      wunde gedȳgan
"uncer twēga.      Nis �275;ower sī�DIV>
"nē gemet mannes,      nefne mīn ānes,
2535
"�#275; wi�257;glǣcean      eofo� dǣle,
"eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
"gold gegangan      o񯣠gū�me�DIV>
"feorh-bealu frēcne,      frēan ēowerne!"
Ārās �; bī ronde      rōf ōretta,
2540
heard under helm,      hioro-sercean b尼/DIV>
under stān-cleofu,      strengo getruwode
ānes mannes:      ne bi�ylc earges sī�DIV>
Geseah �; be wealle,      sē �na fela,
gum-cystum gōd,      gū�edīgde,
2545
hilde-hlemma,      �hnitan fē�
†
(stōd on stān-bogan)      strēam ūt �/DIV>
brecan of beorge;      w屠�;re burnan w嫭
hea�ȳrum hāt:      ne meahte horde nēah
unbyrnende      ǣnige hwīle
†2550
dēop gedȳgan      for dracan lēge.
Lēt �; of brēostum,      �; hē gebolgen w屬
Weder-Gēata lēod      word ūt faran,
stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becōm
hea�orht hlynnan      under hārne stān.
2555
Hete w屠 onhrēred,      hord-weard oncnīow
mannes reorde;      n屠�;r māra fyrst,
frēode tō friclan.      From ǣrest cwōm
oru�āglǣcean      ūt of stāne,
hāt hilde-swāt;      hrūse dynede.
2560
Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onswāf
wi�#257;m gryre-gieste,      Gēata dryhten:
�; w屠 hring-bogan      heorte gefȳsed
s墣e tō sēceanne.      Sweord ǣr gebrǣ
gōd gū�ning      gomele lāfe,
†2565
ecgum unglēaw,      ǣghw篲um w屼/DIV>
bealo-hycgendra      brōga fram ō�.
Stī�#333;d gestōd      wi�ēapne rond
winia bealdor,      �; se wyrm gebēah
snūde tōsomne:      hē on searwum bād.
†2570
Gewāt �; byrnende      gebogen scrī�tō,
gescīfe scyndan.      Scyld wēl gebearg
līfe and līce      lǣssan hwīle
mǣrum �;odne,      �his myne sōhte,
�;r hē �2; fyrste      forman dōgore
2575
wealdan mōste,      swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf
hrē� hilde.      Hond up ābr墼/DIV>
Gēata dryhten,      gryre-fāhne slōh
incge lāfe,      �#299;o ecg gewāc
brūn on bāne,      bāt unswī�
2580
�his �;od-cyning      � h奤e,
bysigum gebǣded.      ܦ#257; w屠beorges weard
奴er hea�wenge      on hrēoum mōde,
wearp w媭fȳre,      wīde sprungon
hilde-lēoman:      hrē�gora ne gealp
2585
gold-wine Gēata,      gū�ll geswāc
nacod 岠 nī�nbsp;     swā hyt nō sceolde,
īren ǣr-gōd.      Ne w屠�275;�ī�DIV>
� mǣra      maga Ecg�;owes
†
grund-wong �bsp;     ofgyfan wolde;
2590
sceolde wyrmes willan      wīc eardian
elles hwergen,      swā sceal ǣghwylc mon
ālǣtan lǣn-dagas.      N屠�; long tō �DIV>
�#257; āglǣcean      hȳ eft gemētton.
Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hre�ǣ�wēoll,
†2595
nīwan stefne:      nearo �e
fȳre befongen      sē �83;r folce wēold.
Nealles him on hēape      hand-gesteallan,
篥linga bearn      ymbe gestōdon
hilde-cystum,      ac hȳ on holt bugon,
2600
ealdre burgan.      Hiora in ānum wēoll
sefa wi�sorgum:      sibb ǣfre ne m奼/DIV>
wiht onwendan,      �;m �275;l �.

XXXVI. WIGLAF HELPS BĒOWULF IN THE FEUD

Wīglāf w屠 hāten      Wēoxstānes sunu,
†
lēoflīc lind-wiga,      lēod Scylfinga,
2605
mǣg Ŭfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
under here-grīman      hāt �n.
†
Gemunde �; �; āre,      �; hē him ǣr forgeaf
wīc-stede weligne      Wǣgmundinga,
†
folc-rihta gehwylc,      swā his f壥r āhte;
2610
ne mihte �; forhabban,      hond rond gefēng,
geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd getēah,
�s mid eldum      Ēanmundes lāf,
suna Ōhteres,      �;m 岠s墣e wear�IV>†
wracu wine-lēasum      Wēohstānes bana
2615
mēces ecgum,      and his māgum 峢尼/DIV>
brūn-fāgne helm,      hringde byrnan,
eald sweord eotonisc,      �m Onela forgeaf,
his g壥linges      gū�wǣdu,
fyrd-searo fūslīc:      nō ymbe �; fǣh�pr塬
2620
�;ah �275; his brō�nbsp;     bearn ābredwade.
Hē fr峷e gehēold      fela missēra,
bill and byrnan,      o�t his byre mihte
eorl-scipe efnan,      swā his ǣr-f壥r;
geaf him �; mid Gēatum      gū�wǣda
2625
ǣghw屠unrīm;      �; hē of ealdre gewāt,
frōd on for�g.      ܦ#257; w屠forma sī�IV>
geongan cempan,      �#275; gū�ǣs
mid his frēo-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
ne gemealt him se mōd-sefa,      nē his mǣges lāf
2630
gewāc 岠wīge:      � wyrm onfand,
sy񯠮 hīe tōg売e      gegān h奤on.
Wīglāf ma�de      word-rihta fela,
s妤e gesī�      him w屠sefa geōmor:
"Ic �#483;l geman,      �;r wē medu �;gun,
†2635
"�wē gehēton      ūssum hlāforde
"in bīor-sele,      �; ūs �;s bēagas geaf,
"�#275; him �; gū�atwa      gyldan woldon,
"gif him �299;cu      �gelumpe,
"helmas and heard sweord:      �; hē ūsic on herge gecēas
2640
"tō � sī�te      sylfes willum,
"onmunde ūsic mǣr�bsp;     and mē �;s mā� geaf,
"�; hē ūsic gār-wīgend      gōde tealde,
"hwate helm-berend,      �;ah �#257;ford ūs
"�ellen-weorc      āna ā�;hte
2645
"tō gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
"for�;m hē manna mǣst      mǣr�efremede,
"dǣda dollīcra.      Nū is sē d奠cumen,
"�363;re man-dryhten      m妥nes behōfa�IV>†
"gōdra gū�nca:      wutun gangan tō,
†2650
"helpan hild-fruman,      � hyt sȳ,
"glēd-egesa grim!      God wāt on mec,
"�#275; is micle lēofre,      �#299;nne līc-haman
"mid mīnne gold-gyfan      glēd f篭ie.
"Ne � mē gerysne,      �#275; rondas beren
2655
"eft tō earde,      nemne wē ǣror mǣgen
†
"fāne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
"Wedra �;odnes.      Ic wāt geare,
"�#483;ron eald-gewyrht,      �#275; āna scyle
"Gēata dugu�bsp;     gnorn �n,
†2660
"gesīgan 岠s墣e:      sceal ūrum �eord and helm,
"byrne and byrdu-scrūd      bām gemǣne."
Wōd �; �one w媭rēc,      wīg-heafolan b尼/DIV>
frēan on fultum,      fēa worda cw箺
"Lēofa Bīowulf,      lǣst eall tela,
2665
"swā �; on geogu�#275;ore      geāra gecwǣde,
†
"�#363; ne ālǣte      be �; lifigendum
"dōm gedrēosan:      scealt nū dǣdum rōf,
"篥ling ān-hȳdig,      ealle m妥ne
"feorh ealgian;      ic �; fullǣstu!"
2670
Ŧter �;m wordum      wyrm yrre cwōm,
atol inwit-g岴      ō�sī�/DIV>
fȳr-wylmum fāh      fīonda nīosan,
lā� manna;      līg-ȳ�forborn
bord wi�ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675
geongum gār-wigan      gēoce gefremman:
ac se maga geonga      under his mǣges scyld
elne geēode,      �; his āgen w屼/I>
glēdum forgrunden.      ܦ#257; gēn gū�ning
mǣr�I> gemunde,      m妥n-strengo,
2680
slōh hilde-bille,      �t on heafolan stōd
†
nī� genȳded:      N妬ing forb屳t,
geswāc 岠 s墣e      sweord Bīowulfes
gomol and grǣg-mǣl.      Him �fe�e w屬
�m īrenna      ecge mihton
2685
helpan 岠hilde;      w屠sīo hond tō strong,
sē �275;ca gehwane      mīne gefrǣge
†
swenge ofersōhte,      �hē tō s墣e b尼/DIV>†
wǣpen wundrum heard,      n屠him wihte �; sēl.
ܦ#257; w屠 �;od-scea�bsp;     �n sī�/DIV>2690
frēcne fȳr-draca      fǣh� gemyndig,
rǣsde on � rōfan,      �; him rūm āgeald,
hāt and hea�rim,      heals ealne ymbefēng
biteran bānum;      hē geblōdegod wear�IV>
sāwul-drīore;      swāt ȳ� wēoll.

XXXVII. BĒOWULF WOUNDED TO DEATH.

2695
ܦ#257; ic 岠� gefr妮      �;od-cyninges
and-longne eorl      ellen cȳ�
cr奴 and cēn�nbsp;     swā him gecynde w屻
†
ne hēdde hē �heafolan,      ac sīo hand gebarn
mōdiges mannes,      �;r hē his mǣges healp,
†2700
�#275; �ī�st      nio� hwēne slōh,
secg on searwum,      �t sweord gedēaf
†
fāh and fǣted,      �t fȳr ongon
swe�n sy񯠮.      ܦ#257; gēn sylf cyning
†
gewēold his gewitte,      w嫬-seaxe gebrǣ,
2705
biter and beadu-scearp,      �hē on byrnan w奺
forwrāt Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
†
Fēond gefyldan      (ferh ellen wr塩,
and hī hyne �; bēgen      ābroten h奤on,
sib-篥lingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710
�t �.      ߦt �;m �;odne w屼/DIV>
sī� sīge-hwīle      sylfes dǣdum,
worlde geweorces.      ܦ#257; sīo wund ongon,
�; him se eor�aca      ǣr geworhte,
swelan and swellan.      Hē �#333;na onfand,
2715
�m on brēostum      bealo-nī�#275;oll,
attor on innan.      ܦ#257; se 篥ling gīong,
�#275; bī wealle,      wīs-hycgende,
ges岠on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
hū �; stān-bogan      stapulum f岴e
2720
ēce eor�ced      innan hēoldon.
Hyne �; mid handa      heoro-drēorigne
�;oden mǣrne      �ngemete till,
wine-dryhten his      w峥re gelafede,
hilde-s壮e      and his helm onspēon.
2725
Bīowulf ma�de,      hē ofer benne spr塬
wunde w媭blēate      (wisse hē gearwe,
†
�#275; d奭hwīla      gedrogen h奤e
eor� wynne;      �; w屠eall sceacen
dōgor-gerīmes,      dēa�ungemete nēah):
2730
"Nū ic suna mīnum      syllan wolde
"gū�wǣdu,      �;r mē gife� swā
"ǣnig yrfe-weard      奴er wurde,
"līce gelenge.      Ic �;s lēode hēold
"fīftig wintra:      n屠se folc-cyning
2735
"ymbe-sittendra      ǣnig �;ra,
"�; mec gū�num      grētan dorste,
"egesan �;on.      Ic on earde bād
"mǣl-gesceafta,      hēold mīn tela,
"ne sōhte searo-nī�      nē mē swōr fela
2740
"ā�n unriht.      Ic �ealles m奬
"feorh-bennum sēoc,      gefēan habban:
"for�;m mē wītan ne �nbsp;     waldend fīra
"mor�bealo māga,      �mīn sceace�IV>
"līf of līce.      Nū �; lungre
†2745
"geong, hord scēawian      under hārne stān,
"Wīglāf lēofa,      nū se wyrm lige�DIV>
"swefe�#257;re wund,      since berēafod.
"Bīo nū on ofoste,      � ǣr-welan,
"gold-ǣht ongite,      gearo scēawige
†2750
"swegle searo-gimmas,      �ic �2; sēft mǣge
"奴er mā񯴭-welan      mīn ālǣtan
"līf and lēod-scipe,      �c longe hēold."

XXXVIII. THE JEWEL-HOARD. THE PASSING OF BEOWULF.

ܦ#257; ic snūde gefr妮      sunu Wīhstānes
奴er word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755
hȳran hea�īocum,      hring-net beran,
brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrōf.
Geseah �; sige-hrē�      �; hē bī sesse gēong,
mago-� mōdig      mā񯴭-sigla fela,
gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760
wundur on wealle      and �wyrmes denn,
ealdes ūht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-lēase,
hyrstum behrorene:      �;r w屠helm monig,
eald and ōmig,      earm-bēaga fela,
2765
searwum gesǣled.      Sinc ēa� m奬
gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
†
gehwone ofer-hīgian,      hȳde sē �le!
Swylce hē siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
hēah ofer horde,      hond-wundra mǣst,
†2770
gelocen leo�r奴um:      of �;m lēoma stōd,
�#275; � grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
wrǣte giond-wlītan.      N屠�rmes �;r
onsȳn ǣnig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
ܦ#257; ic on hlǣwe      gefr妮 hord rēafian,
2775
eald enta geweorc      ānne mannan,
him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
sylfes dōme,      segn ēac genom,
†
bēacna beorhtost;      bill ǣr-gescōd
(ecg w屠 īren)      eald-hlāfordes
2780
�;m �;ra mā�nbsp;     mund-bora w屼/DIV>
longe hwīle,      līg-egesan w奼/DIV>
hātne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
middel-nihtum,      o�t hē mor�swealt.
Ār w屠on ofoste      eft-sī�georn,
2785
fr峷um gefyr�:      hyne fyrwet br塬
hw篥r collen-fer�sp;     cwicne gemētte
in �;m wong-stede      Wedra �;oden,
ellen-sīocne,      �;r hē hine ǣr forlēt.
Hē �; mid �;m mā�      mǣrne �;oden,
2790
dryhten sīnne      drīorigne fand
†
ealdres 岠 ende:      hē hine eft ongon
†
w峥res weorpan,      o�t wordes ord
brēost-hord �塮      Bēowulf ma�de,
gomel on gioh�bsp;     (gold scēawode):
2795
"Ic �;ra fr峷a      frēan ealles �DIV>
"wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
"ēcum dryhtne,      �; ic hēr on starie,
"� ic mōste      mīnum lēodum
"ǣr swylt-d妥      swylc gestrȳnan.
2800
"Nū ic on mā�hord      mīne bebohte
"frōde feorh-lege,      fremma�#275; nū
"lēoda �;      ne m奠ic hēr leng wesan.
"Hāta�hea�ǣre      hlǣw gewyrcean,
"beorhtne 奴er bǣle      岠brimes nosan;
2805
"se scel tō gemyndum      mīnum lēodum
†
"hēah hlīfian      on Hrones n岳e,
"�t sǣ-lī�      sy񯠮 hātan
"Bīowulfes biorh,      �; �ntingas
"ofer flōda genipu      feorran drīfa�/DIV>2810
Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
�;oden �9;st-hȳdig,      �gesealde,
geongum gār-wigan,      gold-fāhne helm,
bēah and byrnan,      hēt hyne brūcan well:
"ܦ#363; eart ende-lāf      ūsses cynnes,
†2815
"Wǣgmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forswēof,
"mīne māgas      tō metod-sceafte,
"eorlas on elne:      ic him 奴er sceal."
†
ߦt w屠�;m gomelan      gingeste word
brēost-gehygdum,      ǣr hē bǣl cure,
2820
hāte hea�ylmas:      him of hre�gewāt
sāwol sēcean      sō�stra dōm.

XXXIX. THE COWARD-THANES.

ܦ#257; w屠 gegongen      guman unfrōdum
earfo�299;ce,      �#275; on eor�geseah
� lēofestan      līfes 岠ende
2825
blēate gebǣran.      Bona swylce l奬
egeslīc eor�aca,      ealdre berēafod,
bealwe gebǣded:      bēah-hordum leng
wyrm wōh-bogen      wealdan ne mōste,
ac him īrenna      ecga fornāmon,
2830
hearde hea�cearpe      homera lāfe,
� wīd-floga      wundum stille
hrēas on hrūsan      hord-屮e nēah,
nalles 奴er lyfte      lācende hwearf
middel-nihtum,      mā�#483;hta wlonc
2835
ansȳn ȳwde:      ac hē eor� gefēoll
for �hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
†
Hūru � lande      lȳt manna �;h
m妥n-āgendra      mīne gefrǣge,
�;ah �275; dǣda gehw屦nbsp;     dyrstig wǣre,
†2840
�#275; wi�attor-scea�nbsp;     ore�erǣsde,
o񯣠 hring-sele      hondum styrede,
gif hē w墣ende      weard onfunde
būan on beorge.      Bīowulfe wear�IV>
dryht-mā� dǣl      dēa�orgolden;
2845
h奤e ǣghw篥r      ende gefēred
lǣnan līfes.      N屠�; lang tō �DIV>
�#257; hild-latan      holt ofgēfan,
tȳdre trēow-logan      tȳne 峳omne,
�; ne dorston ǣr      dare�lācan
2850
on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan �;
ac hȳ scamiende      scyldas bǣran,
gū�wǣdu,      �;r se gomela l奺
wlitan on Wīglāf.      Hē gewērgad s岬
fē�empa      frēan eaxlum nēah,
2855
wehte hyne w峲e;      him wiht ne spēow;
ne meahte hē on eor�      �;ah hē ū�ēl,
on �;m frum-gāre      feorh gehealdan,
nē �aldendes willan      wiht oncirran;
†
wolde dōm godes      dǣdum rǣdan
2860
gumena gehwylcum,      swā hē nū gēn dē�DIV>†
ܦ#257; w屠岠�;m geongan      grim andswaru
ē�gēte �;m �#483;r      his elne forlēas.
Wīglāf ma�de,      Wēohstānes sunu,
secg sārig-fer�sp;     seah on unlēofe:
2865
"ߦt lā m奠secgan,      sē �yle sō�recan,
"� mon-dryhten,      se ēow �; mā� geaf,
"ēored-geatwe,      �; gē �;r on standa�DIV>
"�hē on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
"heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870
"�;oden his �,      swylce hē �72;�299;cost
†
"ōhwǣr feor o񯣠 nēah      findan meahte,
"�#275; gēnunga      gū�wǣdu
†
"wrā� forwurpe.      ܦ#257; hyne wīg beget,
†
"nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875
"gylpan �;      hw篲e him god ū�/DIV>
"sigora waldend,      �#275; hyne sylfne gewr塼/DIV>
"āna mid ecge,      �; him w屠elnes �
"Ic him līf-wra�bsp;     lȳtle meahte
†
"峧ifan 岠 gū�bsp;     and ongan swā �;ah
2880
"ofer mīn gemet      mǣges helpan:
"symle w屠�2; sǣmra,      �ic sweorde drep
"ferh�nī�,      fȳr unswī�/DIV>
"wēoll of gewitte.      Wergendra tō lȳt
"�ymbe �;oden,      �; hyne sīo �7;g becwōm.
†2885
"Nū sceal sinc-�bsp;     and swyrd-gifu
†
"eall ē�wyn      ēowrum cynne,
"lufen ālicgean:      lond-rihtes mōt
"�;re mǣg-burge      monna ǣghwylc
"īdel hweorfan,      sy񯠮 篥lingas
2890
"feorran gefricgean      flēam ēowerne,
"dōm-lēasan dǣd.      Dēa��#275;lla
†
"eorla gehwylcum      �edwīt-līf!"

XL. THE SOLDIER'S DIRGE AND PROPHECY.

Heht �; �hea�eorc      tō hagan bīodan
up ofer ēg-clif,      �;r �rl-weorod
2895
morgen-longne d奦nbsp;     mōd-giōmor s岬
bord-h塢ende,      bēga on wēnum
ende-dōgores      and eft-cymes
lēofes monnes.      Lȳt swīgode
nīwra spella,      sē � gerād,
2900
ac hē sō�299;ce      s妤e ofer ealle;
†
"Nū is wil-geofa      Wedra lēoda,
"dryhten Gēata      dēa�dde f岴,
"wuna�w媭reste      wyrmes dǣdum;
"him on efn lige�sp;     ealdor-gewinna,
2905
"siex-bennum sēoc:      sweorde ne meahte
"on �;m āglǣcean      ǣnige �/DIV>
"wunde gewyrcean.      Wīglāf site�IV>
"ofer Bīowulfe,      byre Wīhstānes,
"eorl ofer ō�      unlifigendum,
†2910
"healde�hige-mē�nbsp;     hēafod-wearde
"lēofes and lā�      Nū ys lēodum wēn
"orleg-hwīle,      sy񯠮 underne
"Froncum and Frȳsum      fyll cyninges
"wīde weor�      W屠sīo wrōht scepen
2915
"heard wi�#363;gas,      sy񯠮 Higelāc cwōm
"faran flot-herge      on Frēsna land,
"�;r hyne Hetware      hilde gehnǣgdon,
"elne geēodon      mid ofer-m妥ne,
"� byrn-wiga      būgan sceolde,
†2920
"fēoll on fē�      nalles fr峷e geaf
"ealdor dugo�nbsp;     ūs w屠ā sy񯠮
†
"Merewīoinga      milts ungyfe�/DIV>
"Nē ic tō Swēo-�;ode      sibbe o񯣠trēowe
"wihte ne wēne;      ac w屠wīde cū�DIV>2925
"�Ongen�;o      ealdre besny�
"H篣yn Hrē�g      wi�efna-wudu,
"�; for on-mēdlan      ǣrest gesōhton
"Gēata lēode      Gū�ilfingas.
"Sōna him se frōda      f壥r Ōhtheres,
2930
"eald and eges-full      ond-slyht āgeaf,
"ābrēot brim-wīsan,      brȳd āhēorde,
"gomela īo-meowlan      golde berofene,
"Onelan mōdor      and Ōhtheres,
"and �; folgode      feorh-genī�
2935
"o�t hī o�75;odon      earfo�299;ce
"in Hrefnes-holt      hlāford-lēase.
"Bes岠�; sin-herge      sweorda lāfe
"wundum wērge,      wēan oft gehēt
"earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
†2940
"cw箠hē on mergenne      mēces ecgum
"gētan wolde,      sume on galg-trēowum
"fuglum tō gamene.      Frōfor eft gelamp
"sārig-mōdum      somod ǣr-d妥,
"sy񯠮 hīe Hygelāces      horn and bȳman
2945
"gealdor ongeāton.      ܦ#257; se gōda cōm
"lēoda dugo�bsp;     on lāst faran.

XLI. HE TELLS OF THE SWEDES AND THE GEATAS

"W屠sīo swāt-swa�bsp;     Swēona and Gēata,
"w媭rǣs wera      wīde gesȳne,
"hū �; folc mid him      fǣh�ōwehton.
†2950
"Gewāt him �; se gōda      mid his g壥lingum,
"frōd fela geōmor      f岴en sēcean,
"eorl Ongen�;o      ufor oncirde;
"h奤e Higelāces      hilde gefrūnen,
"wlonces wīg-cr奴,      wi� ne truwode,
2955
"�#275; sǣ-mannum      onsacan mihte,
"hēa�ī�um      hord forstandan,
"bearn and brȳde;      bēah eft �/DIV>
"eald under eor�all.      ܦ#257; w屠ǣht boden
†
"Swēona lēodum,      segn Higelāce.
2960
"Freo�ong �bsp;     for�oferēodon,
"sy񯠮 Hrē�gas      tō hagan �n.
"ܦ#483;r wear�Ongen�;o      ecgum sweorda,
"blonden-fexa      on bīd wrecen,
"� �;od-cyning      � sceolde
2965
"Eofores ānne dōm:      hyne yrringa
"Wulf Wonrēding      wǣpne gerǣhte,
"�m for swenge      swāt ǣdrum sprong
"for�der fexe.      N屠hē forht swā �;h,
"gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hra�DIV>2970
"wyrsan wrixle      w媭hlem �/DIV>
"sy񯠮 �;od-cyning      �oncirde:
"ne meahte se snella      sunu Wonrēdes
"ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
"ac hē him on hēafde      helm ǣr gescer,
2975
"�#275; blōde fāh      būgan sceolde,
"fēoll on foldan;      n屠hē fǣge �; gīt,
†
"ac hē hyne gewyrpte,      �;ah � wund hrīne,
"Lēt se hearda      Higelāces �DIV>
"brādne mēce,      �; his brō�l奬
2980
"eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
"brecan ofer bord-weal:      �; gebēah cyning,
"folces hyrde,      w屠in feorh dropen.
"ܦ#257; wǣron monige,      �; his mǣg wri�
"ricone ārǣrdon,      �; him gerȳmed wear�DIV>2985
"�#299;e w媭stōwe      wealdan mōston.
"ݥnden rēafode      rinc ō�e,
"nam on Ongen�;o      īren-byrnan,
"heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
†
"hāres hyrste      Higelāce b尮
2990
"Hē �257;m fr峷um fēng      and him f妲e gehēt
"lēana fore lēodum      and gelǣste swā:
"geald � gū�#483;s      Gēata dryhten,
"Hrē� eafora,      �; hē tō hām becōm,
"Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-mā�,
†2995
"sealde hiora gehw篲um      hund �;senda
"landes and locenra bēaga;      ne � him �; lēan o�299;tan
"mon on middan-gearde,      sy񯠮 hīe �; mǣr� geslōgon;
"and �; Jofore forgeaf      āngan dōhtor,
"hām-weor�e,      hyldo tō wedde.
3000
"ߦt ys sīo fǣh�bsp;     and se fēond-scipe,
"w媭nī�wera,      � ic wēn hafo,
"�; ūs sēcea�tō      Swēona lēode,
"sy񯠮 hīe gefricgea�sp;     frēan ūserne
"ealdor-lēasne,      �e ǣr gehēold
3005
"wi�ttendum      hord and rīce,
†
"奴er h嫥� hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
"folc-rǣd fremede      o񯣠fur�gēn
†
"eorl-scipe efnde.      Nū is ofost betost,
"�#275; �;od-cyning      �;r scēawian
3010
"and �ebringan,      �; ūs bēagas geaf,
"on ād-f履.      Ne scel ānes hw岼/DIV>
"meltan mid �;m mōdigan,      ac �;r is mā�hord.
"gold unrīme      grimme gecēapod
"and nū 岠 sī�an      sylfes fēore
3015
"bēagas gebohte;      �; sceal brond fretan,
"ǣled �n,      nalles eorl wegan
"mā񯴭 tō gemyndum,      nē m娰 scȳne
"habban on healse      hring-weor�e,
"ac sceall geōmor-mōd      golde berēafod
3020
"oft nalles ǣne      el-land tredan,
"nū se here-wīsa      hleahtor ālegde,
†
"gamen and glēo-drēam.      For�eall gār wesan
"monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
"h奥n on handa,      nalles hearpan swēg
†3025
"wīgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
"fūs ofer fǣgum,      fela reordian,
"earne secgan,      hū him 岠ǣte spēow,
"� hē wi�wulf      w媠rēafode."
Swā se secg hwata      secgende w屼/DIV>3030
lā�spella;      hē ne lēag fela
wyrda nē worda.      Weorod eall ārās,
ēodon unblī�bsp;     under Earna n屼/DIV>†
wollen-tēare      wundur scēawian.
Fundon �; on sande      sāwul-lēasne
3035
hlim-bed healdan,      �e him hringas geaf
ǣrran mǣlum:      �; w屠ende-d奼/DIV>
gōdum gegongen,      � gū�ning,
Wedra �;oden,      wundor-dēa�wealt.
†
Ǣr hī gesēgan      syllīcran wiht,
3040
wyrm on wonge      wi�r姴es �;r
lā� licgean:      w屠se lēg-draca,
†
grimlīc gryre-g岴,      glēdum beswǣled,
sē w屠 fīftiges      fōt-gemearces.
†
lang on legere,      lyft-wynne hēold
3045
nihtes hwīlum,      ny�eft gewāt
dennes nīosian;      w屠�; dēa�岴,
h奤e eor�rafa      ende genyttod.
Him big stōdan      bunan and orcas,
discas lāgon      and dȳre swyrd,
3050
ōmige �tone,      swā hīe wi�r�f篭
�;send wintra      �;r eardodon:
�w屠�yrfe      ēacen-cr奴ig,
†
iū-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
�#257;m hring-sele      hrīnan ne mōste
3055
gumena ǣnig,      nefne god sylfa,
sigora sō�ning,      sealde �;m �275; wolde
†
(hē is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
efne swā hwylcum manna,      swā him gemet �;hte.

XLII. WĪGLAF SPEAKS. THE BUILDING OF THE BALE-FIRE.

ܦ#257; w屠 gesȳne,      � sī� �;h
†3060
�;m �ihte      inne gehȳdde
wrǣte under wealle.      Weard ǣr ofslōh
fēara sumne;      �; sīo fǣh�wear�IV>†
gewrecen wrā�299;ce.      Wundur hwār, �/DIV>
eorl ellen-rōf      ende gefēre
3065
līf-gesceafta,      �leng ne m奼/DIV>
mon mid his gum      medu-seld būan.
Swā w屠 Bīowulfe,      �; hē biorges weard
sōhte, searo-nī�      seolfa ne cū�/DIV>
�w岠his worulde gedāl      weor�sceolde;
†3070
swā hit o�#333;mes d奦nbsp;     dīope benemdon
�;odnas mǣre,      �; �#483;r dydon,
� secg wǣre      synnum scildig,
†
hergum gehea�d,      hell-bendum f岴,
†
wommum gewītnad,      sē �ong strāde.
†3075
N屠hē gold-hw岺      gearwor h奤e
āgendes ēst      ǣr gescēawod.
Wīglāf ma�de,      Wīhstānes sunu:
"Oft sceall eorl monig      ānes willan
"wrǣc ādrēogan,      swā ūs geworden is.
3080
"Ne meahton wē gelǣran      lēofne �;oden,
"rīces hyrde      rǣd ǣnigne,
"�#275; ne grētte      gold-weard �/DIV>
"lēte hyne licgean,      �;r hē longe w屬
"wīcum wunian      o�ruld-ende.
3085
"Hēoldon hēah gesceap:      hord ys gescēawod,
†
"grimme gegongen;      w屠�fe�ō swī�DIV>
"�; � �;oden      �ontyhte.
"Ic w屠�;r inne      and �ll geond-seh,
"recedes geatwa,      �; mē gerȳmed w屬
3090
"nealles swǣslīce      sī�ālȳfed
"inn under eor�all.      Ic on ofoste gefēng
"micle mid mundum      m妥n-byr�e
"hord-gestrēona,      hider ūt 峢尼/DIV>
"cyninge mīnum:      cwico w屠�; gēna,
3095
"wīs and gewittig;      worn eall gespr塼/DIV>
"gomol on geh�bsp;     and ēowic grētan hēt,
†
"b墠�#275; geworhton      奴er wines dǣdum
"in bǣl-stede      beorh �ēan
"micelne and mǣrne,      swā hē manna w屼/DIV>3100
"wīgend weor�llost      wīde geond eor�
"� hē burh-welan      brūcan mōste.
"Uton nū efstan      ō�sī�I>
"sēon and sēcean      searo-ge�/DIV>
"wundur under wealle!      ic ēow wīsige,
3105
"�#275; genōge      nēan scēawia�IV>†
"bēagas and brād gold.      Sīe sīo bǣr gearo
"ǣdre ge奮ed,      �wē ūt cymen,
"and � geferian      frēan ūserne,
"lēofne mannan,      �;r hē longe sceal
3110
"on �ldendes      wǣre ge�."
Hēt �; gebēodan      byre Wīhstānes,
h嫥 hilde-dīor,      h嫥�onegum
bold-āgendra,      �#299;e bǣl-wudu
†
feorran feredon,      folc-āgende
3115
gōdum tōgēnes:      "Nū sceal glēd fretan
†
"(weaxan wonna lēg)      wigena strengel,
"�e oft gebād      īsern-scūre,
"�strǣla storm,      strengum gebǣded,
"scōc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte hēold,
†3120
"fe�gearwum fūs      flāne full-ēode."
Hūru se snotra      sunu Wīhstānes
ācīgde of cor�nbsp;     cyninges �
syfone tōsomne      �; sēlestan,
†
ēode eahta sum      under inwit-hrōf;
3125
hilde-rinc sum      on handa b尼/DIV>
ǣled-lēoman,      sē �orde gēong.
N屠�; on hlytme,      hwā �rd strude,
sy񯠮 or-wearde      ǣnigne dǣl
secgas gesēgon      on sele wunian,
3130
lǣne licgan:      lȳt ǣnig mearn,
�#299; ofostlice      ūt geferedon
dȳre mā�;      dracan ēc scufun,
wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lēton wǣg niman,
flōd f篭ian      fr峷a hyrde.
3135
ܦ#483;r w屠wunden gold      on wǣn hladen,
†
ǣghw屠 unrīm,      篥ling boren,
hār hilde-rinc      tō Hrones n岳e.

XLIII. BĒOWULF'S FUNERAL PYRE.

Him �; gegiredan      Gēata lēode
ād on eor�nbsp;     un-wāclīcne,
3140
helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
beorhtum byrnum,      swā hē bēna w屻
ālegdon �; tō-middes      mǣrne �;oden
h嫥�hīofende,      hlāford lēofne.
Ongunnon �; on beorge      bǣl-fȳra mǣst
†3145
wīgend weccan:      wudu-rēc āstāh
†
sweart ofer swio�,      swōgende lēg,
†
wōpe bewunden      (wind-blond gel奩
o�t hē �; bān-hūs      gebrocen h奤e,
hāt on hre�      Higum unrōte
3150
mōd-ceare mǣndon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
†
swylce giōmor-gyd      lat . con meowle
. . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
serg (?) cearig sǣlde      geneahhe
�#299;o hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155
. . . . . ede      w嫦ylla wonn . .
hildes egesan      hy�DIV>
haf mid      heofon rēce swealh (?)
Geworhton �;      Wedra lēode
hlǣw on hlī�nbsp;     sē w屠hēah and brād,
3160
wǣg-lī�um      wīde gesȳne,
and betimbredon      on tȳn dagum
†
beadu-rōfes bēcn:      bronda betost
wealle beworhton,      swā hyt weor�299;cost
fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165
Hī on beorg dydon      bēg and siglu,
eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde ǣr
nī�̄dige men      genumen h奤on;
forlēton eorla gestrēon      eor�healdan,
gold on grēote,      �;r hit nū gēn lifa�IV>3170
eldum swā unnyt,      swā hit ǣror w屮
†
ܦ#257; ymbe hlǣw riodan      hilde-dēore,
篥linga bearn      ealra twelfa,
†
woldon ceare cwī�      kyning mǣnan,
word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175
eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
dugu� dēmdon,      swā hit ge-dēfe bi�DIV>
�n his wine-dryhten      wordum herge,
ferh� frēoge,      �hē for�ile
of līc-haman      lǣne weor�
3180
Swā begnornodon      Gēata lēode
hlāfordes hryre,      heor�nēatas,
cwǣdon �#275; wǣre      woruld-cyning
†
mannum mildust      and mon-�3;rust,
†
lēodum lī�      and lof-geornost.

APPENDIX

†

THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG.‡

†
". . . . . . . . . . . n屠byrna�nǣfre."
Hleo�e �;      hea�eong cyning:
"Ne � daga�ēastan,      ne hēr draca ne flēoge�DIV>
"ne hēr � healle      hornas ne byrna�DIV>†5
"ac fēr for�ra�sp;     fugelas singa�DIV>
"gylle�grǣg-hama,      gū�du hlynne�DIV>
"scyld scefte oncwy�bsp;     Nū scȳne�s mōna
"wa�under wolcnum;      nū ārīsa�#275;a-dǣda,
"�; �folces nī�sp;     fremman willa�DIV>10
"Ac onwacnigea�#363;,      wīgend mīne,
†
"hebba�275;owre handa,      hicgea� ellen,
"winna� orde,      wesa� mōde!"
ܦ#257; ārās monig gold-hladen �nbsp;     gyrde hine his swurde;
�; tō dura ēodon      drihtlīce cempan,
†15
Sigefer�d Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
and 岠ō� durum      Ordlāf and Gū�257;f,
and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on lāste.
†
ܦ#257; gīt Gārulf      Gū� styrode,
�#299;e swā frēolīc feorh      forman sī�DIV>20
tō �;re healle durum      hyrsta ne bǣran,
nū hyt nī� heard      ānyman wolde:
ac hē fr妮 ofer eal      undearninga,
dēor-mōd h嫥�bsp;     hwā �; duru hēolde.
"Sigefer� mīn nama (cw箠 hē),      ic eom Secgena lēod,
25
"wrecca wīde cū�bsp;     Fela ic wēana gebād,
"heardra hilda;      �; is gȳt hēr witod,
†
"sw篥r �; sylf tō mē      sēcean wylle."
ܦ#257; w屠on wealle      w媭slihta gehlyn,
†
sceolde cēlod bord      cēnum on handa
†30
bān-helm berstan.      Buruh-�ynede,
o�t 岠�;re gū�bsp;     Gārulf gecrang,
ealra ǣrest      eor�#363;endra,
Gū�257;fes sunu;      ymbe hine gōdra fela.
†
Hwearf flacra hrǣw      hr奮, wandrode
35
sweart and sealo-brūn;      swurd-lēoma stōd
swylce eal Finns-buruh      fȳrenu wǣre.
Ne gefr妮 ic nǣfre wur�299;cor      岠wera hilde
sixtig sige-beorna      sēl gebǣran,
ne nǣfre swānas swētne      medo sēl forgyldan,
40
�Hn奥 guldon      his h奭stealdas.
Hig fuhton fīf dagas,      swā hyra nān ne fēol
†
driht-gesī�nbsp;     ac hig �; duru hēoldon.
ܦ#257; gewāt him wund h嫥�sp;     on w奠gangan,
sǣde �s byrne      ābrocen wǣre,
†45
here-sceorpum hrōr,      and ēac w屠his helm �/DIV>
ܦ#257; hine sōna fr妮      folces hyrde,
†
hū �; wīgend      hyra wunda genǣson
o񯣠hw篥r �;ra hyssa . . . . . . .

LIST OF NAMES; NOTES; AND GLOSSARY.

ABBREVIATIONS

m.: masculine.
f.: feminine.
n.: neuter.
nom., gen.: nominative, genitive, etc.
w.: weak.
w. v.: weak verb.
st.: strong.
st. v.: strong verb.
I., II., III.: first, second, third person.
comp.: compound.
imper.: imperative.
w.: with.
instr.: instrumental.
G. and Goth.: Gothic.
O.N.: Old Norse.
O.S.: Old Saxon.
O.H.G.: Old High German.
M.H.G.: Middle High German.
The vowel a in glad }
The diphthong ǣ = a in hair } approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.

LIST OF NAMES.

Ābel, Cain's brother, 108.

Ŭf-here (gen. Ŭf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wīglāf's, 2605.

ųc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrō�257;r (1326), older brother of Yrmenlāf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bān-stān, father of Breca, 524.

Bēo-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is Healfdene, 57.

Bēo-wulf (Bīowulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Bēowulfes, 857, etc., Bīowulfes, 2195, 2808, etc.; dat. Bēowulfe, 610, etc., Bīowulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of the Gēatas. His father is the Wǣgmunding Ecg�;ow (263, etc.); his mother a daughter of Hrē� king of the Gēatas (374), at whose court he is brought up after his seventh year with Hrē�s sons, Herebeald, H篣yn, and Hygelāc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Gēatas to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrō�257;r, against Grendel, 198 ff. His combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrō�257;r, 1021 ff. His combat with Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrō�257;r (1818-1888), and returns to Hygelāc, 1964 ff.—After Hygelāc's last battle and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes D妨refn, one of the Hūgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time Hygelāc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the government as guardian of the young Heardrēd, son of Hygelāc, 2378 ff. After Heardrēd's death, the kingdom falls to Bēowulf, 2208, 2390.—Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrēd, he kills the Scylfing, Ēadgils (2397), and probably conquers his country. —His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Bēanstān, 524. Chief of the Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Bēowulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brōsinga mene, corrupted from, or according to M�off, written by mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII. 304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107, 1262 ff.

D奭hrefn (dat. D妨refne, 2502), a warrior of the Hūgas, who, according to 2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of King Hygelāc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas. Is crushed to death by Bēowulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum, 768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22), Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrē�, 445. On account of their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gār-Dene, 1, 1857, Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of the heavens: Ēast-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sū�ne, 463, Nor�ne, 784.—Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on Scedenigge," 1687, "be sǣm twēonum," 1686.

Ecg-lāf (gen. Ecglāfes, 499), Hunfer�father, 499.

Ecg-�;ow (nom. Ecg�;ow, 263, Ecg�;o, 373; gen. Ecg�;owes, 529, etc., Ecg�;owes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Gēatas, of the house of the Wǣgmundings. Bēowulf is the son of Ecg�;ow, by the only daughter of Hrē� king of the Gēatas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Hea�#257;f (460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose king, Hrō�257;r, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants, 1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings, which closes with Heremōd. See Heremōd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the restored text, she is the wife of Ongen�;ow, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-n屼/B>, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Gēatas, where occurred Bēowulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Ēadgils (dat. Ēadgilse, 2393), son of Ōhthere, and grandson of Ongen�;ow, the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Ēanmund (gen. Ēanmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem (2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be conjectured:—

The sons of Ōhthere, Ēanmund and Ēadgils, have rebelled against their father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from Swīorīce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Gēatas to Heardrēd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated; but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against Heardrēd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.) Heardrēd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Ēanmund, to whom, according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Wēohstān brings death." Wēohstān takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Ēanmund's body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword (2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela, 2617-18. But Wēohstān does not speak willingly of this fight, although he has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.—After Heardrēd's and Ēanmund's death, the descendant of Ongen�;ow, Ēadgils, returns to his home, 2388. He must give way before Bēowulf, who has, since Heardrēd's death, ascended the throne of the Gēatas, 2390. But Bēowulf remembers it against him in after days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Ēadgils makes an invasion into the land of the Gēatas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands of Bēowulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over the Swēonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the Gēatas, son of Wonrēd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish king, Ongen�;ow (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King Hygelāc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rīc (gen. Eormenrīces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W. Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hāma has wrested the Brōsinga mene from him, 1202.

Eomǣr, son of Offa and ݲȳ�cf. ݲȳ� 1961.

Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, giant. Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146, 198.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090), king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a daughter of Hōc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the Hōcing, Hn夬 a relative—perhaps a brother—of Hildeburg is spending some time as guest. Hn夬 who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then, however, Hn夠is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hn大s followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation (1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud breaks out anew. Gū�257;f and Oslāf avenge Hn大s fall, probably after they have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes, 1147-1160.

Finna land. Bēowulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the W㫳ing, Sigemund, and his companion in arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Signȳ. Cf. more at length Leo on Bēowulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelāc fell on an expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas, 1211, 2917.

Frēsan, Frȳsan (gen. Frēsena, 1094, Frȳsna, 1105, Frēsna, 2916: dat. Frȳsum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians, whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks and Hūgas, in the war against whom Hygelāc falls, 1208, 2916. The country of the former is called Frȳsland, 1127; that of the latter, Frēsna land, 2916.

Fr..es w媼/B> (in Fr..es w嫥, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrō�257;r; given in marriage to Ingeld, the son of the Hea�ard king, Frōda, in order to end a war between the Danes and the Hea�ardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

Frōda (gen. Frōdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Frēaware, 2026.

Gārmund (gen. Gārmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Ēomǣr, 1961-63.

Gēatas (gen. Gēata, 205, etc.; dat. Gēatum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called Wedergēatas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gū�275;atas, 1539; Sǣgēatas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrē� H篣yn, second son of Hrē� Hygelāc, the brother of H篣yn; Heardrēd, son of Hygelāc; then Bēowulf.

Gif�/B> (dat. Gif� 2495), Gepidǣ, mentioned in connection with Danes and Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He breaks every night into Hrō�257;r's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115 ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Bēowulf fights with him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837. Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks into the hall and carries off ųchere, 1295. Bēowulf seeks for and finds her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589), and brings it to Hrō�257;r, 1648.

Gū�#257;f and Oslāf, Danish warriors under Hn夬 whose death they avenge on Finn, 1149.

Hālga, with the surname, til, the younger brother of the Danish king, Hrō�257;r, 61. His son is Hrō�, 1018, 1165, 1182.

Hāma wrests the Brōsinga mene from Eormenrīc, 1199.

H履�> (gen. H履� 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelāc, 1930, 1982.

H篣yn (dat. H篣ynne, 2483), second son of Hrē� king of the Gēatas, 2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow, 2438 ff. After Hrē�s death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongen�;ow, 2925. His successor is his younger brother, Hygelāc, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealh�;ow, Hrō�257;r's wife, 621.

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mǣg, 1945; Ēomǣr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458), Heming is the son of the sister of Gārmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his relations to Hn夠and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrē� king of the Gēatas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother, H篣yn, 2440.

Here-mōd (gen. Heremōdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rīc (gen. Hererīces, 2207) Heardrēd is called Hererīces nefa, 2207. Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hūgas, conquer Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Bēowulf, the Scylding (57); rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogār, Hrō�257;r, and Hālga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the renewed text of the passage, was married to the Scylfing, Ongen�;ow, 62, 63.

Heard-rēd (dat. Heardrēde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas, and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Bēowulf, as nephew of Heardrēd's father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is slain by Ōhthere's sons, 2386. This murder Bēowulf avenges on Ēadgils, 2396-97.

Hea�eardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the Lombards. Their king, Frōda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029, 2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrō�257;r has given his daughter, Frēawaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frōda, a marriage that does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070 (Wīdsī�5-49).

Hea�āf (dat. Hea�āfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecg�;ow, Bēowulf's father, kills him, 460.

Hea�ǣmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Bēowulf, 519.

Heoro-gār (nom. 61; Heregār, 467; Hiorogār, 2159), son of Healfdene, and older brother of Hrō�257;r, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son, Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Bēowulf has received from Hrō�257;r (2156), and presents it to Hygelāc, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogār's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute, 767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrō�257;r's throne-room and banqueting hall and assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78. In it occurs Bēowulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of Hōc, relative of the Danish leader, Hn夬 consort of the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hn夼/B> (gen. Hn奥s, 1115), a Hōcing (Wīdsī�9), the Danish King Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and burial, see under Finn.

Hond-scīo, warrior of the Gēatas: dat. 2077.

Hōc (gen. Hōces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hn夠(Wīdsī�9).

Hrē�/B> (gen. Hrē�, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Gēatas, 374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecg�;ow, and has borne him Bēowulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, H篣yn, and Hygelāc, 2435. The eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of this inexpiable deed, Hrē�becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

Hrē�/B> (gen. Hrē�, MS. Hrǣdlan, 454), the same as Hrē�(cf. M�off in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Bēowulf's coat of mail, 454.

Hrē�g, son of Hrē� Hygelāc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of Hygelāc, the Geats, 2961.

Hrē�n (gen. Hrē�nna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

Hrē�#299;c, son of Hrō�257;r, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the Swedish king, Ongen�;ow, slew H篣yn, king of the Gēatas, in battle.

Hrēosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Gēatas, near which Ongen�;ow's sons, Ōhthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the country after Hrē�s death. These were the immediate cause of the war in which Hrē�s son, King H墹n, fell, 2478 ff.

Hrō�#257;r (gen. Hrō�257;res, 235, etc.; dat. Hrō�257;re, 64, etc.), of the dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene, 61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogār, he assumes the government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogār was king of the Danes before Hrō�257;r, or whether his death occurred while his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealh�;ow (613), of the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrē�299;c and Hrō�d (1190), and a daughter, Frēaware (2023), who has been given in marriage to the king of the Hea�ardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78 ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Bēowulf (711 ff., 1493 ff). Hrō�257;r's rich gifts to Bēowulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818; he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.—Other information about Hrō�257;r's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the murder which Ecg�;ow, Bēowulf's father, committed upon Hea�#257;f, 460, 470; his war with the Hea�ardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his daughter, Frēaware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this marriage, 2021-2070.—Treachery of his brother's son, Hrō�, intimated, 1165-1166.

Hrō�nd, Hrō�257;r's son, 1190.

Hrō�f, probably a son of Hālga, the younger brother of King Hrō�257;r, 1018, 1182. Wealh�;ow expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early death of Hrō�257;r, Hrō�f would prove a good guardian to Hrō�257;r's young son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrō�f has abused his trust towards Hrō�257;r.

Hrones-n屼/B> (dat. -n岳e, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the country of the Gēatas, visible from afar. Here is Bēowulf's grave-mound, 2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hunfer�sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

Hūgas (gen. Hūga, 2503), Hygelāc wars against them allied with the Franks and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called D妨refn, whom Bēowulf slays, 2503.

[H]ūn-fer�>, the son of Ecglāf, �f King Hrō�257;r. As such, he has his place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword, Hrunting, to Bēowulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f. According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unfer�P>

Hūn-lāfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144. See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of H履�A href="#li1930">1930; consort of Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas, 1927; her son, Heardrēd, 2203, etc.—Her noble, womanly character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-lāc (gen. Hige-lāces, 194, etc., Hygelāces, 2387; dat. Higelāce, 452, Hygelāce, 2170), king of the Gēatas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrē� 1486, 1848; his older brothers, Herebeald and H篣yn, 2435; his sister's son, Bēowulf, 374, 375. After his brother, H篣yn, is killed by Ongen�;ow, he undertakes the government (2992 in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as reward for slaying Ongen�;ow, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much later, at the time of the return of Bēowulf from his expedition to Hrō�257;r, we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of H履�A href="#li1930">1930. The latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrēd, 2203, 2376, 2387.—Hygelāc falls during an expedition against the Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frōda, the Hea�ard chief, who fell in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is married to Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrō�257;r, 2025-30. Yet his love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wīdsī�5-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wīoingas (gen. Mere-wīoinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

N妬ing, the name of Bēowulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wīdsī�5), the son of Gārmund, 1963; married (1950) to ݲȳ�1932), a beautiful but cruel woman, of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Ēomǣr, 1961.

Ōht-here (gen. Ōhtheres, 2929, 2933; Ōhteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son of Ongen�;ow, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Ēanmund (2612) and Ēadgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), Ōhthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-�;ow (nom. -�;ow, 2487, -�;o, 2952; gen. -�;owes, 2476, -�;owes, 2388; dat. -�;o, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king, Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and Ōhthere, 2933. She is taken prisoner by H篣yn, king of the Gēatas, on an expedition into Sweden, which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongen�;ow (2931), who kills H篣yn, 2925, and encloses the Gēatas, now deprived of their leader, in the Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelāc, 2944. A battle then follows, which is unfavorable to Ongen�;ow's army. Ongen�;ow himself, attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff., 2962 ff.

Ōs-lāf, a warrior of Hn大s, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149 f.

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-īg (dat. Sceden-īgge, 1687), O.N., Scān-ey, the most southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of the whole Danish kingdom.

Scēf or Scēaf. See Note.

Scēfing, the son (?) of Scēf, or Scēaf, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scēfing. 4. His son is Bēowulf, 18, 53: his grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrō�257;r, who had two brothers and a sister, 59 ff.—Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone, upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102, 2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called Ār-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; ܦ#275;od-Scyldingas, 1020; Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to the Gēatas, since Wīglāf, the son of Wīhstān, who in another place, as a kinsman of Bēowulf, is called a Wǣgmunding (2815), is also called lēod Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:—

              Scylf.
                |
     ------------------------
     Wǣgmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecg�;ow.  Wēohstān.  Ongen�;ow.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
Bēowulf.  Wīglāf.  Onela. Ōhthere.
                             |
                 -----------------
                 Ēaumund. Ēadgils.

The Scylfings are also called Hea�cilfingas, 63, Gū�ylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of W嫳, 878, 898. His (son and ) nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelāc's grandfather, and Hrē�s father, 1204.

Swēon (gen. Swēona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Swēo-�;od, 2923. The dynasty of the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swīorice, 2384, 2496.

ݲȳ�B>, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Ēomǣr, 1961, notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the Gēatas.

W嫳 (gen. W嫳es, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

Wǣg-mundingas (gen. Wǣgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wǣgmundings are on one side, Wīhstān and his son Wīglāf; on the other side, Ecg�;ow and his son Bēowulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-gēatas. See Gēatas.

Wēland (gen. Wēlandes, 455), the maker of Bēowulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgār. See Wulfgār. The Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill, the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-�;ow (613, Wealh-�;o, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrō�257;r, of the stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrē�299;c and Hrō�d, 1190; her daughter, Frēawaru, 2023.

Wēoh-stān (gen. Wēox-stānes, 2603, Wēoh-stānes, 2863, Wih-stānes, 2753, 2908, etc.), a Wǣgmunding (2608), father of Wīglāf, 2603. In what relationship to him Ŭfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not clear.—Wēohstān is the slayer of Ēanmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrēd. See Ēanmund.

Wīg-lāf, Wēohstān's son, 2603, etc., a Wǣgmunding, 2815, and so also a Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of Ŭfhere, 2605. For his relationship to Bēowulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.—He supports Bēowulf in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rēd (gen. Wonrēdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Gēatas, Wonrēd's son. He fights in the battle between the armies of Hygelāc and Ongen�;ow with Ongen�;ow himself, and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongen�;ow, by a stroke of his sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing Ongen�;ow a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-gār, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrō�257;r's court, and is his "ār and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecg�;ow has slain Heo�#257;f, a warrior of this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-lāf, younger brother of ųchere, 1325.


ABBREVIATIONS.

B.: Bugge.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
C.: Cosijn.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Gr.: Grein.
H.: Heyne.
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Ho.: Holder.
K.: Kemble.
Kl.: Kluge.
M�.: M�off.
R.: Rieger.
S.: Sievers.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Th.: Thorpe.
Z.: Zupitza.

PERIODICALS.

Ang.: Anglia.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beitr㦥.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Germ.: Germania.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.

NOTES.

l. 1. hw岼/B>: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. Andreas, Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood, and the "Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.—E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed. Morris, l. 853:

"Sin I shal beginne the game,
What, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

wē ... gefrūnon is a variant on the usual epic formulǣ ic gefr妮 (l. 74) and mīne gefrǣge (l. 777). Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix, etc., open with the same formula.

l. 1. "Gār was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."—Br. 124. Cf. Maldon, l. 296; Judith, l. 224; Gnom. Verses, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According to the original form of the story, Scēaf was the foundling; he had come ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf, and hence his cognomen."—E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = to terrify.

l. 15. S. suggests �; (which) for �>, as object of drēogan; and for aldor-lēase, Gr. suggested aldor-ceareBeit. ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This is our ancestral myth,—the story of the first culture-hero of the North; 'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden, Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"—Br., p. 78. Cf. A.-S. Chron. an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., Beit. ix. 135) eaferan; cf. Fata Apost.: lof wīde sprang �;odnes �/B>.

"The name Bēowulf means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of the bees, = bear. Cf. beorn, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and bēohata, 'warrior,' in Cǣdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or 'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with bēowulf."—Sw.

Cf.

"Arcite and Palamon,
That foughten breme, as it were bores two."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. M� Science of Lang., Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's Daniel, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = Scania, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesī�/B> below. H.-So. compares H諩and, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.

"In elde is bothe wisdom and usage."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion; cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 31. The object of āhte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum wēold of l. 30.—H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: Beit. xii. 80, ix. 188; Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lǣndagas for lange.

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the cables were passed that tied it to the shore."—Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132, 1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l. 1863).

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, Inglinga Saga; the burial of Balder, Sinfi�, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It is the AEtheling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned, the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."—Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over with earth."—E. See Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rǣdende (K., S., C.); (2) sēle-rǣdenne (H.); (3) sele-rǣdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin with the monosyllable �;, four with the verb gewītan, nine with the formula Hrō�257;r (Bēowulf, Unfer� ma�de, twenty-four with monosyllables in general (him, swā, sē, hw岬 �;, heht, w屬 m奬 cwōm, strǣt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic forms and words, such as mec for m纯B>, the possessive s쬬 gamol, d򦮲, sw಼/B> for eald, dǣg, bl򢺯B>, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenǣdre (war-adder) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (gold-giver) for 'king,' ... goldwine gumena (goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men) for 'king,'" etc.—Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (men), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads rǣswa (referring to Heorogār alone), and places a point (with the Ms.) after Heorogār instead of after rǣswa. Cf. l. 469; see B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan) is thought by B. (Tidskr. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he reads: [On-]elan ewēn, Hea�ilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For , omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus omitted in subord. clauses.—Sw.

l. 70. �B>, here = �/B>, than, and micel = māre? The passage, by a slight change, might be made to read, medo-屮 micle      mā gewyrcean,—�B> = by much larger than,—in which �� would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add folk-share to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. gū�earu.

l. 74. ic wide gefr妮: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = men said. Cf. Judith, ll. 7, 246; Phoenix, l. 1; and the parallel (noun) formula, mīne gefrǣge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered bravely in the sun."—Br., p. 32.

l. 84. Son-in-law and father-in-law; B., a so-called dvanda compound. Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means uncle and nephew; and Wīdsī�suhtorfǣdran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word drēam conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and more particularly the sound of music and singing."—E. Cf. l. 3021; and Judith, l. 350; Wanderer, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the lines attributed by Bede to Cǣdmon:

Nū wē sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
—Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in Bēowulf] is the sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons, eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."—Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in Bēowulf is treated like verbs of motion and modal auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without ; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984, 244. Cf. gan (= did) in Mid. Eng.: gan espye (Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, fēond on healle; cf. l. 142Beit. xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (a bolt or bar).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of hell, and hence a fiend. ... Ettm�was the first ... to connect the name with grindan, to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy. Grendel is then the tearer, the destroyer."—Br., p. 83.

l. 102. g岴 = stranger (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 105 MS. and Ho. read won-sǣli.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern English, by hǣf�> and hǣfde with the past participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 433, 408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts �.. drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. = because, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll. 228, 627, 1780, 2798); according as (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (Lord) and Deofol (devil; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry; cf. tō sǣ (l. 318), ofer sǣ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tō r岴e (l. 1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).—Beit. ix. 137.

l. 120. unfǣlo = uncanny (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, majestic rage; adopting Gr.'s view that swy�> is = Icel. svi�B>, a burn or burning. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-� to be corrupted from hel�; cf. l. 101Beit. xii. 80. See Gū�257;c, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sēlest, puts w屠... micel in parenthesis, and inserts a colon after tīd.

l. 149. B. reads sārcwidum for sy񯠮.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after DenigaBeit. xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen. Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment," and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. nē ... wisse: nor had he desire to do so (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in Wanderer, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with expresses purpose, defines a noun or adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf. ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, In days of yore, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. gāst-bona is regarded by Ettm�and G. Stephens (Thunor, p. 54) as an epithet of Thor (= giant-killer), a kenning for Thunor or Thor, meaning both man and monster.—E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both mōd-ceare and mǣl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. sēa�>: for this use of sēo�/B> cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram hām = in his home (S., H.-So.); but fram hām may be for fram him (from them, i.e. his people, or from Hrothgar's). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See Andreas, Elene, and Juliana for swan-rād (= sea). "The swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden." —E. Cf. ganotes b箼/B>, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with �;ah, �;ah �#275;ah ... eal, vary with subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind; cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hǣl, an OE. word found in W�s Glossaries in various forms, = augury, omen, divination, etc. Cf. hǣlsere, augur; hǣl, omen; hǣlsung, augurium, hǣlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., Germania, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= impetrare" to the other meanings of findan given in the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and Andreas, l. 993.—E. E. compares Byron's

"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
—Corsair, i. 17.

and Scott's

"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
—Lord of the Isles, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.

"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
Gnawinge."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l 218. MS. and Ho. read fāmi-heals.

l. 219. Does ān-tīd mean hour (Th.), or corresponding hour = ānd-tīd (H.-So.), or in due time (E.), or after a time, when ō�B>, etc., would be adv. gen.? See C., Beit. viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) voyage; (2) toil, labor; (3) hurried journey; but sea or fjord appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second among the Geats in South Sweden."—Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in Bēowulf the earliest sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is .... To this they added Wǣter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim, Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad, Ganotes-bǣ�>."—Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion where we should use the present participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163 1803, 268, etc. Cf. German spazieren fahren reiten, etc., and similar constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bǣron. B. inserts (?) after holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels, and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = man-at-arms in another's house (Wood); = low-ranking fellow (Ha.); stubenhocker, stay-at-home (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight," Marmion, i. 5.

l. 250. n奮e (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = unless; cf. ll. 1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = except, see l. 1354. Cf. būtan, gif, �;ah.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in Bēowulf, see S. A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit. For general "Old Teutonic Life in Bēowulf," see J. A. Harrison, Overland Monthly.

l. 252. ǣr as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819, 732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. lēas = loose, roving. Ettm�corrected to lēase.

l. 256. This proverb (ofest, etc.) occurs in Exod. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = eminent, may be used of Beowulf. Cf. Laws of AElfred, C. 17: Nā �483;lc eald sȳ, ac �#275; eald sȳ on wīsdōme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.; cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with sehen, horen, etc., French construction with voir, entendre, etc., and the classical constructions.

l. 275. dǣd-hata = instigator. Kl. reads dǣd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten Br. = Tidskr. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms ǽghw篥r (ǽg�, 覨w篥r, etc. This prefixed ǽ, 򣺯B> corresponds to the Goth, aiw, OHG. eo, io, and is umlauted from �B>, 񺮂> by the i of the gi which originally followed."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called 'weeds.'"—E.

l. 299. MS. reads gōd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet, and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short, heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used for close quarters."—Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454; Grimm, Myth. 195; Tacitus, Germania, 45. "It was the symbol of their [the Baltic AEstii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a preservative from hard knocks."—E. See the print in the illus. ed. of Green's Short History, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, Saxons in England, chapter on heathendom, and Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which Freyr rode, and his worship."—Br., p. 128. Cf. Elene, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hlēor-bergan = cheek-protectors; cf. Beit. xii. 26. "A bronze disk found at լand in Sweden represents two warriors in helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the hlēor-bergan."—E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S. heals, neck + beorgan, to cover or protect; and harbor, < A.-S. here, army + beorgan, id.—Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's Exod. l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and gū�333;de grummon, B. and ten Br. read ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gū�333;dgum men (l. 306), = the boar-images ... guarded the lives of the warlike men.

l. 311. lēoma: cf. Chaucer, Nonne Preestes Tale, l. 110, ed. Morris:

"To dremen in here dremes
Of armes, and of fyr with rede lemes."

l. 318. On the double gender of , cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of between at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So Cǣdmon, l. 163 (Thorpe), Exod. l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and Andreas, l. 987, where almost the same words occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of civilization." —E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scīr, and makes hring-īren (= ring-mail) parallel with gū�rne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a church porch is called v䪥nhus,... i.e. weapon-house, because the worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."—E., after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal damask'd o'er with gold."—E.

l. 336. "ǣl-, el-, kindred with Goth. aljis, other, e.g. in ǣl�, el�, foreign."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-�B>.

l. 338. Ho. marks wr塭 and its group long.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same bēod-genēatas,—"the predecessor title to that of the Knights of the Table Round."—E. Cf. Andreas (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056; and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sī�> here, and at l. 501, probably means arrival. E. translates the former by visit, the latter by adventure.

l. 357. unhār = hairless, bald (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. ēode is only one of four or five preterits of gān (gongan, gangan, gengan), viz. gēong (gīong: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.), gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that ēode is "probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, Gen. ll. 626, 834; Exod. (Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. gl壭an Hrō�257;r, abandoning Thorkelin's gl壮ian. There is a glass. hilaris gl壭an.—Beit. xii. 84; same as gl墼/B>.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590, 1822, 526. Cf. do in "that will do"; doughty, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed out in the full sense of knight."—E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-f壥r, "hyphens are risky toys to play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-f壥r could only = grandfather. eald here can only mean honored, and the hyphen is unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. alt-vater.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Gēatum, as presents from the Danish to the Geatish king.—Beit. xii.

l. 380. h塢e. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = as if.

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is subject-acc. to sēon. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's Exod. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred. It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach it."—Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in 1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of one kind, but of different lengths.'"—Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... hāl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into wassail. Cf. Skeat's Luke, i. 28; Andreas (K.), 1827; Layamon, l. 14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weor�/B> [in passive relations] is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weor�/B> generally an action."—Sw. Cf. Mod. German werden and sein in similar relations.

l. 414. Gr. translates hādor by receptaculum; cf. Gering, Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: �;r ic (on) fīfelgeban (= ocean) ȳ�eotena cyn. Ten Br. reads: �;r ic fīfelgeban ȳ� eotena hām. Ha. suggests fīfelgeband = monster-band, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads �;ra = of them, for �;rZachers Zeitschr. iii. 399; Beit. xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially, and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. �e = whom, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable � is often thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes separated from them by a considerable interval.—Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider the Gēatas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland. Alfred translates Juti by Gēatas, but Jutland by Gotland. In the laws they are called GutiBeit. xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = fearlessly, modifying etan. Kl. reads anforhte = timid.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: thou wilt not need my head to hide (i.e. bury). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant. Wood, thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head! H.-So. supposes hēafod-weard, a guard of honor, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers had, to be meant by hafalan hȳdan; hence, you need not give me any guard, etc. Cf. Schmid, Gesetze der A., 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nime�>.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (Beit. xii. 87) agree essentially in translating feorme, food. R. translates consumption of my corpse. Maintenance, support, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. R�ng (after Grimm) personifies Hild.—Beovulfs Kvadet, l. 59. Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens, who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type, husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."— Br., p. 120. Cf. A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.—Walks in London, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the ǣlces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd bi�ī� of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it in Bēowulf.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the Christian tone of l. 685 seq.

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wǣre-ryhtum ( = from the obligations of clientage).

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The dugu�>, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the nation, are the support of the throne."—E. The M. E. form of the word, douth, occurs often. Associated with geogo�>, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrē�cgum, = disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes. Others, as K�r, convert meoto into an imperative and divide on sǣl = think upon happiness. But cf. onband beadu-rūne, l. 501. B. supposes onsǣl meoto =speak courteous words. Tidskr. viii. 292; Haupts Zeitschr. xi. 411; Eng. Stud. ii. 251.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's Andreas, l. 1097, for deal, =proud, elated, exulting; Phoenix (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunfer�>, but the alliteration requires Unfer�>, as at ll. 499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See List of Names.

l. 501. sī�> = arrival (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. �#257; = the more (?), may be added to the references under �>.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = idle boasting. The second definition in the Gloss. is wrong.

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant dwelt, and through which he acted."—Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English term eagre still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore on rivers. Dryden uses it in his Threnod. Angust. 'But like an eagre rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's Boethius, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's Cǣdmon, 69, etc.

l. 524. Kr�nd B. read BānstānesBeit. ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. guten Muthes) ge�; but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... � = wyrsena �/B>, can stand; cf. gen. pl. banan, Christ, l. 66, etc.

l. 545 seq. "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming, but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a tribe mentioned in Wīds쳨. The story seems legendary, not mythical."—Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests swā �;r for hw篥re, = so there it befell me. But the word at l. 574 seems = however, and at l. 578 = yet; cf. l. 891; see S.; Beit. ix. 138; Tidskr. viii. 48; Zacher, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fāgum sweordum (no ic �la gylpe!), supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl. supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates nȳd-bāde by blackmail; adding "nēd bād, toll; nēd bādere, tolltaker."—Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = and in three places only (601, 1149, 2041); elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = and.

l. 612. seq. Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."—E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.—E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealh�;ow at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, Prol. l. 237 (ed. Morris):

"Of yeddynges he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. giddy.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after ge�, especially as B. (Tidskr. viii. 57) has shown that o�> is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. o�> here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = and.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the night-ganger of Leechdoms, ii. 344) is applied to the demon.—E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage Service.—E.

l. 681. B. considers �;ah ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. although.

l. 682. gōdra = advantages in battle (Gr.), battle-skill (Ha.), skill in war (H.-So.). Might not nāt be changed to nah = ne + āh (cf. l. 2253), thus justifying the translation ability (?) —he has not the ability to, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hieraBeit. ix. 189. B. omits hīe as occurring in the previous hemistich.—Beit. xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."—E., who compares the Greek Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l. 1943. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 88; Wīdsī�ITE>, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates �; by when and connects with the preceding sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects to the use of cōm as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (Beit, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is written with Grendel in the writer's mind,—�ceal on fenne gewunian āna inuan lande, the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land (Sweet's Read., p. 187)."—Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in Haupt. xi. 419, quotes from AElfric, Hom. ii. 498: hē beworhte �; bigelsas mid gyldenum lǣfrum, he covered the arches with gold-leaf,—a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. oriel = aureolum, a gilded room.—E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247, 2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest hell-thane (Grendel) for heal-�, and make h嫥 refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrān.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, Ecl. ii. 26:

"Cum placidum ventis staret mare."

l. 757. gedr奼/B>. Tumult is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar. = occupation, lair.

l. 759. R. reads mōdega for gōda, "because the attribute cannot be separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. Andreas, l. 1537, for a similar use of ūt = off.—E.

l. 769. The foreign words in Bēowulf (as ceaster-here) are not numerous; others are (aside from proper names like Cain, Abel, etc.) dēofol (diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrīfan (for- ge-), segn (l. 47), gīgant (l. 113), mīl- (l. 1363), strǣt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim (l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rǣden, etc. (cf. meodu-scerpen in Andreas, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, a great scare under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout; one might compare bescerwan, to deprive, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen would = a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer.—H.-So., p. 93. See B., Tidskr. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rē�rēnhearde, = raging, exceeding bold.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like ǣnige � nǣnige �/B> (not at all), hūru �/B> (especially) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 178; March, A.-S. Gram., p. 182.

l. 811. myr�B>. E. translates in wanton mood. Toller-Bosw. does not recognize sorrow as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads dēop for dēog and erases semicolon after wēol, = the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore; cf. l. 1424. B. reads dēa�#483;ges dēop, etc., = the deep welled with the doomed one's goreBeit. xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mēaras below, l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his blancke" = steed, l. 23900; Kent's Elene, l. 1185.

l. 859. K�r, Eng. Stud. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sǣm twēonum as a mere formula = on earth; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. twēone is part of the separable prep. between; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's Andreas, l. 558.

l. 865. Cf. Voyage of Ōhthere and Wulfstān for an account of funeral horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 seq. R. considers this a technical description of improvised alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = rehearse, for secg, which suits the verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = W嫳inges gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in the hands of Wagner the art of music."—Br., p. 63. Cf. Nibelung. Lied, l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gān, weor�/B>, sometimes take habban, "to indicate independent action."—Sw. Cf. hafa�... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "brūcan (enjoy) always has the genitive."—Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc., gen., instr., dat., according to March, A.-S. Gram., p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes hāte, = from heat, instr. of hāt, heat; cf. l. 2606.

l. 901. hē �257;ron �;h = he throve in honor (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma after �;h, making si񯠮 introduce a depend. clause.—Beit. viii. 568. Cf. weor�ndum �;h, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.—H.-So.

l. 902. Heremōdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = the valiant; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the contradiction between the good "Heremōd" here and the bad one, l. 1710 seq.—B. however holds fast to Heremōd.—Beit. xii. 41. on fēonda geweald, l. 904into the hands of devils, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721, 2267; Christ, l. 1416; Andreas, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwōd, cf. Gen. l. 2579; Hunt's Dan. 17: hīe wlenco anwōd.

l. 902 seq. "Heremōd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund, and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a chieftain."—Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's Exod., l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hōs, G. hansa, company, "the word from which the mercantile association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."—E.

l. 927. on sta�B> = on the floor (B., Rask, ten Br.).—Beit. xii. 90.

l. 927. May not stēapne here = bright, from its being immediately followed by golde fāhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen stepe," Prol. l. 201 (ed. Morris); Cockayne's Ste. Marherete, pp. 9, 108; St. Kath., l. 1647.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= sorrows), gen. plu. of gyrn, as suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (Beit. xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wīd-scofen (h奤e). Gr. makes wēa nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. old-shock; perhaps the pop. interjection O shucks! (!)

l. 959. H. explains as a "plur. of majesty," which Bēowulf throws off at l. 964.

l. 963. fēond �r峧an (B. Beit. xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance, means simply injury, mischief, hatred, and the prose meaning sin is only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only hater, but persecutor, enemy, just as nī�> is both hatred and violence, strength; heard is sharp as well as hard."—Sw.

l. 986. S. places w屼/B> at end of l. 985 and reads stī�n妬a, omitting gehwylc and the commas after that and after scēawedon. Beit. ix. 138; stēdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (Anglia, xii. 3) corrects to ǣghwylene, in apposition to fingras.

l. 987. hand-sporu. See Anglia, vii. 176, for a discussion of the intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unhēoru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests hēatimbred for hāten, and gefr峷on for -od; Kl., hroden (Beit. ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web = aurifrisium.

l. 997. After �;ra � = of those that, the depend, vb. often takes sg. for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.—Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl," etc.—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, Bootle, Battlefield, etc.—Skeat, Principles, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, Prol. (ed. Morris) l. 550:

"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of harre."

ll. 1005-1007. See Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 391, and Beit. xii. 368, for R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sǣl and mǣl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind your seals and meals," = times and occasions, i.e. have your wits about you.—E.

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in conjunction.

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ... �;ra). Cf. B., Beit. xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting, ll. 1458, 1660; Hūnlāfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. scūr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see Professor Pearce's article in Mod. Lang. Notes, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing discussion.

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the word here = enclosure, palings of the court. Cf. Cǣdmon, ll. 2439, 2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wīg to wicg, = charger; and E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see List of Names.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, concerning, about (Ebert's Jahrb., 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = concerning (?). Cf. Fight at Finnsburg, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-" "west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = Finn's people, the Frisians; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146, etc., and Beit. xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wi�gefeohtan (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 394). Kl., wi� wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. wēa-lāf occurs in Wulfstan, Hom. 133, ed. Napier.—E. Cf. daro�āf, Brunanb., l. 54; ādes lāfe, Phoenix, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht streitig war.—B., Beit. iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme occurs.

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wǣre here, is comparatively rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. K�r suggests ecge, = sword, in reference to a supposed old German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear (Eng. Stud. i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = bright gold; B., andīege = Goth, andaugjo, evidently. Cf. incge lāfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (= young men) gold āhōfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's Exod. l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hēt �; ...) bānfatu b屮an ond on bǣl dōn, earme on eaxe = to place the arms in the ashes, reading gū�275;c = battle-reek, for -rinc (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 395). B., Sarrazin (Beit. xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 330), C., etc., propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and Beit. viii. 568. For g�c āstāh, cf. Old Norse, stiga �઼/I>, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweolo�B>. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides to let new grass grow, is called zwayling."—E. Cf. sultry, G. schw�, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rēc āstāh, l. 3145; and Exod. (Hunt), l. 450: wǣlmist āstāh.

l. 1122. 峳pranc = burst forth, arose (omitted from the Gloss.), < 岠+ springan.

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = loyally and without contest, as at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = gone; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., Beit. xii. 31, who conjectures a gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hūn Lāfing, = Hūn placed the sword Lāfing, etc.—Beit. xii. 32; cf. R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 396. Heinzel and Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's Archiv, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and M�r read: worod rǣdenne, �him Hūn Lāfing, = military brotherhood, when Hūn laid upon his breast (the sword) Lāfing. There is a sword Laufi, L�/I> in the Norse sagas; but swords, armor, etc., are often called the leaving (lāf) of files, hammers, etc., especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796, etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = reddened (B., Tidskr. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. M�r, Alteng. Volksepos, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, Anz. f. dtsch. Altert., 10, 226; B., Beit. xii. 29-37. Cf. Wīdsī�ITE>, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. lēo�> (lied = song, lay) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one another."—Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. wonderwork. So wonder-death, wonder-bidding, wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996, etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = wondrous, in wunder-sch�I>, etc.

l. 1165. �; gȳt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gef壥ran = Hrō�257;r and Hrō�, l. 1018. Cf. ā�swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, 岠fōtum, etc., where Unfer� first introduced.

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches still.

l. 1192. ymbutan, round about, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hīe ūtan; cf. Voyage of Ōhthere, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; Bēowulf, ll. 859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bew妮ed, a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον, tr. offered by Th. Probably a p. p. w妥n, made into a vb. by -ian, like own, drown, etc. Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (Piers Plow., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173, 2174.

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem may be approximately dated,—if Hygelāc is the Chochi-laicus of Gregory of Tours, Hist. Francorum, iii. 3,—about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. Brisinga men) is the necklace of the goddess Freya; cf. Elder Edda, Hamarshemt. Hāma stole the necklace from the Gothic King Eormenrīc; cf. Traveller's Song, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelāc's history,—a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For Brōsinga mene, cf. B., Beit. xii. 72. C. suggests flēah, = fled, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making subject of flēah and gecēas.

l. 1202. B. conjectures gecēas ēcne rǣd to mean he became a pious man and at death went to heaven. Heime (Hāma) in the Thidrekssaga goes into a cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf. Hrō�257;r's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = property, for feorh, which would be a parallel for brēost-gewǣdu ... bēah below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the Laws of Cnut, i. 26, the devil is called se wōdfreca werewulf, the ravening werwolf.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bēge onfēng. Beit. viii. 570. For hreā- Kl. suggests hrǣ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettm� the one that reigns after Hrō�257;r.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests , = be, for is.

l. 1232. S. gives wine-elated as the meaning of druncneBeit. ix. 139; Kl. ibid. 189, 194. But cf. Judith, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,—Gothic, Icelandic, OHG., Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, i. 126. Cf. Murray's Dict. s. v.

l. 1248. ānwīg-gearwe = ready for single combat (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43; Beit. ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this fitt the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = wasted; Kolbing reads furode; but cf. wēsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesȳne and wīdcū�>, etc.

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."—Br., p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has sē �, m.; changed by some to seo �. At ll. 1393, 1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505, 1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and savageness.—H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137, etc.

l. 1270. āglǣca = Grendel, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l. 1513.—Sw.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether it should be read ānwealda, = only ruler.—Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu �recan, which R. changes to sunu �;od-wrecan, �;od- = monstrous; but why not regard �;od as opposition to sunu, = her son, the prince? See Sweet's Reader, and K�r's discussion, Eng. Stud. i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sōna) sāra = return of sorrows.

l. 1286. "ge�/B> (twice so written in MSS.) stands for ge�/B>, forged, and is an isolated p. p."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw. for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. �e = whom; cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; Hēliand, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sǣm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's Exod. l. 442; and Mod. Eng. "to us-ward, etc.—Earle's Philol., p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes ō�him 屮 = another apartment was assigned him.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrōf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be unnecessary, under also meaning in, as in (or under) these circumstances.

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nǣgde or nēgde, accosted,< nēgan = Mid. Ger. nēhwian, pr. p. nēhwiandans, approach. For hnǣgan, press down, vanquish, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests nēad-lā�/B> for nēod-la�B>, after crushing hostility; but cf. frēond-la�B>, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gef妮od = rejoicing in her fill, a parallel to ǣse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of far-reaching consequence."—Beit. xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads gēo for ēow (Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)." —E.

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rǣdende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,—a repetition (dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislīcost."—Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like fīras, men, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm to have been applied, like Gr. νύμφη, to superhuman or semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 seq. E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the poetical accounts of AEneid, vii. 563; Lucretius, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstrēam occurs also in the Phoenix (Bright, p. 168) l. 100; Andreas, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); Gnomic Verses, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrīnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th. read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, encircling (Sarrazin, Beit. xi. 163); hrīmge = frosty (Sw.); with frost-whiting covered (Ha.). See Morris, Blickling Hom., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrīmige edoras behrofene, rimy, roofless halls.

l. 1366. nī�dor may = ni�B> (as in ni�le, q. v.) wundor, wonder of the deep.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's Exod., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent with adj.

l. 1371. "sele�> is not dependent on ǣr, for in that case it would be in the subjunctive, but ǣr is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction ǣr in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,' etc."—Sw.

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.—Sw. It occurs thirteen or fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swāt (l. 2694), etc., for eald, blōd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wītan, go, = let us go; cf. French allons, Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolīc probably = in his equipments, as B. suggests (Beit. xii. 83), comparing searolīc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gān (Goth, gaggida). Cf. Andreas, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (Beit. ix. 140) supplies [�;r hēo] gegnum fōr; B. (ibid. xii. 14) suggests hwǣr hēo.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ān-pa�/B> = paths wide enough for only one, like Norwegian einstig; cf. stīge nearwe, just above. Trail is the meaning. Cf. enge ānpa� uncū�gelād, Exod. (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. oncȳ�>, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals (l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "Falanx foe�

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks, "it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ... Icel. nykr, water-goblin, Dan. n�nisse, Swed. n㢫en, G. nix, nixe, etc." See Skeat, Nick.

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnǣged, prostrated, and regards nī�B> as gen. pl. "used instrumentally," = by force.

l. 1441. -bora = bearer, stirrer; occurs in other compds., as mund-, rǣd-, wǣg-bora.

l. 1447. him = for him, a remoter dative of reference.—Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = flaming.

l. 1457. lēon is the inf. of lāh; cf. onlāh (< onlēon) at l. 1468. līhan was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lǣne = lǣhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle with the giant in the cave. h奴-mēce may be = Icel. heptisax (Anglia, iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ... But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old treasures.'".—Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. āter-tēarum = poison-drops (C., Beit. viii. 571; S., ibid. xi. 359).

l. 1467. �>, comp. relative, = that which; "we testify that we do know."

l. 1480. for�witenum is in appos. to me, = mihi defuncto.—M. Callaway, Am. Journ. of Philol., October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif or būton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf. ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For būton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner of the weak preterits."—Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads w媭sweord, = battle-sword.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the lowest level of the tide."—Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (Beit. xii. 362) explains ni�e, hrōfsele as roof-covered hall in the deep; cf. Grettir Saga (Anglia, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = seized by the hair.

l. 1543. and-lēan (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-lēan.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seaxBeit. ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ȳ�#299;ce; Sw. and S. place comma after gescēd.

l. 1584. ō�swylc = another fifteen (Sw.); = fully as many (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 seq. Cf. Anglia, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = grizzly-haired (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf. Brunanb., l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewear�>, impers. vb., = agree, decide = many agreed upon this, that, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wīscton = wishedBeit. viii. 571.

l. 1607. brōden mǣl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = inlaid or damascened sword.—W., Ho.

l. 1611. w媭rāpas = water-ropes = bands of frost (l. 1610) (?). Possibly the Prov. Eng. weele, whirlpool. Cf. wǣl, gurges, Wright, Voc., Gnom. Verses, l. 39.—E.

l. 1611. wǣgrāpas (Sw.) = wave-bands (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, haunts of the giants (Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., Beit. xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettm�understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. Anglia, iii. 74, Beit. xi. 167, for coincidences with the Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... 粴e for ēacen ... oftost, omitting brackets (Zackers Zeitschr. iv. 206). G. translates mighty ... often.

l. 1675. ondrǣdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase, and the prefix then appears as a: ab� amang, aweg, aright, adr'ǣdan."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455, 1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... or� enta geweorc, Gnomic Verses, l. 2; Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times .... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."—E. Cf. Mohammedan usage.

ll. 1703, 1704. �#275; eorl nǣre geboren betera (B., Tidskr. 8, 52).

l. 1715. āna hwearf = he died solitary and alone (B., Beit. xii. 38); = lonely (Ha.); = alone (G.).

l. 1723. lēod-bealo longsum = eternal hell-torment (B., Beit. xii. 38, who compares Ps. Cott. 57, līf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, towards possession; Ha., to possessions.

l. 1730. mōdge�B>, like lig, sǣ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender (m., n. in the case of mōdge�).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on ὓβρις, or overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki, who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wō(u)m; cf. wōh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p. 295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below (l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wōh, wrong = gen. wōs or wōges, dat. wō(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wōra, dat. wō(u)m, etc.; and cf. declension of hēah, hrēoh, rūh, etc.

l. 1748. wergan gāstes; cf. Blickl. Hom. vii.; Andreas, l. 1171. "Auld Wearie is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the devil."—E. Bede's Eccles. Hist. contains (naturally) many examples of the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = in reward (B. Beit. xii. 95); Ha. translates boastfully; G., for boasting; Gr., to incite to boastfulness. Cf. Christ, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the evil eye (mal occhio, mauvais ǣil). Cf. Vergil, Ecl. iii. 103. He remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweor�/B> (MS. wigge weor�/B>) is C.'s conjecture; cf. Elene, l. 150. So G., honored in war.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of bēon is plainly seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person affected; others (as ) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688, 1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.—March, A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028; Maldon, 106; Judith, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before "the warriors." For ōnettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. M�. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglāfes (i.e. Unferth); [he] (Beo.) thanked him (Un.) for the loan. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hro�, to be what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true knight'"—E.

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelāce.

l. 1835 gār-holt more properly means spear-shaft; cf. 岣-holt.

l. 1855. sēl = better (Grundt.; B., Beit. xii. 96), instead of MS. wēl.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the experience and doctrine of the eighth century."—E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemǣne, agreeing with sibBeit. ix. 140, 190.

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a considerable height, such as forty feet."—E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = seas.

l. 1865. B. proposes ge�;hte, = with firm thought, for geworhte; cf. l. 611.

l. 1876. gesēon = see again (Kl., Beit. ix. 190). S. and B. insert to modify gesēon and explain Hrō�257;r's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born, barn, = burned?—S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον. E. compares Tennyson's "blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gōd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. sca�/B> = warriors (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf. l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of Hrō�257;r's men; at l. 1901 the bāt-weard is specially honored by Beowulf with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."—E. This circumstance appears to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb ān-tīd ō� dōgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both passages (fāmig-heals, clifu, n岳as, sǣlde, brim, etc.).—The nautical terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewāt him on naca, = the vessel set out, on alliterating as at l. 2524 (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402). B. reads on nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of cēol, = ship, in the A.-S. Chron., ed. Earle-Plummer; Gnomic Verses, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts �#275; before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes lēofra manna depend on wlātode, = looked for the dear men ready at the coast (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = remained; but cf. l. 1929. S. conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (Beit. ix. 141).

l. 1927 seq. "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle, and holding their place with dignity."—Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the exception, l. 1932 seq.

l. 1933. C. suggests frēcnu, = dangerous, bold, for Thrytho could not be called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l. 902 seq., Sigemund and Heremōd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf. Gr., Jahrb. f�. u. eng. Lit. iv. 279; M�off, Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, Beit. iv. 500-521; R. Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402; B., ibid. iv. 206; K�r, Eng. Stud. i. 489-492; H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and ݲȳ�Gr.'s Drida of the Vita Offǣ Secundi) of the present passage. The tale is told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andǣges, = eye to eye; Leo proposes āndǣges, = the whole day; G., by day. No change is necessary if an be taken to govqern hire, = on her, and d妥s be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a genitive of time, = by day.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsēce, = seek, require; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the heofoncandel of Exod. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's candles.'

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 seq. for the actual slayer of Ongen�;ow, i.e. Eofor, to whom Hygelāc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = with mead-pourers or mead-cups (G., Ha.); draught or cup of mead (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [hēa-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hǣ nū (for hǣ�363;), which he regards as = Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hǣ�>). Cf. H.-So., p. 107; Beit. xii. 9.

l. 1985. sīnne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third person, sīn (declined like mīn). It is used not only as a true reflexive, but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. ejus)"—Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of sēa�>; cf. to "glow" with emotion, "boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used; cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fācne, = in treachery, for fenne. Cf. Juliana, l. 350; Beit. xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,—ale (as here: ealu-wǣg), mead, beer, wine, lī�> (cider? Goth. lei�>, Prov. Ger. leit- in leit-haus, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for w屼/B>.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weor�/B>, = agree, be pleased with (Ha.); appear (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = gave) wǣre 奴er lēod-hryre: lȳtle hwīle bongār būge�ēah sēo brȳd duge = oft has a treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be. Cf. Kl., Beit. ix. 190; B., Beit. xii. 369; R., Zachers Zeitschr. in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G., p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, Beit. ix. 191; R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 404.

l. 2042. For bēah B. reads , = both, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wīgende, = fighting, for lifigende.

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is not so designated in the MS., though �; (at l. 2822) is written with capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 seq. B. restores thus:

                  ܦ#483;r on innan gīong
ni񯟠nāthwylc,      nēode tō gefēng
hǣ� horde;      hond 峧enam
seleful since fāh;      nē hē �񯠮 āgeaf,
�;ah �275; slǣpende      besyrede hyrde
�;ofes cr奴e:       � �;oden onfand,
bȳ-folc beorna,       �#275; gebolgen w屮
—Beit. xii. 99; Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 210.

l. 2129. B. proposes fǣrunga, = suddenly, for Gr.'s reading in the text.—Beit. xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has �ife, which Leo translates by thy leave (= ON. leyfi); B., by thy lifeBeit. xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gēn, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my gracious king" (Beit. xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafa�>, are poetic archaisms.—Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = prince, for eafor. W. proposes the compd. eafor-hēafodsegn, = helm; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially when postponed: "Beowulf lēofa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.: wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. ǣrest is possibly the verbal subs. from ārīsan, to arise, = arising, origin. R. suggested ǣrist, arising, origin. Cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual) resurrection. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's Chronicle, p. 302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., Beit. x. 222; and cf. l. 2166.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wēn]don, = weened, instead of Th.'s [oft s妝don.

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is "laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lāfing on Hengest's breast, l. 1145.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and was passionate for adventure."—Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., Beit. ix. 191, thinks with Ettm. that �;sendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, Ges. der Angl, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat" [throne].—E.

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's "jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sē �hearge hǣ�hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire. Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."—Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. nēode. E. translates deftly; Ha., with ardor. H.-So. reads nēode, = with desire, greedily, instr. of nēod.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard g岴 sylfes willum.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 100.

l. 2225. For �;ow read �B>.—K. and Z.

l. 2227. For ofer-� read ǣrnes �.—Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig      sōna onwlātode,
�;ah �;m gyste      gryrebrōga stōd,
hw篲e earmsceapen      innganges �
. . . . . . . . . .
fēasceapen,      �; hyne se fǣr begeat.
—Beit. xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seīr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolīc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eor�#363;se (for -scr奥).

l. 2241. B. proposes lǣn-gestrēona, = transitory, etc.; Th., R. propose leng (= longer) gestrēona; S. accepts the text but translates "the long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = hard to find; (2) hord-wynne dǣla deal of treasure-joy (cf. l. 2271).—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = banning words (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = furbish, for fetige: I own not one who may, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes," = clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf. ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for n屼/B>.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in Eng. Stud. xiii. 3) for numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting, and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements most frequent in Bēowulf.

l. 2264. Cf. Maldon, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swȳ�ndrǣda�>; Ho. puts gesēcean for Gr.'s gewunian.

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrūsan. "Three hundred winters," at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund missēra, l. 1499; hund �;senda, l. 2995; �9;tig (of Beowulf's strength), l. 379; �9;tig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan �;sendo, l. 2196, etc.

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p. 77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = inminutus; cf. B., Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = carry off, with on- = E. un—(un-bind, -loose, -tie, etc.), G. ent-. The negro still pronounces on-do, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B. proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict," etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hām, = home, for him.—Beit. xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates ēalond utan by the sea-board front, the water-washed land on the (its) outside. See B., Beit. xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon single-handed. E. compares Guy of Warwick, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes la�cynne as apposition to mǣgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 seq.

l. 2362. Gr. inserts āna, = lone-going, before xxx.: approved by B.; and Kr�Beit. ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale. Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of mail."—Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelāc in his Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 seq., 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes quiet sea as trans, of siole�igong, and compares Goth. anasilan, to be still; Swed. dial, sil, still water between waterfalls.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne—Heardrēd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swīo-rīce as identical with the modern Sverige = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = at the banquet; cf. M�r, Alteng. Volksepos, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mūllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that Ēadgils, Ōhthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS. has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to fēond. G. translates friendBeit. xii. 13; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 177.

l. 2395. Ēadgils is Ōhthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is Ōhthere's brother; cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As Bēowulf is essentially the Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stȳred, = ordered, decreed, for strēdZachers Zeitschr. iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to frēo-wine = noble friend, asking, "How can Herebeald be called H篣yn's frēa-wine [MS.], lord?"

l. 2442. feohlēas gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by money—in this case an unintentional fratricide."—Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p. 75.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (Tidskr. viii. 56). W. conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before �/B>.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.—K., Th., S. (Zeitschr. f. D. Phil. xxi. 3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) M�. (Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 232) proposes:

                � se ān hafa�IV>
�ǣda nȳd     dēa� gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

�ǣda nī�sp;     dēa� gefondad.
—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. scēotend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rīdend. Cf. Judith, l. 305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the M㫡r lake, the boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On o�> = and, cf. B., Tidskr. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hrēa-blāc for Gr.'s heoro-Tikskr. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests ē�wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for duge�/B>, of my prowess; so Ettm�

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the monster's boastfulness."—Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-hāttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads ore�and attres, blast and venom. Cf. oru�>, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where attor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes flēon fōtes trym from Maldon, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stān-bogan (for stōd on stān-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose dēor, brave one, i.e. Beowulf, for dēop.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslāw, = sharpBeit. xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescīfe (MS. to gscipe) = German schief, "crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, bent, coiled? cf. l. 2568, �; se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy comma after and read gesc寥, = his fate; cf. l. 26: him �; Scyld gewāt tō gesc宭hwīle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = the field, not the earth (so B.); H.-So., cave, as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefneBeit. ix. 141.

l. 2604. M�. explains lēod Scylfinga in Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 176-178.

l. 2607. āre = possessions, holding (Kl., Beit. ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. ē�, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrǣccan winelēasum Wēohstān bana, = whom, a friendless exile, W. had slain.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his comitatus.

l. 2643. B. proposes ūserZachers Zeitschr. iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wītan, to go, used like Mod. Eng. let us + inf., Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, Fr. allons; M. E. (Layamon) uten. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, A.-S. Gram., pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests hāt for hyt,.—Beit. xii. 105.

l. 2656. fāne = fāh-ne; cf. fāra = fāh-ra, l. 578; so hēanne (MS.) = hēah-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrūd, as at l. 453, = battle-shirt? B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrūd and bām gemǣne. B. reads bȳwdu, = handsome, etc. Gr. suggests unc nū, = to us two now, for ūrum; and K. and Grundt. read bēon gemǣne for bām, etc. This makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. N妬ing; cf. Hrunting, Lāfing, and other famous wundor-smi�eweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes �/B> into �B> (rel. pro.) = whichBeit. xii. 105.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (Beit. xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also occurs; and hȳdan.

l. 2700. hwēne; cf. Lowl. Sc. wheen, a number; Chaucer's woon, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes �; (for �>) �fȳr, etc., = when the fire began, etc.

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of the skeleton."—E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wr塼/B>, = drove out all the life; cf. Gen. l. 1385.—Beit. ix. 192. S. suggests gefyldehe felled the foe, etc.—Ibid. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. d奭hwīl = time allotted, lifetime.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhīgean or oferhīgan, = Goth, ufarhauhjan, p. p. ufarhauhids (Gr. τυφωθείς) = exceed in valueTidskr. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhȳdian, = to make arrogant, infatuate; cf. oferhȳdBeit. ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leo�奴um = (1) spell-bound (Th., Arnold, E.); (2) wrought with hand-craft (G.); (3) meshed, linked together (H., Ho.); cf. Elene, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlāfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (Tidskr. viii. 299). R. proposes ealdhlāforde. M�. understands ealdhlāford to mean the former possessor of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ǣrgescōd as a compd. = ǣre calceatus, sheathed in brass. Ha. translates ǣrgescōd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes 岠ende; landes 岠ende, Exod. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads w峥res weorpan, which R. would change to w峥re sweorfan.

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-nǣs)."—Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wīglāf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the word lāf (Wīg-lāf, ende-lāf).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. novissima verba, and Ger. j�/I>, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, in the world, comparing on līfe, on worulde.

l. 2840. gerǣsde = pret. of gerǣsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as rǣsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes dēa�257;rǣdan, = determine deathBeit. xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf. Lichtenheld, Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ōwērBeit. ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrā�orwurpe, �;, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding one with beget.

l. 2879. 峧ifan = to render, to afford; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their lord."—Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of gens or clan, just as in many Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, Germania, 7; and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, Saxons, i. 235.

l. 2901. The ἄγγελος begins his ἀγγελία here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemē�B>, sad of soul; cf. ll. 2853 and 2864 (Beit. ix. 142). B. considers higemē�/B> a dat. or instr. pl. of an abstract in -u (Beit. xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = for the dead. For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to his followers."—Beit. xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 seq. B. conjectures:

cw箠hīe on mergenne      mēces ecgum
gētan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
āhēawan on holte      ond hīe āhōan on �;
fuglum tō gamene.
—Beit. xii. 107, 372.

Cf. S., Beit. ix. 143. gētan = cause blood to be shed.

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gōda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."—Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc. B., K., and Th. read segn Higelāces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue the Swede-men.—Beit. xii. 108. S. suggests sǣce, = pursuit.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in Exod. (Hunt), l. 130: wyrpton hīe wērige.

l. 2989. b尼/B> is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is the heir of the slaughtered foe."—H.-So. Cf. Hildebrands Lied, ll. 61, 62.

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll. 2196, 3051. Cf. B., Beit. xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's bis senas gentes and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand, answers to the Jutish king Hygelāc, who rewards his liegeman, for the slaying of Ongenthēow, with jewels, enormous estates, and his only daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397, Beowulf kills the Scylfing Ēadgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. M�., however, regards l. 3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and Exod. (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

"Thai token an harp gle and game
And maked a lai and yaf it name."
—Weber, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word glee, which peculiarly denoted their art (the minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."—Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's Dan. l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

[banan ēac fundon      bennum sēocne
(nē) ǣr hī �;m      gesēgan syllīcran wiht]
wyrm on wonge...
—Beit. xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [�;r] before gesēgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon. B. proposes gry[re-fāh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, in the pride of the air, E.; to rejoice in the air, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld = the secret place of enchanters; cf. hēlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading, after A.-S. hǣlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehȳ�/B>, = plundered (i.e. by the thief), for gehȳdde.

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [dēa�hwār �eorl ellenrof ende gefēre = let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture, etc.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect question introduced by hwār and dependent upon wundur, = a mystery is it when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among his peopleBeit. ix. 143. (3) M�. suggests: is it to be wondered at that a man should die when he can no longer live?—Zachers Zeitschr. xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                    Wundra�hw岠�
eorl ellen-rōf,      ende gefēre
līf-gesceafta,      �leng ne m奠(etc.),

in which hw岼/B> would = �w岼/B> at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of the conjectural vb. wundra�>: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live. ... So Bēowulf knew not (wondered how) through what his end should come," etc. W. and Ho. join �/B> to the next line. Or, for hwār read wǣre: Wundur wǣre �/B> (= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is virtually M�off's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, spell-bound, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen leo�r奴um. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned. ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with swā.

l. 3073. herh, hearh, temple, is conjectured by E. to survive in Harrow. Temple, barrow, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Bīowulfes biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = ravage, and compares l. 3127. MS. has strade. S. suggests stride, = tread.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strādan, = tread, stride over, from the Gloss., referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strūdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: n屠hē goldhw峥s gearwor h奤e, etc., = Beowulf had not before seen the greedy possessor's favorBeit. ix. 143. B. reads, goldhw峥 gearwor h奤e, etc., making goldhw峥 modify ēst, = golden favor; but see Beit. xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."—Beit. xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose 奴er wine dēadum, = in memory of the dead friendBeit. ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brād gold here possibly includes the iū-monna gold of l. 3053 and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brād by bullion.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-āgende to be dat. sg. to gōdum, referring to Beowulf.

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. vescor, to devour, as a parallel to fretan, and discards parentheses.—Beit. viii. 573.

l. 3120. fūs = furnished with; a meaning which must be added to those in the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

ēode eahta sum      under inwit-hrōf
hilderinca:      sum on handa b尬 etc.
—Beit. ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to 篥lingc, the MS. having e.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."— Ynglinga Saga, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

               ... swōgende lēc
wōpe bewunden      windblonda lēg

(lēc from lācan, see Gloss.).—Beit. xii. 110. Why not windblonda lāc?

l. 3147. M�off rejected wind-blond gel奼/B> because a great fire raises rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 seq. B. restores conjecturally:

swylce giōmor-gyd      sio geō-meowle
[奴er Bēowulfe]      bunden-heorde
[song] sorg-cearig,      sǣde geneahhe,
�#299;o hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]ēde,
w嫦ylla worn,      [w]īgendes egesan,
hȳ[n]�nd h奴nȳd,      hēof on rīce wealg.
—Beit. xii. 100.

Here geō-meowle = old woman or widow; bunden-heorde = with bound locks; hēof = lamentation; cf. l. 3143. on rīce wealg is less preferable than the MS. reading, heofon rēce swealg = heaven swallowed the smoke.—H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geōmeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll. 2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lāfe, for betost, and omits colon after bēcn. So B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the "chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions, chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

woldon gēn cwī�nbsp;     [ond] kyning
wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wēl sprecan.
—Beit. xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."—Br., p. 18.

NOTES TO THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURG.

The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made and printed by Hickes in his Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium, i. 192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of homilies in the Lambeth Library. M�r, Alteng. Epos, p. 65, places the fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (Beit. xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hn夠fell, i.e. as described in Bēowulf as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel (Anzeiger f. d. Altert.), however, calls attention to the fact that Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in Bēowulf, l. 1086, he is called �B>. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The Fight at Finnsburg and the lays from which our Bēowulf was composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the Jutes or Goths."—Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration, "rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight." —Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor hor]nas byrna�#483;fre. So. G.—Beit. xii. 22; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. x. 229.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean arrows, and supplies:

ac hēr for�bera�sp;     [fyrdsearu rincas,
flacre flānbogan],      fugelas singa�DIV>

He compares Saxo, p. 95, cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant, as explanatory of l. 6Beit. xii. 22. But see Brooke, Early Eng. Literature, who supposes fugelas = raven and eagle, while grǣg-hama is = wulf (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgea�>, etc.: cf. Maldon, l. 5; Exod. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (Beit. xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to M�r and Bugge, Gārulf is one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his character as Gū�257;f's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and Bēowulf, l. 1149) is a Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (Beit. xii. 25) conjectures:

�; gȳt Gū�e      Gārulf styrode,
�#275; swā frēolīc feorh      forman sī�DIV>
tō �;re healle durum      hyrsta ne bǣre,
nū hīe nī�eard      ānyman wolde;

in which Gū�e is the same as Sigefer�A href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/9701/9701-h/finli24">l. 24; (l. 22) refers to Gārulf; and hīe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. sw篥r = either (bad or good, life or death).—H.-So.

l. 29. cēlod: meaning doubtful; cf. Maldon, l. 283. G. renders "curved board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests bār-helm, = boar-helm. Cf. Saxo, p. 96.—Beit. xii. 26.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrǣw hr奥n, wandrode; (2) hwearf flacra hrǣw hr奥n fram ō� = flew from one corpse to anotherBeit. xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund h嫥�> to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hn夬 in opposition to Holtzmann (Germania, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.—Beit. xii. 28.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrōr = equipments uselessBeit. xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in battle."—B., Beit. xii. 28.

GLOSSARY

A

ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) but (like N.H.G. sondern), 109, 135, 339, etc.—2) but (N.H.G. aber), nevertheless, 602, 697, etc.—3) in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

āglǣca, āhlǣca, ǣglǣca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, trouble, O.N. agi, terror, + lāc, gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble; hence): 1) evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being; of Grendel, 159, 433, 593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.—2) great hero, mighty warrior; of Sigemund, 894; of Bēowulf: gen. sg. āglǣcan(?), 1513; of Bēowulf and the drake: nom. pl. �; āglǣcean, 2593.

āglǣc-wīf, st. n., demon, devil, in the form of a woman; of Grendel's mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., servant, man-servant: nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgār, 336.

ambiht-�A> (from ambiht n. officium and �which see), servant, man-servant: dat. sg. ombiht-� of Bēowulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., on, in, with respect to, 678; with, among, at, upon (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248. Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., anchor: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), anchor-cable: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39, 40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., excitement, vexation, horror: dat. wrā�on andan, 709, 2315.

and-git, st. n., insight, understanding: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hātor, st. m. n., heat coming against one: gen. sg. rē�and-hāttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., very long. hence 1) at whole length, raised up high: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers Ztschr., 4, 217).—2) continual, entire; andlangne d奬 2116, the whole day; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-lēan, st. n., reward, payment in full: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-, hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rīsan, surgere, decere), that which is to be observed, that which is proper, etiquette: dat. pl. for andrysnum, according to etiquette, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., adversary: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., blow in return: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times hond-slyht).

and-swaru, st. f., act of accosting: 1) to persons coming up, an address, 2861.—2) in reply to something said, an answer, 354, 1494, 1841.

and-weard, adj., present, existing: acc. sg. n. swīn ofer helme and-weard (the image of the boar, which stands on his helm), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., countenance: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., entirely unharmed: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sȳn, f., the state of being seen: hence 1) the exterior, the form, 251: ansȳn ȳwde, showed his form, i.e. appeared, 2835.—2) aspect, appearance, 929; on-sȳn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., He who rules over all, God, 1273. See Note.

atelīc, adj., terrible, dreadful: atelīc egesa, 785.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), hostile, frightful, cruel: of Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl. atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597, 2479.—cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

attor, st. n., poison, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom., 2716.

attor-scea�A>, w. m., poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon: gen. sg. -scea� 2840.

āwa, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ā, which see), ever: āwa tō aldre, fōr ever and ever, 956.

Ā

ā, adv. (Goth, ਸ਼, acc. from aiv-s aevum), ever, always, 455, 882, 931, 1479: ā sy񯠮, ever afterwards, ever, ever after, 283, 2921ever, 780.—Comp. nā.

ād st. m. funeral pile: acc. sg. ād, 3139; dat. sg. āde, 1111, 1115.

ād-faru, st. f., way to the funeral pile, dat. sg. on ād-f履, 3011.

ādl, st. f. sickness, 1737, 1764, 1849.

ā�>, st. m., oath in general, 2740; oath of allegiance, 472 (?); oath of reconciliation of two warring peoples, 1098, 1108.

ā�eord, st. n., the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath: nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

ā�swerian, m. pl., son-in-law and father-in-law: dat. pl., 84.

āgan, verb, pret. and pres., to have, to possess, w. acc.: III. prs. sg. āh, 1728; inf. āgan, 1089; prt. āhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald, to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nāh hwā sweord wege (I have no one to wield the sword), 2253.

āgen, adj., own, peculiar, 2677.

āgend (prs. part. of āgan), possessor, owner, lord: gen. sg. āgendes, of God, 3076.—Compounds: blǣd-, bold-, folc-, m妥n-āgend.

āgend-frēa, w. m., owner, lord: gen. sg. āgend-frēan, 1884.

āhsian, ge-āhsian, w. v.: 1) to examine, to find out by inquiring: pret. part. ge-āhsod, 433.—2) to experience, to endure: pret. āhsode, 1207; pl. āhsodon, 423.

āht, st. n. (contracted from ā-wiht, which see), something, anything: āht cwices, 2315.

ān, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative character: 1) this, that, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.—2) one, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb āne niht (the next night), 135; �#257;nes cr奴, 700; �;ra ānum, 1038; ān 奴er ānum, one for the other (Hrē�for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ān 奴er eallum, 2269; ānes hw岬 some single thing, a part, 3011; se ān lēoda dugu�the one of the heroes of the people, 2238; ānes willan, for the sake of a single one, 3078, etc.—Hence, again, 3) alone, distinguished, 1459, 1886.—4) a, in the sense of an indefinite article: ān ... fēond, 100; gen. sg. ānre bēne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ān ... draca, 2211—5) gen. pl. ānra, in connection with a pronoun, single; ānra gehwylces, every single one, 733; ānra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fēaum ānum, except a few single ones, 1082.—6) solus, alone: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form, 145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., āna Gēata dugu�alone of the warriors of the Gēatas, 2658.—7) solitarius, alone, lonely, see ǣn.—Comp. nān.

ān-feald, adj., simple, plain, without reserve: acc. sg. ānfealdne ge�;ht, simple opinion, 256.

ān-genga, -gengea, w. m., he who goes alone, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ān-haga, w. m., he who stands alone, solitarius, 2369.

ān-hȳdig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-rād-r, of one resolve, i.e. of firm resolve), of one opinion, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ānga, adj. (only in the weak form), single, only: acc. sg. āngan dōhtor, 375, 2998; āngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. āngan brē� 1263.

ān-p箼/A>, st. m., lonely way, path: acc. pl. ānpa� 1411.

ān-rǣd, adj. (cf. under ān-hȳdig), of firm resolution, resolved, 1530, 1576.

ān-tīd, st. f., one time, i.e. the same time, ymb ān-tīd ō� dōgores, about the same time the second day (they sailed twenty-four hours), 219.—ān stands as in ān-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, harmonious, of the same disposition.

ānunga, adv., throughout, entirely, wholly, 635.

ār, st. m., ambassador, messenger, 336, 2784.

ār, st. f., 1) honor, dignity: ārum healdan, to hold in honor, 296; similarly, 1100, 1183.—2) favor, grace, support: acc. sg. āre, 1273, 2607; dat. sg. āre, 2379; gen. pl. hw岠... ārna, 1188.—Comp. worold-ār; also written ǣr.

ār-f岴, adj., honorable, upright, 1169; of Hunfer�ith reference to 588). See f岴.

ārian, w. v., (to be gracious), to spare: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nǣnegum āra�f Grendel, 599.

ār-st夼/A>, st. m.,(elementum honoris), grace, favor: dat. pl. mid ārstafum, 317Help, support: dat. pl. for ār-stafum, to the assistance, 382, 458. See āter-tēar, m., poisonous drop: dat. pl. īren āter-tēarum fāh (steel which is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

ļ/A>

篥le, adj., noble: nom. sg., of Bēowulf, 198, 1313; of Bēowulf's father, 263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. 篥lan cynnes, 2235.

篥ling, st. m., nobleman, man of noble descent, especially the appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of Scyld, 33; of Hrō�257;r, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Bēowulf, 1226, 1245, 1597, 1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of D妨refn, 2507;—then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men: ųchere, 1295; Hrō�257;r's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremōd's courtiers, 907; Hengest's warriors, 1113; Bēowulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born in general, 2889. —Comp. sib-篥ling.

篥lu, st. n., only in the pl., noble descent, nobility, in the sense of noble lineage: acc. pl. 篥lu, 392; dat. pl. cyning 篥lum gōd, the king, of noble birth, 1871; 篥lum dīore, worthy on account of noble lineage, 1950; 篥lum (hǣle�S.), 332.—Comp. f壥r-篥lu.

奮an, w. v. w. acc., to perform, to carry out, to accomplish: inf. ellen-weorc 奮an, to do a heroic deed, 1465; pret. unriht 奮de, perpetrated wrong, 1255.

ge-奮an, 1) to carry out, to do, to accomplish: pret. pl. �奮don swā, so carried that out, 538; pret. part. ā�s ge奮ed, the oath was sworn, 1108.—2) get ready, prepare: pret. part. ge奮ed, 3107. See efnan.

奴er (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea of forth, away, from, back), a) adv., thereupon, afterwards, 12, 341, 1390, 2155.—ic him 奴er sceal, I shall go after them, 2817; in word 奴er cw箬 315, the sense seems to be, spoke back, having turned; b) prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) after, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; 奴er beorne, after the (death of) the hero, 2261, so 2262; 奴er mā񯴭-welan, after (obtaining) the treasure, 2751.—2) (causal) as proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, in consequence of, conformably to: 奴er rihte, in accordance with right, 1050, 2111; 奴er faro�with the current, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944, 2180, etc., 奴er hea�wāte, in consequence of the blood of battle, 1607; 奴er w嫮ī�in consequence of mortal enmity, 85; in accordance with, on account of, after, about: 奴er 篥lum (hǣle� MS.)fr妮, asked about the descent, 332; ne frīn �; 奴er sǣlum, ask not after my welfare, 1323; 奴er sincgyfan grēote�I>weeps for the giver of treasure, 1343; him 奴er dēorum men dyrne langa�I>longs in secret for the dear man, 1880; ān 奴er ānum, one for the other, 2462, etc.—3) (local), along: 奴er gumcynnum, throughout the races of men, among men, 945; sōhte bed 奴er būrum, sought a bed among the rooms of the castle (the castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; 奴er recede wlāt, looked along the hall, 1573; stone 奴er stāne, smelt along the rocks, 2289; 奴er lyfte, along the air through the air, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068, 1317, etc.

夭�/A>, w. m., anger, chagrin, vexatious affair: nom., 502.

ge-姴an, w. v., to prize, to speak in praise of: pret. part. ge姴ed, 1866.

ge-姴la, w. m., or ge-姴le, w. f., a speaking of with praise, high esteem: gen. sg. hȳ ... wyr� ��rla ge姴lan, seem worthy of the high esteem of the noble-born, 369.

妬ǣcea. See āglǣcea.

媭fylce (from 媭, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective form from folc), st. n., other folk, hostile army: dat. pl. wi�fylcum, 2372.

媭mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., almighty: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se 媭mihtiga, 92.

媭wiht, st. m., being of another species, monster: gen. pl. 媭wihta eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

寰el-fealu, adj., dappled sorrel, or apple-yellow: nom. pl. 寰el-fealuwe mēaras, apple-yellow steeds, 2166.

, st. n., house, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, �72;�win-屮.

, st. m., ash (does not occur in Bēowulf in this sense), lance, spear, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quā instr.) 岣um and ecgum, with spears and swords, 1773.

岣-holt, st. n., ash wood, ashen shaft: nom. pl. 岣-holt ufan grǣg, the ashen shafts gray above (spears with iron points), 330.

岣-wiga, w. m., spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear: nom. sg., 2043.

岼/A>, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something, hence 1) local, a) with, near, at, on, in (rest): 岠hȳ�in harbor, 32; 岠symle, at the meal, 81, 岠āde, on the funeral-pile, 1111, 1115; 岠�; ānum, with thee alone, 1378; 岠wīge, in the fight, 1338; 岠hilde, 1660, 2682; 岠 ǣte, in eating, 3027, etc. b) to, towards, at, on (motion to): dēa�wylm hrān 岠heortan, seized upon the heart, 2271; gehēton 岠h屧trafum, vowed at (or to) the temples of the gods, 175. c) with verbs of taking away, away from (as starting from near an object): ge�岠ful 岠Wealh�;on, took the cup from W., 630; fela ic gebād grynna 岠Grendle, from Grendel, 931; 岠mīnum f壥r genam, took me from my father to himself, 2430.—2) temporal, at, in, at the time of: 岠frumsceafte, in the beginning, 45; 岠ende, at an end, 224; fand sīnne dryhten ealdres 岠ende, at the end of life, dying, 2791; similarly, 2823; 岠feohgyftum, in giving gifts, 1090; 岠sī�an, finally, 3014.

岭grǣpe, adj., laying hold of, prehendens, 1270.

岭rihte, adv., almost, 1658.

Ǣ

ǣdre, ēdre, st. f., aqueduct, canal (not in Bēow.), vein (not in Bēow.), stream, violent pouring forth: dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, the blood sprang in streams, 2967; blōd ēdrum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743.

ǣdre, adv., hastily, directly, immediately, 77, 354, 3107.

ǣ�A>, st. m., breath, gasp, snort: instr. sg. hre�ǣ�wēoll, the breast (of the drake) heaved with snorting, 2594.

ǣfen, st. m., evening, 1236.

ǣfen-gram, adj., hostile at evening, night-enemy: nom. sg. m. ǣfen-grom, of Grendel, 2075.

ǣfen-lēoht, st. n., evening-light: nom. sg., 413.

ǣfen-r岴, st. f., evening-rest: acc. sg. -r岴e, 647, 1253.

ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., evening-talk: acc. sg. gemunde ...ǣfen-sprǣce, thought about what he had spoken in the evening, 760.

ǣfre, adv., ever, at any time, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative sentences, ǣfre ne, never, 2601.—Comp. nǣfre.

ǣg-hwā (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hw갩, pron., every, each: dat. sg. ǣghwǣm, 1385. The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, in all, throughout, thoroughly: ǣghw屠 untǣle, thoroughly blameless, 1866; ǣghw屠unrīm, entirely innumerable quantity, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

ǣg-hw篥r (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hw꣡r): 1) each (of two): nom. sg. h奤e ǣghw篥r ende gefēred, each of the two (Bēowulf and the drake) had reached the end, 2845; dat. sg. ǣghw篲um w屠brōga fram ō�, to each of the two (Bēowulf and the drake) was fear of the other, 2565; gen. sg. ǣghw篲es ... worda and worca, 287.—2) each (of several): dat. sg. heora ǣghw篲um, 1637.

ǣg-hwǣr, adv., everywhere, 1060.

ǣg-hwilc (O.H.G. ēo-gi-hwꫩh), pron., unusquisque, every (one): 1) used as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.—2) as substantive, a) with the partitive genitive: nom. sg. ǣg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. ǣghwylcum, 1051. b) without gen.: nom. sg. ǣghwylc, 985, 988; (w屩 ǣghwylc ō� trȳwe, each one (of two) true to the other, 1166.

ǣg-weard, st. f., watch on the sea shore: acc. sg. ǣg-wearde, 241.

ǣht (abstract form from āgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1) possession, power: acc. sg. on flōdes ǣht, 42; on w峥res ǣht, into the power of the water, 516; on ǣht gehwearf Denigea frēan, passed over into the possession of a Danish master, 1680.—2) property, possessions, goods: acc. pl. ǣhte, 2249.—Comp. mā� gold-ǣht.

ǣht (O.H.G. āhta), st. f., pursuit: nom. �; w屠ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, segn Higelāce, then was pursuit offered to the people of the Swēonas, (their) banner to Hygelāc (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelāc), 2958.

ǣled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., fire, 3016.

ǣled-lēoma, w. m., (fire-light), torch: acc. sg. lēoman, 3126. See lēoma.

ǣn (oblique form of ān), num., one: acc. sg. m. �#483;nne �., the one whom..., 1054; oftor micle �on ǣnne sī�I>much oftener than one time, 1580; for�sendon ǣnne, sent him forth alone, 46.

ǣne, adv., once: oft nalles ǣne, 3020.

ǣnig, pron., one, any one, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ... 0nige � would in no way, not at all, 792; lȳt ǣnig mearn, little did any one sorrow (i.e. no one), 3130.—With the article: n屠se folccyning ... ǣnig, no people's king, 2735.—Comp. nǣnig.

ǣn-līc, adj., alone, excellent, distinguished: ǣnlīc ansȳn, distinguished appearance, 251; �;ah �299;o ǣnlīcu sȳ, though she be beautiful, 1942.

ǣr (comparative form, from ā): 1) adv., sooner, before, beforehand, 15, 656, 695, 758, etc., for a long time, 2596; eft swā ǣr, again as formerly, 643; ǣr nē si񯠮, neither sooner nor later, 719; ǣr and sī�I>sooner and later (all times), 2501; nō �2; ǣr (not so much the sooner), yet not, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.—2) conjunct., before, ere: a) with the ind.: ǣr hīo tō setle gēong, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ǣr gē fyr fēran, before you travel farther, 252; ǣr hē on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819; ǣr �g cwōme, ere the day break, 732; ǣr correlative to ǣr adv.: ǣr hē feorh sele�ldor an ōfre, ǣr hē wille ..., he will sooner (rather) leave his life upon the shore, before (than) he will ..., 1372.—3) prepos. with dat., before ǣr dēa�before death, 1389; ǣr d妥s hwīle, before daybreak, 2321; ǣr swylt-d妥, before the day of death, 2799.

ǣror, comp. adv., sooner, before-hand, 810; formerly, 2655.

ǣrra, comp. adj., earlier; instr. pl., ǣrran mǣlum, in former times, 908, 2238, 3036.

ǣrest, superl.: 1) adv., first of all, foremost, 6, 617, 1698, etc.—2) as subst. n., relation to, the beginning: acc. � his ǣrest �; eft ges妤e (to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of mail that has been presented), 2158. See Note.

ǣr-d奼/A>, st. m. (before-day), morning-twilight, gray of morning: dat. sg. mid ǣrd妥, 126; samod ǣrd妥, 1312, 2943.

ǣrende, st. n., errand, trust: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ǣr-f壥r, st. m., late father, deceased father: nom sg. swā his ǣrf壥r, 2623.

ǣr-gestrēon, st. n., old treasure, possessions dating from old times: acc sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ǣrgestrēona, much of such old treasure, 2233. See gestrēon.

ǣr-geweorc, st. n., work dating from old times: nom. sg. enta ǣr-geweorc, the old work of the giants (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ǣr-gōd, adj., good since old times, long invested with dignity or advantages: 篥ling ǣrgōd, 130; (eorl) ǣrgōd, 1330; īren ǣrgōd (excellent sword), 990, 2587.

ǣr-wela, w. m., old possessions, riches dating from old times: acc. sg. ǣrwelan, 2748. See wela.

ǣs, st. n., carcass, carrion: dat. (instr.) sg. ǣse, of ųchere's corpse, 1333.

ǣt, st. m., food, meat: dat, sg., hū him 岠ǣte spēow, how he fared well at meat, 3027.

ǣttren (see attor), adj., poisonous: w屠�ōd tō �#257;t, ǣttren ellorgāst, se ǣr inne swealt, so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the demon (Grendel's mother) who died therein, 1618

B

bana, bona, w. m., murderer, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan Ongen�;owes, of Hygelāc, although in reality his men slew Ongen�;ow (2965 ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne w屠ecg bona, 2507; wear�acu Wēohstānes bana, 2614.—Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gāst-, hand-, mū�na.

bon-gār, st. m. murdering spear, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, to command, to bid: inf., 74.

bād, st. f., pledge, only in comp.: nȳd-bād.

bān, st. n., bone: dat. sg. on bāne (on the bony skin of the drake), 2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum (here of the teeth of the drake), 2693.

bān-cofa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cofan, 1446.

bān-fāg, adj., variegated with bones, either with ornaments made of bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrō�257;r's hall, 781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bān-f岼/A>, st. n., bone-vessel, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1117.

bān-hring, st. m., the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint: acc. pl. hire wi�lse ... bānhringas br塠(broke her neck-joint), 1568.

bān-hūs, st. n., bone-house, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bānhūs gebr塬 2509; similarly, 3148.

bān-loca, w. m., the enclosure of the bones, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bāt bānlocan, bit the body, 743; nom. pl. burston bānlocan, the body burst (of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bāt, st. m., boat, craft, ship, 211.—Comp. sǣ-bāt.

bāt-weard, st. m., boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft. dat. sg. -wearde, 1901.

b箼/A>, st. n., bath: acc. sg. ofer ganotes b箬 over the diver's bath (i.e. the sea), 1862.

b屮an, w. v., to cause to burn, to burn: inf. hēt ... bānfatu b屮an, bade that the bodies be burned, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu b屮an, began to consume the splendid country-seats (the dragon), 2314.

for-b屮an, w. v., consume with fire: inf. hȳ hine ne mōston ... brondefor-b屮an, they (the Danes) could not burn him (the dead ųchere) upon the funeral-pile, 2127.

bǣdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. be�, to incite, to encourage: pret. bǣdde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bǣdan, w. v., to press hard: pret. part. bysigum gebǣded, distressed by trouble, difficulty, danger (of battle), 2581; to drive, to send forth: strǣla storm strengum gebǣded, the storm of arrows sent with strength, 3118; overcome: draca ... bealwe gebǣded, the dragon ... overcome by the ills of battle, 2827.

bǣl (O.N. bāl), st. n., fire, flames: (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, passed (through the air) with fire, 2309; h奤e landwara līge befangan, bǣle and bronde, with fire and burning, 2323.—Especially, the fire of the funeral-pile, the funeral-pile, 1110, 1117, 2127; ǣr hē bǣl cure, ere he sought the burning (i.e. died), 2819; hāta�. hlǣw gewyrcean ... 奴er bǣle, after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up (Bēowulf's words), 2804.

bǣl-fȳr, st. n., bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile: gen. pl. bǣlfȳra mǣst, 3144.

bǣl-stede, st. m., place for the funeral-pile: dat. sg. in bǣl=stede, 3098.

bǣl-wudu, st. m., wood for the funeral-pile, 3113.

bǣr, st. f., bier, 3106.

ge-bǣran, w. v., to conduct one's self, behave: inf. w. adv., ne gefr妥n ic �; mǣg�.. sēl gebǣran, I did not hear that a troop bore itself better, maintained a nobler deportment, 1013; hē on eor�geseah �ēofestan līfes 岠ende blēate gebǣran, saw the best-beloved upon the earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably (i.e. in a helpless situation), 2825.

ge-bǣtan (denominative from bǣte, the bit), w. v., to place the bit in the mouth of an animal, to bridle: pret. part. �; w屠Hrō�257;re hors gebǣted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning near, "but not of one direction, as 岬 but more general"): 1) local, near by, near, at, on (rest): be ȳdlāfe uppe lǣgon, lay above, upon the deposit of the waves (upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; h奤e be honda, held by the hand (Bēowulf held Grendel), 815; be sǣm tweonum, in the circuit of both the seas, 859, 1686; be m岴e, on the mast, 1906; by fȳre, by the fire, 2220; be n岳e, at the promontory, 2244; s岠be �;m gebrō� twǣm, sat by the two brothers, 1192; w屠se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā bi�g�r奴 be wǣpnedmen, the terror was just so much less, as is the strength of woman to the warrior (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.—2) also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object, on, upon, by: gefēng be eaxle, seized by the shoulder, 1538; ālēdon lēofne �;oden be m岴e, laid the dear lord near the mast, 36; be healse genam, took him by the neck, fell upon his neck, 1873; wǣpen hafenade be hiltum, grasped the weapon by the hilt, 1757, etc.—3) with this is connected the causal force, on account of, for, according to: ic �d be �; āwr塬 I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake, 1724; �; �; lǣr be �I>learn according to this, from this, 1723; be f壥r lāre, according to her father's direction, 1951.—4) temporal, while, during: be �; lifigendum, while thou livest, during thy life, 2666. See .

bed, st. n., bed, couch: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792; dat. pl. beddum, 1241.—Comp: dea�hlin-, l妥r-, mor�, w媭bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., bed-fellow: dat. sg. wolde sēcan ewēn tō gebeddan, wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her, 666.—Comp. heals-gebedde.

bēgen, fem. , both: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bā healfa, on two sides (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bām, 2197; and in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ūrum bām, 2661; gen. n. bēga, 1874, 2896; bēga gehw篲es, each one of the two, 1044; bēga folces, of both peoples, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, to cause to swell, to swell), to irritate: w. dat. (pret. subj.) �#275; ēcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, that he had bitterly angered the eternal Lord, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540; (gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

ā-belgan, to anger: pret. sg. w. acc. o�t hyne ān ābealh mon on mōde, till a man angered him in his heart, 2281; pret. part. ābolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., wound: acc. sg. benne, 2725.—Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., bench: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189, 1244.—Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swēg, st. m., (bench-rejoicing), rejoicing which resounds from the benches, 1162.

benc-�>, st. n., bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches stand: nom. pl. benc-�486; acc. pl. benc�eredon, cleared the bench-boards (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches), 1240.

bend, st. m. f., bond, fetter: acc. sg. forstes bend, frost's bond, 1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.—Comp.: fȳr-, hell-, hyge-, īren-, oncer-, searo-, w媭bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (wound-gate), wound-opening: nom. pl. ben-geato, 1122.

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., bearer: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., to carry; III. sg. pres. byre�A href="#li296">296, 448; �ā񯴭 byre�I>carries the treasure (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj. bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; heht �; se hearda Hrunting beran, to bring Hrunting, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran, 2153; pret. b尬 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne b尠fǣted wǣge, brought the lord the costly vessel, 2282; pl. bǣron, 213, 1636, etc.; bǣran, 2851; pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.—The following expressions are poetic paraphrases of the forms go, come: �wē rondas beren eft tō earde, 2654; gewīta�r�ran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; ic gefr妮 sunu Wīhstānes hringnet beran, 2755; wīgheafolan b尬 2662; helmas bǣron, 240 (conjecture); scyldas bǣran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of the man with his weapons.

岭beran, to carry to: inf. tō beadulāce (battle) 峢eran, 1562; pret. �; hine on morgentīd on Hea�#483;mas holm up 峢尬 the sea bore him up to the Hea�#483;mas, 519; hīo Bēowulfe medoful 峢尠brought Bēowulf the mead-cup, 625; m妥nbyr�e ... hider ūt 峢尠cyninge mīnum, bore the great burden hither to my king, 3093; pl. hī hyne 峢ǣron tō brimes faro�28.—2) bear away: 岠līc 峢尬 2128.

for-beran, to hold, to suppress: inf. �#275; �rēostwylm forberan ne mehte, that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast, 1878.

ge-beran, to bring forth, to bear: pret. part. �#257; m奠secgan sē �ō�d riht freme� folce ... �s eorl wǣre geboren betera (that may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born), 1704.

o�ran, to bring hither: pret. �; mec sǣ o� on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in b걡n, intp걡n, but in the sense of carere), auferre, to carry off, to take away: inf. īren ǣrgōd �s āhlǣcan blōdge beadufolme onberan wolde, excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody hand of the demon, 991; pret. part. (w屩 onboren bēaga hord, the treasure of the rings had been carried off, 2285.—Compounds with the pres. part.: helm-, sāwl-berend.

berian (denominative from b尬 naked), w. v., to make bare, to clear: pret. pl. benc�eredon, cleared the bench-place (by removing the benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., to break, to burst: pret. pl. burston bānlocan, 819; bengeato burston, 1122to crack, to make the noise of breaking: fingras burston, the fingers cracked (from Bēowulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, break, to fly asunder: pret. N妬ing forb屳t, N妬ing (Bēowulf's sword) broke in two, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), better: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-līc, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. n., of Hrō�257;r's hall, 781; of Hygelāc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), best, the best: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca, 1110; neut. nū is ofost betost, �#275; ..., now is haste the best, that we..., 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrūda betst, 453; acc. sg. m. �etstan, 1872.

bēcn, st. n., (beacon), token, mark, sign: acc. sg. betimbredon beadu-rōfes bēcn (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bēg. See bēag.

bēn, st. f., entreaty: gen. sg. bēne, 428, 2285.

bēna, w. m., suppliant, supplex: nom. sg. swā �; bēna eart (as thou entreatest), 352; swā hē bēna w屠(as he had asked), 3141; nom. pl. hȳ bēnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) to make good, to remove: pret. ac �; Hrō�257;re wīdcū�wēan wihte gebēttest, hast thou in any way relieved Hrō�257;r of the evil known afar, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncȳ񯣠ealle gebētte, removed all trouble, 831. —2) to avenge: inf. wihte ne meahte on �;m feorhbonan fǣh�ebētan, could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer, 2466.

beadu, st. f., battle, strife, combat: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, in combat, 1540; gen. pl. bād beadwa ge-�, waited for the combats (with Grendel) that were in store for him, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grīma, w. m., (battle-mask), helmet: acc. pl. -grīman, 2258.

beado-hr妬, st. n., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail, 552.

beadu-lāc, st. n., (exercise in arms, tilting), combat, battle: dat. sg. tō beadu-lāce, 1562.

beado-lēoma, w. m., (battle-light), sword: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mēce, st. m., battle-sword: nom. pl. beado-mēcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., battle-hero, warrior: gen. pl. betst beadorinca, 1110.

beadu-rōf, adj., strong in battle: gen. sg. -rōfes, of Bēowulf, 3162.

beadu-rūn, st. f., mystery of battle: acc. sg. onband beadu-rūne, solved the mystery of the combat, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sharp, sharp for the battle, 2705.

beadu-scrūd, st. n., (battle-dress), corselet, shirt of mail: gen. pl. beaduscrūda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail: acc. sg. brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings), 2756.

beado-weorc, st. n., (battle-work), battle: gen. sg. gefeh beado-weorces, rejoiced at the battle, 2300.

beald, adj., bold, brave: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., to show one's self brave: pret. bealdode gōdum dǣdum (through brave deeds), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., lord, prince: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., evil, ruin, destruction: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl. bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.—Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-, hre�, lēod-, mor�, niht-, sweord-, wīg-bealu.

bealu, adj., deadly, dangerous, bad: instr. sg. hyne sār hafa�fongen balwon bendum, pain has entwined him in deadly bands, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., violent death, death by the sword(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., thinking of death, meditating destruction: gen. pl. ǣghw篲um bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hȳdig, adj., thinking of death, meditating destruction: of Grendel, 724.

bealo-nī�>, st. m., (zeal for destruction), deadly enmity: nom. sg., 2405; destructive struggle: acc. sg. bebeorh �; �ealonī�I>beware of destructive striving, 1759; death-bringing rage: nom. sg. him on brēostum bealo-nī�#275;oll, in his breast raged deadly fury (of the dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., splendor, brightness, clearness: nom. sg. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.—2) sound, tone: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeāton, gū�n galan, they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, lap, bosom: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan bunan and discas, 2776.—2) figuratively, possession, property, because things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on bearm licgan, ālecgan); dat. sg. him tō bearme cwōm mā񯴭f岠mǣre, came into his possession, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) child, son: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.; Ecglāfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat. pl. bearnum, 1075.—2) in a broader sense, scion, offspring, descendant: nom. sg. Ongen�;ow's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn, 70; gumena bearn, children of men, 879; h嫥�earn, 1190; 篥linga bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150; gen. pl. ni񯟠bearna, 1006.—Comp.: brō�, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., birth, birth of a son: gen. sg. �re ealdmetod ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, has been gracious through the birth of such a son (i.e. as Bēowulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (the bearer, hence properly only the fruit-tree, especially the oak and the beech), tree, collectively forest: nom. pl. hrīmge bearwas, rime-covered or ice-clad, 1364.

bēacen, st. n., sign, banner, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht bēacen godes, of the sun, 570; gen. pl. bēacna beorhtost, 2778. See bēcn.

ge-bēacnian, w. v., to mark, to indicate: pret. part. ge-bēacnod, 140.

bēag, st. m., ring, ornament: nom. sg. bēah (neck-ring), 1212; acc. sg. bēah (the collar of the murdered king of the Hea�ardnas), 2042; bēg (collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwōm Wealh�;o for�#257;n under gyldnum bēage, she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden diadem, 1164; gen. sg. bēages (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. bēagas (rings in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. bēaga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.— Comp.: earm-, heals-bēag.

bēag-gyfa, w. m., ring-giver, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan, 1103.

bēag-hroden, adj., adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps: nom. sg. bēaghroden, cwēn, of Hrō�257;r's consort, perhaps with reference to her diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

bēah-hord, st. m. n., ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings: gen. sg. bēah-hordes, 895; dat. pl. bēah-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. bēah-horda weard, of King Hrō�257;r, 922.

bēah-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed: nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

bēah-�A>, st. f., the receiving of the ring: dat. sg. 奴er bēah-�2177.

bēah-wri�A>, w. m. ring-band, ring with prominence given to its having the form of a band: acc. sg. bēah-wri� 2019.

bēam, st. m., tree, only in the compounds fyrgen-, glēo-bēam.

bēatan, st. v., thrust, strike: pres. sg. mearh burhstede bēate�I>the steed beats the castle-ground (place where the castle is built), i.e. with his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-bēaten, died, struck by the battle-axe, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) mountain, rock: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges, 2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.—2) grave-mound, tomb-hill: acc. sg. biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat (cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.—Comp. stān-beorh.

beorh, st. f., veil, covering, cap; only in the comp. hēafod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), to save, to shield: inf. wolde fēore beorgan, place her life in safety, 1294; here-byrne ... sēo �257;ncofan beorgan cū�which could protect his body, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), to take care, to defend one's self from: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, cannot keep himself from stain (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh �; �ealont�A href="#li1759">1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), to save, to protect: pret. sg. �bearh fēore, protected the life, 1549; scyld wēl gebearg līfe and līce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, to surround protectingly: pret. sg. bring ūtan ymb-bearh, 1504.

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering: nom. sg. beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; �orhte bold, 998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Bēowulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tō �;re byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte fr峷e, 214, 897; beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314. Superl.: bēacna beorhtost, 2778. —2) excellent, remarkable: gen. sg. beorhtre bōte, 158. —Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., brilliantly, brightly, radiantly, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., to sound clearly: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swēg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., hero, warrior, noble man: nom. sg. (Hrō�257;r), 1881, (Bēowulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Bēow.), 1025, (ųchere), 1300; dat. sg. beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Bēowulf and his companions), 211, (Hrō�257;r's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Bēowulf's liege-men), 2405.—Comp.: folc-, gū�orn.

beornan, st. v., to burn: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake), 2273.—Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, to be consumed, to burn: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668; for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, to be burned: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., king of warriors, king of heroes: nom. sg. (as voc.), 2149.

bēodan, st. v.: 1) to announce, to inform, to make known: inf. bīodan, 2893.—2) to offer, to proffer (as the notifying of a transaction in direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him ge�budon, offered them an agreement, 1086; pret. part. �; w屠ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, then was pursuit offered the Swedish people, 2958; inf. ic �;m gōdan sceal mā� bēodan, I shall offer the excellent man treasures, 385.

ā-bēodan, to present, to announce: pret. word inne ābēad, made known the words within, 390; to offer, to tender, to wish: pret. him hǣl ābēad, wished him health (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hǣlo ābēad, 2419; eoton weard ābēad, offered the giant a watcher, 669.

be-bēodan, to command, to order: pret. swā him se hearda bebēad, as the strong man commanded them, 401. Similarly, swā se rīca bebēad, 1976.

ge-bēodan: 1) to command, to order: inf. hēt �; gebēodan byre Wīhstānes h嫥�onegum, �#299;e..., the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given to many of the men..., 3111.—2) to offer: him Hygd gebēad hord and rīce, offered him the treasure and the chief power, 2370; inf. gū�ebēodan, to offer battle, 604.

bēod-genēat, st. m., table-companion: nom. and acc. pl. genēatas, 343, 1714.

bēon, verb, to be, generally in the future sense, will be: pres. sg. I. gū�eorca ic bēo gearo sōna, I shall immediately be ready for warlike deeds, 1826; sg. III. wā bi�#483;m �al..., woe to him who...! 183; so, 186; gife�i� given, 299; ne bi�#275; wilna gād (no wish will be denied thee), 661; �;r �; bi�nna � if thou shalt need the warriors, 1836; ne bi�ylc cwēnlīc �;aw, is not becoming, honorable to a woman, 1941; eft sōna bi�>will happen directly, 1763; similarly, 1768, etc.; pl. �bīo�ocene, then are broken, 2064; feor cȳ񯣠bēo�#275;lran gesōhte �;m � "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. bēo (bīo) �; on ofeste, hasten! 386, 2748; bēo wi�#275;atas gl墬 be gracious to the Gēatas, 1174.

bēor, st. n., beer: dat. sg. 岠 bēore, at beer-drinking, 2042; instr. sg. bēore druncen, 531; bēore druncne, 480.

bēor-scealc, st. m., keeper of the beer, cup-bearer: gen. pl. bēor-scealca sum (one of Hrō�257;r's followers, because they served the Gēatas at meals), 1241.

bēor-sele, st. m., beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk: dat. sg. in (on) bēorsele, 482, 492, 1095; bīorsele, 2636.

bēor-�A>, st. f., beer-drinking, beer-banquet: dat. sg. 奴er bēor�117; 岠�;re bēor�618.

bēot, st. n., promise, binding agreement to something that is to be undertaken: acc. sg. hē bēot ne ālēh, did not break his pledge, 80; bēot eal ... gelǣste, performed all that he had pledged himself to, 523.

ge-bēotian, w. v., to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's self: pret. gebēotedon, 480, 536.

bēot-word, st. n., same as bēot: dat. pl. bēot-wordum spr塬 2511.

biddan, st. v., to beg, to ask, to pray: pres. sg. I. dō�ā ic bidde! 1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic �; biddan wille ānre bēne, beg thee for one, 427; pret. swā hē selfa b墬 as he himself had requested, 29; b墠hine blī�(supply wesan) 岠�;re bēor�begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet, 618; ic �; lange b墠�#363;..., begged you a long time that you, 1995; frio�#483;re b墠hlāford sīnne, begged his lord for protection (acc. of pers. and gen. of thing), 2283; b墠�#275; geworhton, asked that you..., 3097; pl. wordum bǣdon �, 176.

on-bidian, w. v., to await: inf. lǣta�lde-bord hēr onbidian ... worda ge�, let the shields await here the result of the conference (lay the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. sword: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558; instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40; gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.—Comp.: gū�hilde-, wīg-bil.

bindan, st. v., to bind, to tie: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, the bound wood, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, a sword bound with gold, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg. heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, to bind: pret. sg. �;r ic fīfe geband, where I had bound five(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges �ord ō�fand sō�ebunden, the king's man found (after many had already praised Bēowulf's deed) other words (also referring to Bēowulf, but in connection with Sigemund) rightly bound together, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming to a gid, 872; wundenmǣl wrǣttum gebunden, sword bound with ornaments, i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, bound together by sorrow, 1744; gomel gū�299;ga eldo gebunden, hoary hero bound by old age (fettered, oppressed), 2112.

on-bindan, to unbind, to untie, to loose: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., that which binds, fetters: in comp. īs-gebind.

bite, st. m., bite, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite īrena, the swords' bite, 2260; dat. sg. 奴er billes bite, 2061.—Comp. lā�te.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) sharp, cutting, cutting in: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strǣle, 1747; instr. pl. biteran bānum, with sharp teeth, 2693.—2) irritated, furious: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., bitterly (in a moral sense), 2332.

bī, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) near, at, on, about, by (as under be, No. 1): bī sǣm twēonum, in the circuit of both seas, 1957; ārās bī ronde, raised himself up by the shield, 2539; bī wealle ges岬 sat by the wall, 2718. With a freer position: him big stōdan bunan and orcas, round about him, 3048.—2) to, towards (motion): hwearf �; bī bence, turned then towards the bench, 1189; gēong bī sesse, went to the seat, 2757.

bīd (see bīdan), st. n., tarrying hesitation: �;r wear�gen�;o on bīd wrecen, forced to tarry, 2963.

bīdan, st. v.: 1) to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait: inf. nō on wealle leng bīdan wolde, would not stay longer within the wall (the drake), 2309; pret. in �2;strum bād, remained in darkness, 87; flota stille bād, the craft lay still, 301; receda ... on �;m se rīca bād, where the mighty one dwelt, 310; �;r se snottra bād, where the wise man (Hrō�257;r) waited, 1314; hē on searwum bād, he (Bēowulf) stood there armed, 2569; ic on earde bād mǣlgesceafta, lived upon the paternal ground the time appointed me by fate, 2737; pret. pl. sume �;r bidon, some remained, waited there, 400.—2) to await, to wait for, with the gen. of that which is awaited: inf. bīdan woldon Grendles gū�wished to await the combat with Grendel, to undertake it, 482; similarly, 528; wīges bīdan, await the combat, 1269; nalas andsware bīdan wolde, would await no answer, 1495; pret. bād beadwa ge�, awaited the event of the battle, 710; sǣgenga bād āgend-frēan, the sea-goer (boat) awaited its owner, 1883; sele ... hea�lma bād, lā�līges (the poet probably means to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

ā-bīdan, to await, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bīdan: 1) to tarry, to wait: imp. gebīde gē on beorge, wait ye on the mountain, 2530; pret. part. �;ah �tra lȳt under burhlocan gebiden h塢e H履�dōhtor although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in the castle, 1929.—2) to live through, to experience, to expect (w. acc.): inf. sceal ended奍 mīnne gebīdan, shall live my last day, 639; ne wēnde ... bōte gebīdan, did not hope ... to live to see reparation, 935; fela sceal gebīdan lēofes and lā� experience much good and much affliction, 1061; ende gebīdan, 1387, 2343; pret. hē �ōfre gebād, received consolation (compensation) therefore, 7; gebād wintra worn, lived a great number of years, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930, 1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tō gebīdanne ō� yrfeweardes, to await another heir, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tō gebīdanne �s byre rīde on galgan, to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows, 2446; pret. drēam-lēas gebād �#275;..., joyless he experienced it, that he..., 1721; � ic on aldre gebād �..., for this, that I, in my old age, lived to see that..., 1780.

on-bīdan, to wait, to await: pret. hordweard onbād earfo�299;ce o�t ǣfen cwōm, scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening, 2303.

bītan, st. v., to bite, of the cutting of swords: inf. bītan, 1455, 1524; pret. bāt bānlocan, bit into his body (Grendel), 743; bāt unswī� cut with less force (Bēowulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly that which shines here of the horse, not so much of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., mixture, heaving mass, a turning.—Comp.: sund-, ȳ�blond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., mixed, i.e. having gray hair, gray-headed, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792; blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe, 1595.

bl塼/A>, adj., dark, black: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blāc, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining: acc. sg. blācne lēoman, a brilliant gleam, 1518.—2) of the white death-color, pale; in comp. heoroblāc.

blǣd, st. m.: 1) strength, force, vigor: nom. sg. w屠hira blǣd scacen (of both tribes), strength was gone, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay slain, 1125; nū is �;nes m妮es blǣd āne hwīle, now the fulness of thy strength lasts for a time, 1762.—2) reputation, renown, knowledge (with stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blǣd, 18; (�;n) blǣd is ārǣred, thy renown is spread abroad, 1704.

blǣd-āgend, pt., having renown, renowned: nom. pl. blǣd-āgende, 1014.

blǣd-f岴, adj., firm in renown, renowned, known afar: acc. sg. blǣdf岴ne beorn (of ųchere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

blēat, adj., miserable, helpless; only in comp. w媭blēat.

blēate, adv., miserably, helplessly, 2825.

blīcan, st. v., shine, gleam: inf., 222

blī�A>, adj.: 1) blithe, joyous, happy acc. sg. blī� 618.—2) gracious, pleasing: nom. sg. blī�436.—Comp. un-blī�/P>

blī�ort, adj., joyous in heart, happy: nom. sg., 1803.

blōd, st. n., blood: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blōde, 848; 奴er dēorum men him langa�orn wi�ōde, the hero (Hrō�257;r) longs for the beloved man contrary to blood, i.e. he loves him although he is not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blōde, 486, 935, 1595, etc.

blōd-fāg, adj., spotted with blood, bloody, 2061.

blōdig, adj., bloody: acc. sg. f. blōdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blōdig, 448; instr. sg. blōdigan gāre, 2441.

ge-blōdian, w. v., to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood: pret. part. ge-blōdegod, 2693.

blōdig-tō�>, adj., with bloody teeth: nom. sg. bona blōdig-tō�f Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blōd-rēow, adj., bloodthirsty, bloody-minded: nom. sg. him on ferh�rēow brēost-hord blōd-rēow, in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty feeling, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., command, order; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., (to be a messenger), to announce, to make known: pret. hrefn blaca heofones wynne blī�ort bodode, the black raven announced joyfully heaven's delight (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., bow, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp. hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flān-, horn-boga; bow of the arch, in comp. stān-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), gangway; here probably the planks which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan, 231.

bold, st. n., building, house, edifice: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998; (Hygelāc's residence), 1926; (Bēowulfs residence), 2197, 2327.—Comp. fold-bold.

bold-āgend, pt., house-owner, property-holder: gen. pl. monegum boldāgendra, 3113.

bolgen-mōd, adj., angry at heart, angry, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., bolster, cushion, pillow: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brǣded wear�ddum and bolstrum, was covered with beds and bolsters, 1241.—Comp. hlēor-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., carrier, bringer, leader: in the comp. mund-, rǣd-, wǣg-bora.

bord, st. n., shield: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda gebr塬 over the crashing of the shields, 2260.—Comp.: hilde-, wīg-bord.

bord-h塢end, pt., one having a shield, shield-bearer: nom. pl. h塢ende, 2896.

bord-hrēo�A>, w. m., shield-cover, shield with particular reference to its cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hrēo� 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., shield: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., shield-wall, wall of shields: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., shield-wood, shield: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu, 1244.

botm, st. m., bottom: dat. sg. tō botme (here of the bottom of the fen-lake), 1507.

bōt (emendation, cf. bētan), st. f.: 1) relief, remedy: nom. sg., 281; acc. sg. bōte, 935; acc. sg. bōte, 910.—2) a performance in expiation, a giving satisfaction, tribute: gen. sg. bōte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) burning, fire: nom. sg. �; sceal brond fretan (the burning of the body), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mōston ... bronde forb屮an (could not bestow upon him the solemn burning), 2127; h奤e landwara līge befangen, bǣle and bronde, with glow, fire, and flame, 2323.—2) in the passage, �ne nō brond nē beadomēcas bītan ne meahton, 1455, brond has been translated sword, brand (after the O.N. brand-r). The meaning fire may be justified as well, if we consider that the old helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.—3) in the passage, forgeaf �; Bēowulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be intended as a designation of Hrō�257;r (perhaps son), has not up to this time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., raging, foaming, going-high, of ships and of waves: acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brād, adj.: 1) extended, wide: nom. pl. brāde rīce, 2208.—2) broad: nom. sg. hēah and brād (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brādne mēce, 2979; (seax) brād [and] brūnecg, the broad, short sword with bright edge, 1547.—3) massive, in abundance. acc, sg. brād gold, 3106.

ge-br塼/A>, st. n., noise, crash: acc. sg. borda gebr塬 2260.

geond-brǣdan, w. v., to spread over, to cover entirely: pret. part. geond-brǣded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) to break, to break to pieces: pret. bānhringas br塬 (the sword) broke the joints, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. �#483;r ǣnig mon wǣre ne brǣce, that no one should break the agreement, 1101; pret. part. �bīo�ocene ... ā�eord eorla, then are the oaths of the men broken, 2064.—2) probably also simply to break in upon something, to press upon, w. acc.: pret. sg. sǣdēor monig hildetūxum heresyrcan br塬 many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the shirt of mail (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it was still unharmed). 1512.—3) to break out, to spring out: inf. geseah ... strēam ūt brecan of beorge, saw a stream break out from the rocks, 2547; lēt se hearda Higelāces �rādne mēce ... brecan ofer bordweal, caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields, 2981.—4) figuratively, to vex, not to let rest: pret. hine fyrwyt br塬 curiosity tormented (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, to break to pieces: pret. bānhūs gebr塬 broke in pieces his body (Bēowulf in combat with D妨refn), 2509.

tō-brecan, to break in pieces: inf., 781; pret. part. tō-brocen, 998.

�A name="glthurhbrecan" class="glentry">brecan, to break through, pret. wordes ord brēosthord �r塬 the word's point broke through his closed breast, i.e. a word burst out from his breast, 2793.

brec�>, st. f., condition of being broken, breach: nom. pl. mōdes brec�sorrow of heart), 171.

ā-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., to fell to the ground, to kill (?): pret. ābredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly to swing round, hence: 1) to swing: inf. under sceadu bregdan, swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of shadows, 708; pret. br妤 ealde lāfe, swung the old weapon, 796; br妤 feorh-genī�, swung his mortal enemy (Grendel's mother), threw her down, 1540; pl. git ēagorstrēam ... mundum brugdon, stirred the sea with your hands (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part. brōden (brogden) mǣl, the drawn sword, 1617, 1668.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ō� bregdan, to weave a waylaying net for another (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohr妬 brōden, a woven shirt of mail (because it consisted of metal rings joined together), 552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

ā-bregdan, to swing: pret. hond up ā-br墬 swung, raised his hand, 2576.

ge-bregdan: 1) swing: pret. hring-mǣl gebr妤, swung the ringed sword, 1565; eald sweord ēacen ... � �2; wǣpne gebr妤, an old heavy sword that I swung as my weapon, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc. w嫬seaxe gebrǣ, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, to draw out of the sheath: sweord ǣr gebrǣ, had drawn the sword before, 2563.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebrōden, 1444.

on-bregdan, to tear open, to throw open: pret. onbr墠�; recedes mū� had then thrown open the entrance of the hall (onbregdan is used because the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., prince, ruler: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rōf, adj., powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength : nom. sg. m., 1926.

brego-stōl, st. m., throne, figuratively for rule: acc. sg. him gesealde seofon �;sendo, bold and brego-stōl, seven thousand see under sceat), a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince, 2197; �;r him Hygd gebēad ... brego-stōl, where H. offered him the chief power, 2371; lēt �regostōl Bēowulf healdan, gave over to Bēowulf the chief power (did not prevent Bēowulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

brēme, adj., known afar, renowned. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., ship craft: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

ā-brēatan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. ābrēot brimwīsan, killed the sea-king (King H篣yn), 2931. See brēotan.

brēost, st. n.: 1) breast: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc. �#299;ne brēost were�I>which protects my breast, 453; dat. pl. beadohr妬 brōden on brēostum l奮 552.—2) the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart, the bosom: nom. sg. brēost innan wēoll �;ostrum ge�, his breast heaved with troubled thoughts, 2332; dat. pl. lēt �; of brēostum word ūt faran, caused the words to come out from his bosom, 2551.

brēost-gehygd, st. n. f., breast-thought, secret thought: instr. pl. -gehygdum, 2819.

brēost-gewǣdu, st. n. pl., breast-clothing, garment covering the breast, of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

brēost-hord, st. m., breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast, heart, mind, thought, soul: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

brēost-net, st. n., breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail: nom. sg. brēost-net brōden, 1549.

brēost-weor�, st. f., ornament that is worn upon the breast: acc. sg. brēost-weor�e, 2505: here the collar is meant which Bēowulf receives from Wealh�;ow (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173, presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her husband Hygelāc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (fr峷e), which hang down upon the breast, hence the name brēost-weor�.

brēost-wylm, st. m., heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom: acc. sg, 1878.

brēotan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. brēat bēodgenēatas, killed his table-companions (courtiers), 1714.

ā-brēotan, same as above: pret. �e hēo on r岴e ābrēat, whom she killed upon his couch, 1299; pret. part. �; �nige gewear�岠hine sēo brimwylf ābroten h奤e, many believed that the sea-wolf (Grendel's mother) had killed him, 1600; hī hyne ... ābroten h奤on, had killed him (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., flood, the sea: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tō brimes faro�to the sea, 28; 岠brimes nosan, at the sea's promontory, 2804; nom. pl. brimu swa�on, the waves subsided, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea: acc. pl. -clifu, 222.

brim-lād, st. f., flood-way, sea-way: acc. sg. �;ra � Bēowulfe brimlāde tēah, who had travelled the sea-way with B., 1052.

brim-lī�, pt, sea-farer, sailor acc. p. -lī�e, 568.

brim-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, the flood of the sea: acc. pl. ofer brim-strēamas, 1911.

brim-wīsa, w. m., sea-king: acc. sg. brimwīsan, of H篣yn, king of the Gēatas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., sea-wolf (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg. sēo brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., sea-wave: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., to bring, to bear: prs. sg. I. ic �; �;senda �bringe tō helpe, bring to your assistance thousands of warriors, 1830; inf. sceal hringnaca ofer hēa�ringan lāc and luftācen, shall bring gifts and love-tokens over the high sea, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505; pret. pl. wē �;s sǣlāc ... brōhton, brought this sea-offering (Grendel's head), 1654.

ge-bringan, to bring: pres. subj. pl. �#275; �ebringan ... on ādf履, that we bring him upon the funeral-pile, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces: prs. sg. III. herepād ... brosna�ter beorne, the coat of mail falls to pieces after (the death of) the hero, 2261.

brō�/A>, st. m., brother: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brē� 1263; gen. sg. his brō�bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brō�, 588, 1075.

ge-brō�/A>, pl., brethren, brothers: dat. pl. s岠be �;m gebrō� twǣm, sat by the two brothers, 1192.

brōga, w. m., terror, horror: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa brōgan, 583.—Comp.: gryre-, here-brōga.

brūcan, st. v. w. gen., to use, to make use of: prs. sg. III. sē �ge hēr worolde brūce�I>who here long makes use of the world, i.e. lives long, 1063; imp. brūc manigra mēda, make use of many rewards, give good rewards, 1179; to enjoy: inf. �#275; bēahhordes brūcan mōste, could enjoy the ring-hoard, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. brēac līfgesceafta, enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time, 1954. With the genitive to be supplied: brēac �mōste, 1488; imp. brūc � bēages, enjoy this ring, take this ring, 1217. Upon this meaning depends the form of the wish, wēl brūcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf. hēt hine wēl brūcan, 1046; hēt hine brūcan well, 2813; imp. brūc ealles well, 2163.

brūn, adj., having a brown lustre, shining: nom. sg. sīo ecg brūn, 2579.

brūn-ecg, adj., having a gleaming blade: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brād [and] brūnecg, her broad sword with gleaming blade, 1547.

brūn-fāg, adj., gleaming like metal: acc. sg. brūnfāgne helm, 2616.

bryne-lēoma, w. m., light of a conflagration, gleam of fire : nom. sg., 2314.

bryne-wylm, st. m., wave of fire: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly to break in small pieces, cf. brēotan), w. v., to bestow, to distribute: pret. sinc brytnade, distributed presents, i.e. ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., giver, distributer, always designating the king: nom. sg. sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. bēaga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488; sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (to be a dispenser), w. v., to distribute, to confer: prs. sg. III. god manna cynne snyttru brytta�I>bestows wisdom upon the human race, 1727.

brȳd, st. f.: 1) wife, consort: acc. sg. brȳd, 2931; brȳde, 2957, both times of the consort of Ongen�;ow (?).—2) betrothed, bride: nom. sg., of Hrō�257;r's daughter, Frēaware, 2032.

brȳd-būr, st. n., woman's apartment: dat. sg. ēode ... cyning of brȳdbūre, the king came out of the apartment of his wife (into which, according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., (that which has a bound prow), the framed ship: nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., can or cup, drinking-vessel: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc. pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., castle, city, fortified house: acc. sg. burh, 523; dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.—Comp.: frēo, freo� hēa-, hlēo-, hord-, lēod-, mǣg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., castle-bars: dat. sg. under burh-locan, under the castle-bars, i.e. in the castle (Hygelāc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., castle-place, place where the castle or city stands: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., riches, treasure of a castle or city: gen. sg. � hē burh-welan brūcan mōste, 3101.

burne, w. f., spring, fountain: gen. �;re burnan w嫭, the bubbling of the spring, 2547.

būan, st. v.: 1) to stay, to remain, to dwell: inf. gif hē weard onfunde būan on beorge, if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain, 2843.—2) to inhabit, w. acc.: meduseld būan, to inhabit the mead-house, 3066.

ge-būan, w. acc., to occupy a house, to take possession: pret. part. hēan hūses, hū hit Hring Dene 奴er bēor�ebūn h奤on, how the Danes, after their beer-carouse, had occupied it (had made their beds in it), 117.—With the pres. part. būend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-, lond-būend.

būgan, st. v., to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee: prs. sg. III. bon-gār būge�I>the fatal spear sinks, i.e. its deadly point is turned down, it rests, 2032; inf. � byrnwīga būgan sceolde, that the armed hero had to sink down (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly, 2975; pret. sg. bēah eft under eor�ll, turned, fled again behind the earth-wall, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tō bence, turned to the bench, 327, 1014; hȳ on holt bugon, fled to the wood, 2599.

ā-būgan, to bend off, to curve away from: pret. fram sylle ābēag medubenc monig, from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench, 776.

be-būgan, w. acc., to surround, to encircle: prs. swā (which) w峥r bebūge�A href="#li93">93; efne swā sīde swā sǣ bebūge�ndige weallas, as far as the sea encircles windy shores, 1224.

ge-būgan, to bend, to bow, to sink: a) intrans.: hēo on flet gebēah, sank on the floor, 1541; �; gebēah cyning, then sank the king, 2981; �; se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne (when the drake at once coiled itself up), 2568; gewāt �; gebogen scrī�tō, advanced with curved body (the drake), 2570.—b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste gebēah, sank upon the couch in the hall, 691; similarly gebēag, 1242.

būr, st. n., apartment, room: dat. sg. būre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. būrum, 140.—Comp. brȳd-būr.

būtan, būton (from be and ūtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, lest: būtan his līc swice, lest his body escape, 967. With ind. following, but: būton hit w屠māre �ǣnig mon ō�tō beadulāce 峢eran meahte, but it (the sword) was greater than any other man could have carried to battle, 1561. After a preceding negative verb, except: �;ra �ena bearn gearwe ne wiston būton Fitela mid hine, which the children of men did not know at all, except Fitela, who was with him, 880; ne nom hē mā�#483;hta mā būton �afelan, etc., he took no more of the rich treasure than the head alone, 1615.—2) prep, with dat., except: būton folcscare, 73; būton �;, 658; ealle būton ānum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., to buy, to pay: inf. ne w屠�wrixle til �#299;e on bā healfa bicgan scoldon frēonda fēorum, that was no good transaction, that they, on both sides (as well to Grendel as to his mother), had to pay with the lives of their friends, 1306.

be-bycgan, to sell: pret. nū ic on mā�hord mīne bebohte frōde feorhlege (now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life), 2800.

ge-bycgan, to buy, to acquire; to pay: pret. w. acc. nō �;r ǣnige ... frōfre gebohte, obtained no sort of help, consolation, 974; hit (his, MS.) ealdre gebohte, paid it with his life, 2482; pret. part. sylfes fēore bēagas [geboh]te, bought rings with his own life, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (to make beald, which see), to excite, to encourage, to brave deeds: inf. w. acc. swā hē Frēsena cyn on bēorsele byldan wolde (by distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hīe on gebyrd hruron gāre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., birth; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrūd, st. n., shield-ornament, design upon a shield(?): nom. sg., 2661.

byre, st. m., (born) son: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl. byre, 1189. In a broader sense, young man, youth: acc. pl. bǣdde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

byr�/A>, st. f., burden; in comp. m妥n-byr�

byrele, st. m., steward, waiter, cupbearer: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., to feast, to eat: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., protector; in comp. lēod-gebyrgea.

byrht. See beorht.

byrne, w. f., shirt of mail, mail: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.; hringed byrne, ring-shirt, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg. byrnan, 1023, etc.; sīde byrnan, large coat of mail, 1292; hringde byrnan, 2616; hāre byrnan, gray coat of mail (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, the ring of the shirt of mail (i.e. the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum, with gleaming mail, 3141.—Comp.: gū�here-, hea� īren-, īsern-byrne.

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wiga, w. m., warrior dressed in a coat of mail: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., trouble, difficulty, opposition: nom. sg. bisigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., opposed, in need, in the compounds līf-bysig, syn-bysig.

bȳme, w. f., a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone: gen. sg. bȳman gealdor, the sound of the trumpet, 2944.

bȳwan, w. v., to ornament, to prepare: inf. �; �do-grīman bȳwan sceoldon, who should prepare the helmets, 2258.

C

camp, st. m., combat, fight between two: dat. sg. in campe (Bēowulf's with D妨refn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., light, candle: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun, 1573.—Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., fighter, warrior, hero: nom. sg. 篥le cempa, 1313; Gēata cempa, 1552; rē�empa, 1586; mǣre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa, 2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hūga cempan, 2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.—Comp. fē�empa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) to bear, w. acc.: efne swā hwylc m娰a swā �agan cende, who bore the son, 944; pret. part. �;m eafera w屠奴er cenned, to him was a son born, 12.—2) reflexive, to show one's self, to reveal one's self: imp. cen �d cr奴e, prove yourself by your strength, 1220.

ā-cennan, to bear: pret. part. nō hīe f壥r cunnon, hw篥r him ǣnig w屠ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, they (the people of the country) do not know his (Grendel's) father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born to him (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cēn�A>, st. f., boldness: acc. sg. cēn�2697.

cēne, adj., keen, warlike, bold: gen. p.. cēnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl., acc. pl. cēnoste, 206.—Comp.: dǣd-, gār-cēne.

ceald, adj., cold: acc. pl. cealde strēamas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum cearsī� with cold, sad journeys, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera cealdost, 546;—Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self: prs. sg. III. nā ymb his līf ceara� takes no care for his life, 1537.

cearig, adj., troubled, sad: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sī�>, st. m., sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow, i.e. a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsī�(of Bēowulf's expeditions against Ēadgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., care, sorrow, lamentation: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg. [ceare], 3173.—Comp.: ealdor-, gū�mǣl-, mōd-cearu.

cear-w嫭, st. m., care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast: dat. pl. 奴er cear-w嫭um, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. �; cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-būend, pt, inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a castle: dat. pl. ceaster-būendum, of those established in Hrō�257;r's castle, 769.

cēap, st. m., purchase, transaction: figuratively, nom. sg. n屠�#772;�ēap, no easy transaction, 2416; instr. sg. �;ah �33;�hit ealdre gebohte, heardan cēape, although the one paid it with his life, a dear purchase, 2483.

ge-cēapian, w. v., to purchase: pret. part. gold unrīme grimme gecēapod, gold without measure, bitterly purchased (with Bēowulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., to separate, to cut off (with acc. of the pers. and instr. of the thing): pret. hine �; hēafde becearf, cut off his head, 1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., man: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, many a wise man, 909; dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, the old man (of King Hrē�, 2445; so, ealdum ceorle, of King Ongen�;ow, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, wise men, 202, 416, 1592.

cēol, st. m., keel, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg. cēol, 38, 238; gen. sg. cēoles, 1807.

cēosan, st. v., to choose, hence, to assume: inf. �ynedōm cīosan wolde, would assume the royal dignity, 2377; to seek: pret. subj. ǣr hē bǣl cure, before he sought his funeral-pile (before he died), 2819.

ge-cēosan, to choose, to elect: gerund, tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne (sēlran), to choose a better king, 1852; imp. �; �#275;lre ge-cēos, choose thee the better (of two: bealonī�d ēce rǣdas), 1759; pret. hē ūsic on herge gecēas tō � si�e, selected us among the soldiers for this undertaking, 2639; gecēas ēcne rǣd, chose the everlasting gain, i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes lēoht gecēas, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl. h奤e ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., to turn, to change: inf. ne meahte ... �aldendes [willan] wiht on-cirran, could not change the will of the Almighty, 2858; pret. ufor oncirde, turned higher, 2952; �oncirde, turned thither, 2971.

ā-cīgan, w. v., to call hither: pret. ācīgde of cor�cyninges � syfone, called from the retinue of the king seven men, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? fetter, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat. pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., cliff, promontory: acc. pl. Gēata clifu, 1912.—Comp.: brim-, ēg-, holm-, stān-clif.

ge-cnāwan, st. v., to know, to recognize: inf. meaht �;, mīn wine, mēce gecnāwan, mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword, 2048.

on-cnāwan, to recognize, to distinguish: hordweard oncnīow mannes reorde, distinguished the speech of a man, 2555.

cniht, st. m., boy, youth: dat. pl. � cnyhtum, to these boys (Hrō�257;r's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., being a boy or a youth: acc. sg. ic hine cū�niht-wesende, knew him while still a boy, 372; nom. pl. wit �cwǣdon cniht-wesende, we both as young men said that, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., to strike, to dash against each other: pret. pl. �... eoferas cnysedan, when the bold warriors dashed against each other, stormed (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferh�fer�>, adj., (properly, of swollen mind), of uncommon thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others, high-minded: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferh�f Bēowulf, 1807; collen-fer�f Wīglāf, 2786.

cor�/A>, st. n., troop, division of an army, retinue: dat. sg. �; w屠... Fin sl妥n, cyning on cor� then was Fin slain, the king in the troop (of warriors), 1154; of cor�cyninges, out of the retinue of the king, 3122.

costian, w. v., to try; pret. (w. gen.) hē mīn costode, tried me, 2085.

cofa, w. m., apartment, sleeping-room, couch: in comp. bān-cofa.

cōl, adj., cool: compar. cearwylmas cōlran wur� the waves of sorrow become cooler, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wīflufan ... cōlran weor� his love for his wife cools, 2067.

cr奴, st. m., the condition of being able, hence: 1) physical strength: nom. sg. m娰a cr奴, 1284; acc. sg. m妥nes cr奴, 418; �#257;nes cr奴, 700; cr奴 and cēn�2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cr奴e, 983, 1220, 2182, 2361.—2) art, craft, skill: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum cr奴e, with secret (magic) art, 2169; dyrnan cr奴e, 2291; �;ofes cr奴e, with thief's craft, 2221; dat. pl. dēofles cr奴um, by devil's art (sorcery), 2089.—3) great quantity (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cr奴, 2223.—Comp.: leo� m妥n-, nearo-, wīg-cr奴.

cr奴ig, adj.: 1) strong, stout: nom. sg. eafo�cr奴ig, 1467; nī�r奴ig, 1963. Comp. wīg-cr奴ig.—2) adroit, skilful: in comp. lagu-cr奴ig.—3) rich (of treasures); in comp. ēacen-cr奴ig.

cringan, st. v., to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of those mortally wounded: pret. subj. on w媠crunge, would sink into death, would fall, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on w嫥 crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. hē under rande gecranc, fell under his shield, 1210; 岠wīge gecrang, fell in battle, 1338; hēo on flet gecrong, fell to the ground, 1569; in campe gecrong, fell in single combat, 2506.

cuma (he who comes), w. m., newcomer, guest: nom. sg. 1807.—Comp.: cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., to come: pres. sg. II. gyf �; on weg cymest, if thou comest from there, 1383; III. cyme�A href="#li2059">2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23; pl. �wē ūt cymen, when we come out, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281, 1870; pret. sg. cōm, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwōm, 419, 2915; pret. subj. sg. cwōme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361. Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, cōm gongan, 711; cōm sī�, 721; cōm in gān, 1645; cwōm gān, 1163; cōm scacan, 1803; cwōmon lǣdan, 239; cwōmon sēcean, 268; cwōman scrī� 651, etc.

be-cuman, to come, to approach, to arrive: pret. sy񯠮 niht becōm, after the night had come, 115; �; on �; lēode becōm, that had come over the people, 192; �; hē tō hām becōm, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn in becōm ... hlynnan under hārne stān, 2553; lȳt eft becwōm ... hāmes nīosan, 2366; o�t ende becwōm, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of pers.: �; hyne sīo �7;g becwōm, when this time of battle came over him, 2884.

ofer-cuman, to overcome, to compel: pret. �2; hē �ēond ofercwōm, thereby he overcame the foe, 1274: pl. hīe fēond heora ... ofercōmon, 700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nī�fercumen, compelled by combats, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., banner: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.—Comp. hilte-cumbor.

cund, adj., originating in, descended from: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) to know, to be acquainted with (w. acc. or depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mīnne can gl壮e Hrō� �#275; ... wile, I know my gracious H., that he will..., 1181; II. eard gīt ne const, thou knowest not yet the land, 1378; III. hē �rse ne con, knows no worse, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, knows the land well, 2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrūnan scrī� men do not know whither..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cū�knew him, 372; cū�ē dugu�#275;aw, knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers, 359; so with the acc., 2013; seolfa ne cū�urh hw岮.., he himself did not know through what..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cū� 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234. With both (acc. and depend. clause): nō hīe f壥r cunnon (scil. nō hīe cunnon) hw篥r him ǣnig w屠ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, 1356.—2) with inf. following, can, to be able: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, cannot defend himself, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, cannot say, 50; pret. sg. cū�eccan, 90; beorgan cū�1446; pret. pl. herian ne cū� could not praise, 182; pret. subj. healdan cū�2373.

cunnian, w. v., to inquire into, to try, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund cunnian (figurative for roam over the sea), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan higes cunnian, to try the young warrior's mind, 2046; pret. eard cunnode, tried the home, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, tried the flood, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cū�>, adj.: 1) known, well known; manifest, certain: nom. sg. undyrne cū�A href="#li150">150, 410; wīde cū�A href="#li2924">2924; acc. sg. fern. cū�olme, 1304; cū�trǣte, 1635; nom. pl. ecge cū�1146; acc. pl. cū�岳as, 1913.—2) renowned: nom. sg. gū�cū�A href="#li2179">2179; nom. pl. cystum cū�868.—3) also, friendly, dear, good (see un-cū�>).—Comp.: un-, wīd-cū�P>

cū�#299;ce, adv., openly, publicly: comp. nō hēr cū�299;cor cuman ongunnon lind-h塢ende, no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither (the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., murder, fall: in comp. dēa�alu.

cweccan (to make alive, see cwic), w. v., to move, to swing: pret. cwehte m妥n-wudu, swung the wood of strength (= spear), 235.

cwe�/A>, st. v., to say, to speak: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwi� bēore, speaks at beer-drinking, 2042.—b) w. acc.: pret. word 奴er cw箬 315; fēa worda cw箬 2247, 2663.—c) with �llowing: pret. sg. cw箬 92, 2159; pl. cwǣdon, 3182.—d) with �itted: pret. cw箠hē gū�ning sēcean wolde, said he would seek out the war-king, 199; similarly, 1811, 2940.

ā-cwe�/A>, to say, to speak, w. acc.: prs. �rd ācwy�I>speaks the word, 2047; pret. �rd ācw箬 655.

ge-cwe�/A>, to say, to speak: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swā �; gecwǣde, 2665.—b)w. acc.: pret. wēl-hwylc gecw箬 spoke everything, 875; pl. wit �cwǣdon, 535.—c) w. �llowing: pret. gecw箬 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (to make die), to kill, to murder: pret. sg. II. �; Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

ā-cwellan, to kill: pret. sg. (hē) wyrm ācwealde, 887; �e Grendel ǣr māne ācwealde, whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered, 1056; beorn ācwealde, 2122.

cwēn, st. f.: 1) wife, consort (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwēn, 62; (Hrō�257;r's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.—2) particularly denoting the queen: nom. sg. bēaghroden cwēn (Wealh�;ow), 624; mǣru cwēn, 2017; fremu folces cwēn (ݲȳ� 1933; acc. sg. cwēn (Wealh�;ow), 666.-Comp. folc-cwēn.

cwēn-līc, adj., feminine, womanly: nom. sg. ne bi�ylc cwēnlīc �;aw (such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., violent death, murder, destruction: acc. sg. �wealm gewr塬 avenged the death (of Abel by Cain), 107; mǣndon mondryhtnes cwealm, lamented the ruler's fall, 3150.—Comp.: bealo-, dēa�gār-cwealm.

cwealm-bealu, st. n., the evil of murder: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates murder: acc. sg. �wealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., quick, having life, alive: acc. sg. cwicne, 793, 2786; gen. sg. āht cwices, something living, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98; cwico w屠�; gēna, was still alive, 3094.

cwide, st. m., word, speech, saying: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hlēo-, word-cwide.

cwī�/A>, st. v., to complain, to lament: inf. w. acc. ongan ... giogu�wī�hilde-strengo, began to lament the (departed) battle-strength of his youth, 2113 [ceare] cwī� lament their cares, 3173.

cyme, st. m., coming, arrival: nom. pl. hwanan ēowre cyme syndon, whence your coming is, i. e. whence ye are, 257.—Comp. eft-cyme.

cȳmlīce, adv., (convenienter), splendidly, grandly: comp. cȳmlīcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., race, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage: nom. sg. Frēsena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena cyn, 421; gīganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811, 915, 1726; ēowrum (of those who desert Bēowulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen. sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mǣran cynnes, 1730; lā�cynnes, 2009, 2355; ūsses cynnes Wǣgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum, 98.—Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., that which is suitable or proper: gen. pl. cynna (of etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., innate, peculiar, natural: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dōm, st. m., kingdom, royal dignity: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., king: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning, 620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl. kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.—Comp. beorn-, eor�folc-, gu�hēah-, lēod-, sǣ-, sō��;od-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "nobly bold" (Thorpe), excellently brave (?): nom. pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., to kiss: pret. gecyste �; cyning ... �betstan, kissed the best thane (Bēowulf), 1871.

cyst (choosing, see cēosan), st. f., the select, the best of a thing, good quality, excellence: nom. sg. īrenna cyst, of the swords, 803, 1698; wǣpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, choice banquet, 1233; acc. sg. īrena cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cū�known through excellent qualities, 868; (cyning) cystum gecȳ� 924.—Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cȳ�>. See on-cȳ�>.

cȳ�/A> (see cū�>), w. v., to make known, to manifest, to show: imp. sg. m妥n-ellen cȳ� show thy heroic strength, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cȳ� 1941; ellen cȳ� 2696.

ge-cȳ�(to make known, hence): 1) to give information, to announce: inf. andsware gecȳ� to give answer, 354; gerund, tō gecȳ�e hwanan ēowre cyme syndon (to show whence ye come), 257; pret. part. sō� gecȳ��. (the truth has become known, it has shown itself to be true), 701; Higelāce w屠sī�#275;owulfes snūde gecȳ� the arrival of B. was quickly announced, 1972; similarly, 2325.—2) to make celebrated, in pret. part.: w屠mīn f壥r folcum gecȳ�(my father was known to warriors), 262; w屠his mōdsefa manegum gecȳ� 349; cystum gecȳ� 924.

cȳ�> (properly, condition of being known, hence relationship), st. f., home, country, land: in comp. feor-cȳ�P>

ge-cȳpan, w. v., to purchase: inf. n屠him ǣnig ��#275; ... �wyrsan wīgfrecan weor� gecȳpan, had need to buy with treasures no inferior warrior, 2497.

D

daro�>, st. m., spear: dat. pl. dare�lācan (to fight), 2849.

ge-dāl, st. n., parting, separation: nom. sg. his worulde gedāl, his separation from the world (his death), 3069.—Comp. ealdor-, līf-gedāl.

d奼/A>, st. m., day: nom. sg. d奬 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. d奬 2400; andlangne d奬 the whole day, 2116; morgenlongne d奠(the whole morning), 2895; o�#333;mes d奬 till judgment-day, 3070; dat. sg. on �;m d妥 � līfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. d妥s, 1601, 2321; hwīl d妥s, a day's time, a whole day, 1496; d妥s and nihtes, day and night, 2270; d妥s, by day, 1936; dat. pl. on tȳn dagum, in ten days, 3161.—Comp. ǣr-, dēa�ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geār-, lǣn-, līf-, swylt-, win-d奬 an-d妥s.

d奭hwīl, st. f., day-time: acc. pl. �#275; d妨wīla gedrogen h奤e eor�wynne, that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days (appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.—(After Grein.)

d奭rīm, st. n., series of days, fixed number of days: nom. sg. dōgera d妲īm (number of the days of his life), 824.

dǣd, st. f., deed, action: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585; dōmlēasan dǣd, 2891; frēcne dǣde, 890; dǣd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dǣda, 195; gen. pl. dǣda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dǣdum, 1228, 2437, etc.—Comp. ellen-, fyren-, lof-dǣd.

dǣd-cēne, adj., bold in deed: nom. sg. dǣd-cēne mon, 1646.

dǣd-fruma, w. m., doer of deeds, doer: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dǣd-bata, w. m., he who pursues with his deeds: nom. sg., of Grendel, 275.

dǣdla, w. m., doer: in comp. mān-for-dǣdla.

dǣl, st. m., part, portion: acc. sg. dǣl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl. dǣlas, 1733.—Often dǣl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality which belongs in general to an individual, as, o�t him on innan oferhygda dǣl weaxe�I>till in his bosom his portion of arrogance increases: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Bīowulfe wear�yhtmā�dǣl dēa�forgolden, to Bēowulf his part of the splendid treasures was paid with death, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dǣlan, w. v., to divide, to bestow, to share with, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. mādmas dǣle�A href="#li1757">1757; pres. subj. �#275; wi�257;glǣcean eofo�ǣle, that he bestow his strength upon (strive with) the bringer of misery the drake), 2535; inf. hringas dǣlan, 1971; pret. bēagas dǣlde, 80; sceattas dǣlde, 1687.

be-dǣlan, w. instr., (to divide), to tear away from, to strip of: pret. part. drēamum (drēame) bedǣled, deprived of the heavenly joys (of Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dǣlan: 1) to distribute: inf. (w. acc. of the thing distributed); bǣr on innan eall gedǣlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde, distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him, 71.—2) to divide, to separate, with acc.: inf. sundur gedǣlan līf wi�#299;ce, separate life from the body, 2423; so pret. subj. �#275; gedǣlde ... ānra gehwylces līf wi�#299;ce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., den, cave: acc. sg. �rmes denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewāt dennes nīosian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) proper, appropriate: nom. sg. swā hit gedēfe w屠(bi�as was appropriate, proper, 561, 1671, 3176.—2) good, kind, friendly; nom sg. bēo �; suna mīnum dǣdum gedēfe, be friendly to my son by deeds (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained to the government), 1228.—Comp. un-ge-dēfelīce.

dēman (see dōm), w. v.: 1) to judge, to award justly: pres. subj. mǣr�ēme, 688.—2) to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify: pret. pl. his ellenweorc dugu�dēmdon, praised his heroic deed with all their might, 3176.

dēmend, judge: dǣda dēmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. �72;�dealle, 494.

dēad, adj., dead: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. dēadne, 1310.

dēa�>, st. m., death, dying: nom. sg, dēa�A href="#li441">441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. dēa�A href="#li2169">2169; dat. sg. dēa�1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. dēa�wylm, 2270; dēa�nȳd, 2455.—Comp. gū�w媭, wundor-dēa�P>

dēa�d, st. n., death-bed: dat. sg. dēa�dde f岴, 2902.

dēa�alu, st. f., violent death, ruin and death: dat. pl. tō dēa�alum, 1713.

dēa�ealm, st. m., violent death, murder: nom. sg. 1671.

dēa�g, st. m., death-day, dying day: dat. sg. 奴er dēa�ge (after his death), 187, 886.

dēa�#483;ge, adj., given over to death: nom. sg. (Grendel) dēa�#483;ge dēog, had hidden himself, being given over to death (mortally wounded), 851.

dēa�ūa, w. m., death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death: nom. sg. deorc dēa�ūa (of Grendel), 160.

dēa�#275;rig, adj., weakened by death, i.e. dead: acc. sg. dēa�#275;rigne, 2126. See wērig.

dēa�#299;c, st. n. death's house, home of death: acc. sg. gewāt dēa�299;c sēon (had died), 1276.

dēagan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, hidden), to conceal one's self, to hide: pret. (for pluperf.) dēog, 851.—Leo.

deorc, adj., dark: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat. pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc dēa�ūa, 160.

dēofol, st. m. n., devil: gen. sg. dēofles, 2089; gen. pl. dēofla, of Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

dēogol, dȳgol, adj., concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information, unknown: nom. sg. dēogol dǣdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dȳgel lond, inaccessible land, 1358.

dēop, st. n., deep, abyss: acc. sg., 2550.

dēop, adv. deeply: acc. sg. dēop w峥r, 509, 1905.

dīope, adj., deep: hit o�#333;mes d奠dīope benemdon �;odnas mǣre, the illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a solemn spell upon it, 3070.

dēor, st. n., animal, wild animal: in comp. mere-, sǣ-dēor.

dēor, adj.: 1) wild, terrible: nom. sg. dīor dǣd-fruma (of Grendel), 2091.—2) bold, brave: nom. nǣnig ... dēor, 1934.—Comp.: hea� hilde-dēor.

dēore, dȳre, adj.: 1) dear, costly (high in price): acc. sg. dȳre īren, 2051; drincf岠dȳre (dēore), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. dēoran sweorde, 561; dat. sg. dēorum mā� 1529; nom. pl. dȳre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. dēore (dȳre) mā�, 2237, 3132.—2) dear, beloved, worthy: nom. sg. f., 篥lum dīore, worthy by reason of origin, 1950; dat. sg. 奴er dēorum men, 1880; gen. sg. dēorre dugu�488; superl. acc. sg. aldor�one dēorestan, 1310.

dēor-līc, adj., bold, brave: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585. See dēor.

disc, st. m., disc, plate, flat dish: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dīgan. See ge-dȳgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless audacity: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-līc, adj., audacious: gen. pl. mǣst ... dǣda dollīcra, 2647.

dol-scea�A>, w. m., bold enemy: acc. sg. �ol-sca�(Grendel), 479.

dōgor, st. m. n., day; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb āntīd ō� dōgores, at the same time of the next day, 219; morgen-lēoht ō� dōgores, the morning-light of the second day, 606.—2) day in the usual sense: acc. sg. n. �2;s dōgor, during this day, 1396; instr. �2; dōgore, 1798; forman dōgore, 2574; gen. pl. dōgora gehwām, 88; dōgra gehwylce, 1091; dōgera d妲im, the number of his days (the days of his life), 824.—3) day in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, in later days, times, 2201, 2393.—Comp. ende-dōgor.

dōgor-gerīm, st. n., series of days: gen. sg. w屠eall sceacen dōgor-gerīmes, the whole number of his days (his life) was past, 2729.

dōhtor, st. f., daughter: nom. acc. sg. dōhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982, etc.

dōm, st. m.: I., condition, state in general; in comp. cyne-, wis-dōm.—II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) judgment, judicial opinion: instr. sg. weotena dōme, according to the judgment of the Witan, 1099. 2) custom: 奴er dōme, according to custom, 1721. 3) court, tribunal: gen. sg. miclan dōmes, 979; o�#333;mes d奬 3070, both times of the last judgment.—III., condition of freedom or superiority, hence: 4) choice, free will: acc. sg. on sīnne sylfes dōm, according to his own choice, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dōme, 896, 2777. 5) might, power: nom. sg. dōm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ānne dōm, 2965; dat. sg. drihtnes dōme, 441. 6) glory, honor, renown: nom. sg. [dōm], 955; dōm unlȳtel, not a little glory, 886; �s forma sī�#275;orum mā��s dōm āl奬 it was the first time to the dear treasure (the sword Hrunting) that its fame was not made good, 1529; acc. sg. ic mē dōm gewyrce, make renown for myself, 1492; �#363; ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, that thou let not honor fall, 2667; dat. instr. sg. �;r hē dōme forlēas, here he lost his reputation, 1471; dōme gewur� adorned with glory, 1646; gen. sg. wyrce sē �333;te dōmes, let him make himself reputation, whoever is able, 1389. 7) splendor (in heaven): acc. sō�stra dōm, the glory of the saints, 2821.

dōm-lēas, adj., without reputation, inglorious: acc. sg. f. dōmlēasan dǣd, 2891.

dōn, red. v., to do, to make, to treat: 1) absolutely: imp. dō�ā ic bidde, do as I beg, 1232.—2) w. acc.: inf. hēt hire selfre sunu on bǣl dōn, 1117; pret. �; hē him of dyde īsernbyrnan, took off the iron corselet, 672; (� him Hūnlāfing, ... billa sēlest, on bearm dyde, when he made a present to him of Hūnlāfing, the best of swords, 1145; dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, took off the gold ring from his neck, 2810; nē him �rmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafo�d ellen, nor did he reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength, 2349; pl. hī on beorg dydon bēg and siglu, placed in the (grave-) mound rings and ornaments, 3165.—3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tō Gēatum sprec mildum wordum! swā sceal man dōn, as one should do, 1173; similarly, 1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum wēold, swā hē nū gīt dē�I>the creator ruled over all, as he still does, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.) 1135; pret. II. swā �; ǣr dydest, 1677; III. swā hē nū gȳt dyde, 957; similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swā hīe oft ǣr dydon, 1239; similarly, 3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wēn' ic �#275; wille ... Gēatena lēode etan unforhte, swā hē oft dyde m妥n Hrē�na, I believe he will wish to devour the Gēat people, the fearless, as he often did (devoured) the bloom of the Hrē�, 444; gif ic �fricge ... �c ymbesittend egesan �2;wa�wā �tende hwīlum dydon, that the neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee (i.e. distressed), 1829; gif ic ōwihte m奠�;nre mōd-lufan māran tilian �ic gȳt dyde, if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done, 1825; similarly, pl. ��; dydon, 44.

ge-dōn, to do, to make, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god) gedē�m swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas, makes the parts of the world (i.e. the whole world) so subject that ..., 1733; inf. nē hyne on medo-bence micles wyr�drihten wereda gedōn wolde, nor would the leader of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet, 2187. With adv.: hē mec �;r on innan ... gedōn wolde, wished to place me in there, 2091.

draca, w. m., drake, dragon: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403, 3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.—Comp.: eor�fȳr-, lēg-, līg-, nī�aca.

on-drǣdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., to fear, to be afraid of: inf. �#363; him on-drǣdan ne � ... aldorbealu, needest not fear death for them, 1675; pret. nō hē him �; s墣e ondrēd, was not afraid of the combat, 2348.

ge-dr奼/A> (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., demeanor, actions: acc. sg. sēcan dēofla gedr奬 757.

drepan, st. v., to hit, to strike: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferh�nī�, 2881; pret. part. bi� hre�... drepen biteran strǣle, struck in the breast with piercing arrow, 1746; w屠in feorh dropen (fatally hit), 2982.

drepe, st. m., blow, stroke: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drēfan, ge-drēfan, w. v., to move, to agitate, to stir up: inf. gewāt ... drēfan dēop w峥r (to navigate), 1905; pret. part. w峥r under stōd drēorig and gedrēfed, 1418.

drēam, st. m., rejoicing, joyous actions, joy: nom. sg. h嫥�rēam, 497; acc. sg. drēam hlūdne, 88; �; ... drēam healdende, thou who livest in rejoicing (at the drinking-carouse), who art joyous, 1228: dat. instr. sg. drēame bedǣled, 1276; gen. pl. drēama lēas, 851; dat. pl. drēamum (here adverbial) lifdon, lived in rejoicing, joyously, 99; drēamum bedǣled, 722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.—Comp. glēo-, gum-, man-, sele-drēam.

drēam-lēas, adj., without rejoicing, joyless: nom. sg. of King Heremōd, 1721.

drēogan, st. v.: 1) to lead a life, to be in a certain condition: pret. drēah 奴er dōme, lived in honor, honorably, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-� ongeat, �#299;e ǣr drugon aldorlēase lange hwile, (God) had seen the great distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler (?), 15.—2) to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy: imp. drēoh symbelwynne, pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal, 1783; inf. driht-scype drēogan (do a heroic deed), 1471; pret. sundnytte drēah (had the occupation of swimming, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361; pret. pl. hīe gewin drugon (fought), 799; hī sī�ugon, made the way, went, 1967.—3) to experience, to bear, to suffer: scealt werh�rēogan, shall suffer damnation, 590; pret. �orge drēah, bore sorrow for his heroes, 131; nearo� drēah, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge �; hīe ǣr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

ā-drēogan, to suffer, to endure: inf. wrǣc ādrēogan, 3079.

ge-drēogan, to live through, to enjoy, pret. part. �#275; ... gedrogen h奤e eor�wynne, that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth (i.e. that he was at his death), 2727.

drēor, st. m., blood dropping or flowing from wounds: instr. sg. drēore, 447.—Comp. heoru-, sāwul-, w媭drēor.

drēor-fāh, adj., colored with blood, spotted with blood: nom. sg. 485.

drēorig, adj., bloody, bleeding: nom. sg. w峥r stōd drēorig, 1418; acc. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.—Comp. heoru-drēorig.

ge-drēosan, st. v., to fall down, to sink: pres. sg. III. līc-homa lǣne gedrēose�I>the body, belonging to death, sinks down, 1755; inf. �#363; ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, honor fall, sink, 2667.

drincan, st. v., to drink (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom. pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blōd ēdrum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wīn weras, the men drank wine, 1234; �;r guman druncon, where the men drank, 1649. The pret. part., when it stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, ye warriors who have drunk, are drinking, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slōg heor�nēatas, slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him, i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means drunken: nom. sg. bēore (wīne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. bēore druncne, 480.

drīfan, st. v., to drive: pres. pl. �; �ntingas ofer flōda genipu feorran drīfa�I>who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness of the sea, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) �;ah �275; [ne] meahte on mere drīfan hringedstefnan, although he could not drive the ship on the sea, 1131.

to-drīfan, to drive apart, to disperse: pret. o�t unc flōd tōdrāf, 545.

drohto�>, st. m., mode of living or acting, calling, employment: nom. sg. ne w屠his drohto��;r swylce hē ǣr gemētte, there was no employment for him (Grendel) there such as he had found formerly, 757.

drūsian, w. v. (cf. drēosan, properly, to be ready to fall; here of water), to stagnate, to be putrid. pret. lagu drūsade (through the blood of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., company, troop, band of warriors; noble band: in comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., troop, band of noble warriors: nom. sg. mīnra eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. 篥linga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (h嫥�gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.—Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man: nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., commander, lord: a) temporal lord: nom. sg. dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.; dryhten, 1832.—b) God: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat. sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441; drihtnes, 941.—Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior: dat. sg. drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrō�257;r's warriors).

dryht-līc, adj., (that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble, excellent: dryhtlīc īren, excellent sword, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an acc. sg. n.) drihtlīce wīf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-mā�/A>, st. m., excellent jewel, splendid treasure: gen. pl. dryhtmā� 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., (lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed: acc. sg. drihtscype drēogan, to do a heroic deed, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., excellent, splendid hall: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485; dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., peace or friendship between troops of noble warriors: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., drink: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-f岼/A>, st. n., vessel for drink, to receive the drink: acc. sg., 2255; drinc-f岬 2307.

drysmian, w. v., to become obscure, gloomy (through the falling rain): pres. sg. III. lyft drysma�A href="#li1376">1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., to avail, to be capable, to be good: pres. sg. III. hūru se aldor dēah, especially is the prince capable, 369; �e his ellen dēah, if his strength avails, is good, 573; �; him selfa dēah, who is capable of himself, who can rely on himself, 1840; pres. subj. �;ah �;n wit duge, though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail, 590; similarly, 1661, 2032; pret. sg. �; ūs wēl dohtest, you did us good, conducted yourself well towards us, 1822; similarly, nū sēo hand lige�#275; �75;ow welhwylcra wilna dohte, which was helpful to each one of your desires, 1345; pret. subj. �;ah �; hea�#483;sa gehwǣr dohte, though thou wast everywhere strong in battle, 526.

dugu�> (state of being fit, capable), st. f.: 1) capability, strength: dat. pl. for duge� in ability(?), 2502; dugu�dēmdon, praised with all their might(?), 3176.—2) men capable of bearing arms, band of warriors, esp., noble warriors: nom. sg. dugu�lȳtel, 498; dugu�A href="#li1791">1791, 2255; dat. sg. for dugu�before the heroes, 2021; nalles fr峷e geaf ealdor dugu�gave the band of heroes no treasure (more), 2921; lēoda dugu�n lāst, upon the track of the heroes of the people, i.e. after them, 2946; gen. sg. cū�ē dugu�ēaw, the custom of the noble warriors, 359; dēorre dugu�488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. dugu�2036.—3) contrasted with geogo�ugu�signates the noted warriors of noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so gen. sg. dugu�nd geogo�160; gehwylc ... dugu�nd iogo�1675; dugu�nd geogo�ǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. to dare; prs. sg. II. �; dearst bīdan, darest to await, 527; III. hē gesēcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sēc gyf �; dyrre, seek (Grendel's mother), if thou dare, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469, etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., door, gate, wicket: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dūfan, st. v., to dip in, to sink into: pret. �eord gedēaf (the sword sank into the drake, of a blow), 2701.

�ūfan, to dive through; to swim through, diving: pret. w峥r up �ēaf, swam through the water upwards (because he was before at the bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., to mislead, to hinder: prs. III. nō hine wiht dwele�#257;dl nē yldo, him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., useful, good for: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig, 1288.

dynnan, w. v., to sound, to groan, to roar: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu, hrūse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) concealed, secret, retired: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg. dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.—2) secret, malicious, hidden by sorcery: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cr奴e, with secret magic art, 2291; dyrnum cr奴e, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta, of malicious spirits (of Grendel's kin), 1358.—Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., in secret, secretly: him ...奴er dēorum men dyrne langa�I>longs in secret for the dear man, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., bold, daring: �;ah �275; dǣda gehw屠dyrstig wǣre, although he had been courageous for every deed, 2839.

ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., to endure, to overcome, with the acc. of the thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif �; �lenweorc aldre gedīgest, if thou survivest the heroic work with thy life, 662; III. �ne hilderǣs hāl gedīge�I>that he survives the battle in safety, 300; similarly, inf. unfǣge gedīgan wēan and wr墳ī�A href="#li2293">2293; hw篥r sēl mǣge wunde gedȳgan, which of the two can stand the wounds better (come off with life), 2532; ne meahte unbyrnende dēop gedȳgan, could not endure the deep without burning (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III. ge-dīgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dȳgol. See dēogol.

dȳre. See dēore.

E

ecg, st. f., edge of the sword, point: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg, 1525, etc.; acc. sg. wi�d and wi�ge ingang forstōd, defended the entrance against point and edge (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550; mēces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146Sword, battle-axe, any cutting weapon: nom. sg. ne w屠ecg bona (not the sword killed him), 2507; sīo ecg brūn (Bēowulf's sword N妬ing), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, the sword snatched him away, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. 岣um and ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) ēacnum ecgum, 2141; gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169blade: ecg w屠īren, 1460.—Comp.: brūn-, heard-, stȳl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., murderer by the sword: dat. sg. Cain wear�#333; ecg-banan āngan brē� 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out: nom. sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-�/A>, st. f., sword-storm (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-� 597.

ed-hwyrft, st. m., return (of a former condition): �; �;r sōna wear�hwyrft eorlum, si񯠮 inne fealh Grendles mōdor (i.e. after Grendel's mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., to turn back, to yield, to leave off: inf. gyf him edwendan ǣfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, if for him the affliction of evil should ever cease, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., turning, change: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden torna gehwylces (reparation for former neglect), 2189.

edwīt-līf, st. n., life in disgrace: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., even, like, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., upon the same level, near: him on efn lige�ldorgewinna, lies near him, 2904.

efnan (see 奮an) w. v., to carry out, to perform, to accomplish: pres. subj. eorlscype efne (accomplish knightly deeds), 2536; inf. eorlscipe efnan, 2623; sweorda gelāc efnan (to battle), 1042; gerund. tō efnanne, 1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., even, exactly, precisely, just, united with swā or swylc: efne swā swī�wā, just so much as, 1093; efne swā sīde swā, 1224; w屠se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā, by so much the less as ..., 1284; lēoht inne stōd efne swā ... scīne�I>a gleam stood therein (in the sword) just as when ... shines, 1572; efne swā hwylc m娰a swā �agan cende (a woman who has borne such a son), 944; efne swā hwylcum manna swā him gemet �;hte, to just such a man as seemed good to him, 3058; efne swylce mǣla swylce ... �gesǣlde, just at the times at which necessity commanded it, 1250.

efstan, w. v., to be in haste, to hasten: inf. uton nū efstan, let us hurry now, 3102; pret. efste mid elne, hastened with heroic strength, 1494.

eft, adv.: l) thereupon, afterwards: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sōna bi�I>then it happens immediately, 1763; bōt eft cuman, help come again, 281.—2) again, on the other side: �ne on ylde eft gewunigen wilgesī� that in old age again (also on their side) willing companions should be attached to him, 22anew, again: 135, 604, 693, 1557, etc.; eft swā ǣr, again as formerly, 643.—3) retro, rursus, back: 123, 296, 854, etc.; �g 篥linges eft ne wēndon (did not believe that he would come back), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., return: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sī�>, st. m., journey back, return: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sī�georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsī�tēah, went the road back, i.e. returned, 1333.

egesa, egsa (state of terror, active or passive): l) frightfulness: acc. sg. �gsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gȳme�I>cares for nothing terrible, is not troubled about future terrors(?), 1758.—2) terror, horror, fear: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.—Comp.: glēd-, līg-, w峥r-egesa.

eges-full, adj., horrible (full of fear, fearful), 2930.

eges-līc, adj., terrible, bringing terror: of Grendel's head, 1650; of the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., causing aversion, hideous: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably, perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., to have terror, distress: pret. (as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., to esteem, to make prominent with praise: III. pl. pres. �#275; ... weras ehtiga�I>that thee men shall esteem, praise, 1223.

elde (those who generate, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the pl., men: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, among men, 2612.—See ylde.

eldo, st. f., age: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., foreign land, exile: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan, (shall be banished), 3020.

ellen, st. n., strength, heroic strength, bravery: nom. sg. ellen, 573; eafo�d ellen, 903; Gēata ... eafo�d ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafo�d ellen, 2350; ellen cȳ� show bravery, 2696; ellen fremedon, exercised heroic strength, did heroic deeds, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlīc ellen, 638; ferh ellen wr塬 life drove out the strength, i.e. with the departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. �; w屠岠�;m geongum grim andswaru ē�ēte �;m �83;r his elne forlēas, then it was easy for (every one of) those who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young man (Wīglāf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense, strongly, zealously, and with the nearly related meaning, hurriedly, transiently, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes l岬 1530; �; him w屠elnes � 2877.—Comp. m妥n-ellen.

ellen-dǣd, st. f., heroic deed: dat. pl. -dǣdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gǣst, st. m., strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength: nom. sg. of Grendel, 86.

ellen-līce, adv., strongly, with heroic strength, 2123.

ellen-mǣr�A>, st. f., renown of heroic strength, dat. pl. -mǣr� 829, 1472.

ellen-rōf, adj., renowned for strength: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl. -rōfum, 1788.

ellen-sēoc, adj., infirm in strength: acc. sg. �;oden ellensīocne (the mortally wounded king, Bēowulf), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (strength-work), heroic deed, achievement in battle: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., else, otherwise: a (modal), in another manner, 2521.—b (local), elles hwǣr, somewhere else, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., to some other place, 55, 2255.

ellor-gāst, -gǣst, st. m., spirit living elsewhere (standing outside of the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgāst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's mother), 1622; ellorgǣst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgǣstas, 1350.

ellor-sī�>, st. m., departure, death: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius), another: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-�;odig, adj., of another people: foreign: acc. pl. el-�;odige men, 336.

ende, st. m., the extreme: hence, 1) end: nom. sg. aldres (līfes) ende, 823, 2845; o�t ende becwōm (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende līfgesceafta (līfes, lǣn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; h奤e eor�afa ende genyttod, had used the end of the earth-caves (had made use of the caves for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (līfes) 岠ende, 2791, 2824; eoletes 岠ende, 224.—2) boundary: acc. sg. sīde rīce �#275; his selfa ne m奠... ende ge�n, the wide realm, so that he himself cannot comprehend its boundaries, 1735.—3) summit, head: dat. sg. eorlum on ende, to the nobles at the end (the highest courtiers), 2022.—Comp. woruld-ende.

ende-d奼/A>, st. m., last day, day of death: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dōgor, st. m., last day, day of death: gen. sg. bēga on wēnum endedōgores and eftcymes lēotes monnes (hesitating between the belief in the death and in the return of the dear man), 2897.

ende-lāf, st. f., last remnant: nom. sg. �; eart ende-lāf ūsses cynnes, art the last of our race, 2814.

ende-lēan, st. n., final reparation: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sǣta, w. m., he who sits on the border, boundary-guard: nom. sg. (here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-st夼/A>, st. m. (elementum finis), end: acc. sg. hit on endest夠eft gelimpe�I>then it draws near to the end, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., to end: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., narrow: acc. pl. enge ānpa� narrow paths, 1411.

ent, st. m., giant: gen. pl. enta ǣr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718; eald-enta ǣr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., coming from giants: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., to eat, to consume: pres. sg. III. blōdig w媠... ete�257;n-genga, he that goes alone (Grendel) will devour the bloody corpse, 448; inf. Gēatena lēode ... etan, 444.

�tan, to eat through: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... �one, swords eaten through (by rust), 3050.

Ē

ēc. See ēac.

ēce, adj., everlasting; nom. ēce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. ēce eor�ed, the everlasting earth-hall (the dragon's cave), 2720; gecēas ēcne rǣd, chose the everlasting gain (died), 1202; dat. sg. ēcean dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. gecēos ēce rǣdas, 1761.

ēdre. See ǣdre.

ē�gēte, adj., easy to obtain, ready: nom. sg. �; w屠岠�;m geongum grim andswaru ē�gēte, then from the young man (Wīglāf) it was an easy thing to get a gruff answer, 2862.

ē�A>. See ēa�A>.

ē�/A>, st. m., hereditary possessions, hereditary estate: acc. sg. swǣsne ē� 520; dat. sg. on ē� 1731.—In royal families the hereditary possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. ē�Scyldinga, of the kingdom of the Scyldings, 914; (Offa) wīsdōme hēold ē�sīnne, ruled with wisdom his inherited kingdom, 1961.

ē�riht, st. n., hereditary privileges (rights that belong to a hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard ē�riht, estate and inherited privileges, 2199.

ē�stōl, st. m., hereditary seat, inherited throne: acc. pl. ē�stōlas, 2372.

ē�turf, st. f., inherited ground, hereditary estate: dat. sg. on mīnre ē�yrf, 410.

ē�weard, st. m., lord of the hereditary estate (realm): nom. sg. ē�eard (king), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Ēast-Dena ē�wearde (King Hrō�257;r), 617.

ē�wyn, st. f., joy in, or enjoyment of, hereditary possessions: nom. sg. nū sceal ... eall ē�yn ēowrum cynne, lufen ālicgean, now shall your race want all home-joy, and subsistence(?) (your race shall be banished from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. hē mē lond forgeaf, eard ē�yn, presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home, 2494.

ē�sȳne, ȳ�sēne, adj., easy to see, visible to all: nom. sg. 1111, 1245.

ēg-clif, st. n., sea-cliff: acc. sg. ofer ēg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

ēg-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, sea-flood: dat. pl. on ēg-strēamum, in the sea-floods, 577. See ēagor-strēam.

ēhtan (M.H.G. ǣchten; cf. ǣht and ge-姴la), w. v. w. gen., to be a pursuer, to pursue: pres. part. ǣglǣca ēhtende w屠dugu�nd geogo�159; pret. pl. ēhton āglǣcan, they pursued the bringer of sorrow (Bēowulf)(?), 1513.

ēst, st. m. f., favor, grace, kindness: acc. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara and mā�(honored him with horses and jewels), 2166; gearwor h奤e āgendes ēst ǣr gescēawod, would rather have seen the grace of the Lord (of God) sooner, 3076.—dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce hēold, ēstum mid āre, 2379; ēstum geȳwan (to present), 2150; him w屠... wunden gold ēstum geēawed (presented), 1195; wē �lenweorc ēstum miclum fremedon, 959.

ēste, adj., gracious: w. gen. ēste bearn-gebyrdo, gracious through the birth (of such a son as Bēowulf), 946.

EA

eafo�>, st. n., power, strength: nom, sg. eafo�d ellen, 603, 903; acc. sg. eafo�d ellen, 2350; wē frēcne genē� eafo�cū� we have boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy (Grendel) have withstood him, 961; gen. sg. eafo�cr奴ig, 1467; �c ādl o񯣠ecg eafo�getwǣfed, shall rob of strength, 1764; dat. pl. hine mihtig god ... eafe�stēpte, made him great through strength, 1718.

eafor, st. m., boar; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg. eafor, 2153.

eafora (offspring), w. m.: 1) son: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora, 375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan, 2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.—2) in broader sense, successor: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., eight: acc. pl. eahta mēaras, 1036; ēode eahta sum, went as one of eight, with seven others, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) to consider; to deliberate: pret. pl. w. acc. rǣd eahtedon, consulted about help, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) �ēlestan �;ra � Hrō�257;re hām eahtode, the best one of those who with Hrō�257;r deliberated about their home (ruled), 1408.—2) to speak with reflection of (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan eorlscipe, spoke of his noble character, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., all, whole: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal benc�486; sg. eall ē�yn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; �t wear�l gearo, heal屮a mǣst, 77; �t (wīgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a following genitive: �;r w屠eal geador Grendles grāpe, there was all together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel, 836; eall ... lissa, all favor, 2150; w屠eall sceacen dōgorgerīmes, 2728. With apposition: �;hte him eall tō rūm, wongas and wīcstede, 2462; acc. sg. bēot eal, 523; similarly, 2018, 2081; oncȳ񯣠ealle, all distress, 831; heals ealne, 2692; hlǣw ... ealne ūtan-weardne, 2298; gif hē �l gemon, 1186, 2428; �ll geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wīde-ferh�I>through the whole wide life, through all time, 1223; instr. sg. ealle m妥ne, with all strength, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic �lles m奠... gefēan habban, 2740; brūc ealles well, 2163; frēan ealles �ecge, give thanks to the Lord of all, 2795; nom. pl. untȳdras ealle, 111; scēotend ... ealle, 706; wē ealle, 942; acc. pl. fēond ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst. ofer ealle, 650; ealle hīe dēa�rnam, 2237; līg ealle forswealg �;ra �483;r gū�rnam, all of those whom the war had snatched away, 1123; dat. pl. eallum ceaster-būendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. āna wi�llum, one against all, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen. pl. 篥linga bearn ealra twelfa, the kinsmen of all twelve nobles (twelve nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. hē āh ealra geweald, has power over all, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal �#333;d flǣschoman, the battle-axe cleft the body through and through, 1568; h奤e ... eal gefeormod fēt and folma, had devoured entirely feet and hands, 745; sē �l geman gār-cwealm gumena, who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: �;ah ic eal mǣge, although I am entirely able, 681; hī on beorg dydon bēg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, they placed in the grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments, 3165.—The gen. sg. ealles, adverbial in the sense of entirely, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., old: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357, 1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes ūhtflogan (dragon), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.—b) of things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ōmig, 2764; acc. sg. ealde lāfe (sword), 796, 1489; ealde wīsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559, 1664, etc.; eald gewin, old (lasting years), distress, 1782; eald enta geweorc (the precious things in the drake's cave), 2775; acc. pl. ealde mā�, 472; ofer ealde riht, against the old laws (namely, the Ten Commandments; Bēowulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. older: mīn yldra mǣg, 468; yldra brō� 1325; o�t hē (Heardrēd) yldra wear�A href="#li2379">2379.

yldesta, superl. oldest, in the usual sense; dat. sg. �;m yldestan, 2436; in a moral sense, the most respected: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg. �ldestan, 363, both times of Bēowulf.

eald-f壥r, st. m., old-father, grandfather, ancestor: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., traditions from old times: gen. pl. eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many of the old traditions, 870.

eald-gesī�>, st. m., companion ever since old times, courtier for many years: nom. pl. eald-gesī� 854.

eald-gestrēon, st. n., treasure out of the old times: dat. pl. eald-gestrēonum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., old-enemy, enemy for many years: nom. sg. of Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., merit on account of services rendered during many years: nom. pl. �#483;ron eald-gewyrht, �#275; āna scyle gnorn �n, that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the distress alone, 2658.

eald-hlāford, st. m., lord through many years: gen. sg. bill eald-hlāfordes (of the old Bēowulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., God ruling ever since ancient times: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., lord, chief (king or powerful noble): nom. sg. ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat. sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., life: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448, 1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stōd herestrǣl hearda (in vitalibus), 1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not troubled about his life, 1443; of ealdre gewāt, went out of life, died, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681, etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444; aldres orwēna, despairing of life, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, having forfeited life, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nē�, 510, 538.—Phrases: on aldre (in life), ever, 1780; tō aldre (for life), always, 2006, 2499; āwa tō aldre, for ever and ever, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., life's evil: acc. sg. �; ... ondrǣdan ne � ... aldorbealu eorlum, thou needest not fear death for the courtiers, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., trouble that endangers life, great trouble: dat. sg. hē his lēodum wear�. tō aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., days of one's life: dat. pl. nǣfre on aldor-dagum (never in his life), 719; on ealder-dagum ǣr (in former days), 758.

ealdor-gedāl, st. n., severing of life, death, end: nom. sg. aldor-gedāl, 806.

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's life (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg. ealdorgewinna (the dragon), 2904.

ealdor-lēas, adj., without a ruler(?): nom. pl. aldor-lēase, 15.

ealdor-lēas, adj., lifeless, dead: acc. sg. aldor-lēasne, 1588; ealdor-lēasne, 3004.

ealdor-�A>, st. m., nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier: acc. sg. aldor-�Hrō�257;r's confidential adviser, ųchere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., very much: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many old traditions, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., to shield, to defend, to protect: inf. w. acc. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. si񯠮 hē (Hygelāc) under segne sinc eal-gode, w嫲ēaf werede, while under his banner he protected the treasures, defended the spoil of battle (i.e. while he was upon the Viking expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., all golden, entirely of gold: nom. sg. swȳn ealgylden, 1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-īrenne, adj., entirely of iron: acc. sg. eall-īrenne wīgbord, a wholly iron battle-shield, 2339.

ealu, st. n., ale, beer: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale: dat. sg. in ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., terror, under the figure of a mishap at an ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum eallum wear�. ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wǣge, st. n., ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured into the cups: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowǣge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowǣge (at the ale-carouse), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., all ruling (God): nom. sg. f壥r alwalda, 316; alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate; in a broader sense, ground in general, abode, place of sojourn: nom. sg. him w屠bām ... lond gecynde, eard ē�riht, the land was bequeathed to them both, the land and the privileges attached to it. 2199; acc. sg. fīfel-cynnes eard, the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn, 104; similarly, 嫷ihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, thought of his native ground, his home, 1130; eard gīt ne const, thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn. 1378; eard and eorlscipe, prǣdium et nobilitatem, 1728; eard ē�yn, land and the enjoyment of home, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, went elsewhere from his place of abode, i.e. died, 56; �#275; rondas beren eft tō earde, that we go again to our homes, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl. ēacne eardas, the broad expanses (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest: pret. pl. dȳre swyrd swā hīe wi�r� f篭 �;r eardodon, costly swords, as they had rested in the earth's bosom, 3051.—2) also transitively, to inhabit: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wīc eardian elles hwergen, inhabit a place elsewhere (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., the living upon one's land, home-life: acc. sg. eard-lufan, 693.

earfo�>, st. n., trouble, difficulty, struggle: acc. pl. earfe�534.

earfo�#299;ce, adv., with trouble, with difficulty, 1637, 1658; with vexation, angrily, 86; sorrowfully, 2823; with difficulty, scarcely, 2304, 2935.

earfo�āg, st. f., time full of troubles, sorrowful time: acc. sg. -�7;ge, 283.

earh, adj., cowardly: gen. sg. ne bi�ylc earges sī�I>no coward undertaken that), 2542.

earm, st. m., arm: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wi�rm ges岬 supported himself with his arm, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., poor, miserable, unhappy: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides, the unhappy woman, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, the unhappy band, 2939.—Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, a more wretched, more forsaken man, 577.

earm-bēag, st. m., arm-ring, bracelet: gen. pl. earm-bēaga fela searwum gesǣled, many arm-rings interlaced, 2764.

earm-hrēad, st. f., arm-ornament. nom. pl. earm-hrēade twā, 1195 (Grein's conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-līc, adj., wretched, miserable: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedāl earmlīc wur� his end should be wretched, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (properly, wretched by the decree of fate), wretched: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., eagle: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., shoulder: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817, 1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, the woman sobbed on the shoulder (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl. s岠frēan eaxlum nēah, sat near the shoulders of his lord (Bēowulf lies lifeless upon the earth, and Wīglāf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes (i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., he who has his position at the shoulder (sc. of his lord), trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince: nom. sg. 1327; acc. pl. -gesteallan, 1715.

ĒA

ēac, conj., also: 97, 388, 433, etc.; ēc, 3132.

ēacen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., wide-spread, large: nom. pl. ēacne eardas, broad plains, 1622great, heavy: eald sweord ēacen, 1664; dat. pl. ēacnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great sword in Grendel's habitation.—great, mighty, powerful: 篥le and ēacen, of Bēowulf, 198.

ēacen-cr奴ig, adj., immense (of riches), enormously great: acc. sg. hord-屮a sum ēacen-cr奴ig, that enormous treasure-house, 2281; nom. sg. �fe ēacen-cr奴ig, iūmonna gold, 3052.

ēadig, adj., blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property: nom. sg. wes, � �; lifige, 篥ling ēadig, be, as long as thou livest, a prince blessed with riches, 1226; ēadig mon, 2471.—Comp. sige-, sigor-, tīr-ēadig.

ēadig-līce, adv., in abundance, in joyous plenty: drēamum lifdon ēadiglīce, lived in rejoicing and plenty, 100.

ēa�ē�ȳ�A>, adj., easy, pleasant: nom. pl. gode �on � him ȳ�#257;de ēa�urdon, thanked God that the sea-ways (the navigation) had become easy to them, 228; ne w屠�275;�ī�I>no pleasant way, 2587; n屠�#772;�ēap, no easy purchase, 2416; nō �#772;�y�#333; beflēonne, not easy (as milder expression for in no way, not at all), 1003.

ēa�ȳ�adv., easily. ēa�478, 2292, 2765.

ēa�nde, adj., easy to find: nom. sg. 138.

ēage, w. n., eye: dat. pl. him of ēagum stōd lēoht unfǣger, out of his eyes came a terrible gleam, 727; � ... ēagum starige, see with eyes, behold, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.

ēagor-strēam, st. m., sea-stream sea: acc. sg. 513.

ēa-land, st. n., land surrounded by water (of the land of the Gēatas): acc. sg. ēa-lond, 2335; island.

ēam, st. m., uncle, mothers brother: nom. sg. 882.

ēastan, adv., from the east, 569.

ēawan, w. v., to disclose, to show, to prove: pres. sg. III. ēawe�. uncū�nī�I>shows evil enmity, 276. See ēowan, ȳwan.

ge-ēawan, to show, to offer: pret. part. him w屠... wunden gold ēstum ge-ēawed, was graciously presented, 1195.

EO

ēode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., fence, hedge, railing. Among the old Germans, an estate was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself. Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of house: acc. pl. heht eahta mēaras on flet tēon, in under eoderas, gave orders to lead eight steeds into the hall, into the house, 1038.—2) figuratively, lord, prince, as protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofo�>, st. n., strength: acc. pl. eofo�2535. See eafo�>.

eofer, st. m.: 1) boar, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet: nom. sg. eofer īrenheard, 1113.—2) figuratively, bold hero, brave fighter (O.N. i�): nom. pl. �... eoferas cnysedan, when the heroes rushed upon each other, 1329, where eoferas and fē�stand in the same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-līc, st. n. boar-image (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-līc scionon, 303.

eofor-sprēot, st. m., boar-spear: dat. pl. mid eofer-sprēotum hēoro-hōcyhtum, with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks, 1438.

eogu�ogu�>. See geogo�>.

eolet, st. m. n., sea(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stān, st. m., precious stone: acc. pl. -stānas, 1209.

eor�ning, st. m., king of the land: gen. sg. eor�ninges (Finn), 1156.

eor�aca, w. m., earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth: nom. sg. 2713, 2826.

eor�A>, w. f.: 1) earth (in contrast with heaven), world: acc. sg. 嫭ihtiga eor�worhte, 92; wīde geond eor� far over the earth, through the wide world, 266; dat. sg. ofer eor� 248, 803; on eor� 1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eor� 753.—2) earth, ground: acc. sg. hē eor�gefēoll, fell to the ground, 2835; forlēton eorla gestrēon eor�healdan, let the earth hold the nobles' treasure, 3168; dat. sg. �t on eor�l奬 1533; under eor� 2416; gen. sg. wi�r�f篭 (in the bosom of the earth), 3050.

eor�ced, st. n., hall in the earth, rock-hall: acc. sg. 2720.

eor�r夼/A>, st. n., earth-cavern, cave: dat. sg. eor�cr奥], 2233; gen. pl. eor�r奥, 3047.

eor�le, st. m., hall in the earth, cave: acc. sg. eor�le, 2411; dat sg. of eor�e, 2516.

eor�all, st. m., earth-wall: acc. sg. (Ongen�;ow) bēah eft under eor�ll, fled again under the earth-wall (into his fortified camp), 2958; �; mē w屠... sī�257;lȳfed inn under eor�ll, then the way in, under the earth-wall was opened to me (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eor�ard, st. m., land-property, estate: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., noble born man, a man of the high nobility: nom. sg. 762, 796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983, 1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.; gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.—Since the king himself is from the stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestrēon, st. n., wealth of the nobles: gen. pl. eorl-gestrēona ... hardfyrdne dǣl, 2245.

eorl-gewǣde, st. n., knightly dress, armor: dat. pl. -gewǣdum, 1443.

eorlīc (i.e. eorl-līc), adj., what it becomes a noble born man to do, chivalrous: acc. sg. eorlīc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature, nobility: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, to do chivalrous deeds, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., followers of nobles: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., very extensive race, mankind: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes, 1958.

eormen-grund, st. m., immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth: acc. sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lāf, st. f., enormous legacy: acc. sg. eormen-lāfe 篥lan cynnes (the treasures of the dragon's cave) 2235.

eorre, adj., angry, enraged: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) giant: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg. uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.—2) Eotens, subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., gigantic, coming from giants: acc. sg. eald sweord eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.

ĒO

ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., warlike adornments: acc. pl., 2867.

ēowan, w. v., to show, to be seen: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ōhwǣr, ecghete ēowe�I>nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate, 1739. See ēawan, ȳwan.

ēower: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: ēower sum, that one of you (namely, Bēowulf), 248; fǣh�#275;ower lēode, the enmity of the people of you (of your people), 597; nis �275;ower sī�. nefne mīn ānes, 2533.—2) poss. pron., your, 251, 257, 294, etc.

F

ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., to try, to search for, to find out, to experience: w. gen. pret. part. �h奤e gumena sum goldes gefandod, that a man had discovered the gold, 2302; �se ān hafa�rh deā�nȳd dǣda gefondad, now the one (Herebeald) has with death's pang experienced the deeds (the unhappy bow-shot of H篣yn), 2455.

fara, w. m., farer, traveller: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., to move from one place to another, to go, to wander: inf. tō hām faran, to go home, 124; lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 865; cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land, had come to Friesland with a fleet, 2916; cōm lēoda dugo�n lāst faran, came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people, i.e. to follow them, 2946; gerund wǣron 篥lingas eft tō lēodum fūse tō farenne, the nobles were ready to go again to their people, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum fōr [�;] ofer myrcan mōr, there had (Grendel's mother) gone away over the dark fen, 1405; sǣgenga fōr, the seafarer (the ship) drove along, 1909; (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, (the dragon) fled away with fire, 2309; pret. pl. �. scawan scīrhame tō scipe fōron, that the visitors in glittering attire betook themselves to the ship, 1896.

gefaran, to proceed, to act: inf. hū se mānscea�nder fǣrgripum gefaran wolde, how he would act in his sudden attacks, 739.

ūt faran, to go out: w. acc. lēt of brēostum ... word ūt faran, let words go out of his breast, uttered words, 2552.

faro�>, st. m., stream, flood of the sea, shore, strand, edge: dat. sg. tō brimes faro�28; 奴er faro�with the stream, 580; 岠faro�1917.

faru, st. f., way, passage, expedition: in comp. ād-faru.

fācen-st夼/A> (elementum nequitiae), st. m., wickedness, treachery, deceit. acc. pl. fācen-stafas, 1019.

fāh, fāg, adj., many-colored, variegated, of varying color (especially said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of light are refracted): nom. sg. fāh (covered with blood), 420; blōde fāh, 935; ātertānum fāh (sc. īren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to ātertēarum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fāh (saddle artistically ornamented with gold), 1039; sweord swāte fāh, 1287; brim blōde fāh, 1595; w嫤rēore fāg, 1632; (draca) fȳrwylmum fāh (because he spewed flame), 2672; sweord fāh and fǣted, 2702; blōde fāh, 2975; acc. sg. drēore fāhne, 447; goldsele fǣttum fāhne, 717; on fāgne flōr treddode, trod the shining floor (of Heorot), 726; hrōf golde fāhne, the roof shining with gold, 928; nom. pl. eoforlīc ... fāh and fȳr-beard, 305; acc. pl. �; hilt since fāge, 1616; dat. pl. fāgum sweordum, 586.—Comp. bān-, blōd-, brūn-, drēor-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stān-, swāt-, w媭, wyrm-fāh.

fāh, fāg, fā, adj.: 1) hostile: nom. sg. fāh fēond-sca�554; hē w屠fāg wi�d (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fāne (the dragon), 2656; gen. pl. fāra, 578, 1464.—2) liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed: nom. sg. fāg, 1264; māne fāh, outlawed through crime, 979; fyren-dǣdum fāg, 1002.—Comp. nearo-fāh.

fāmig-heals, adj., with foaming neck: nom. sg. flota fāmig-heals, 218; (sǣgenga) fāmig-heals, 1910.

f塼/A>, st. n., period of time: acc. sg. lȳtel f塬 during a short time, 2241.

f壥r, st. m., father: nom. sg. f壥r, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610; f壥r alwalda, 316; acc. sg. f壥r, 1356; dat. sg. f壥r, 2430; gen. sg. f壥r, 21, 1480; of God, 188—Comp.: ǣr, eald-f壥r.

f壥ra, w. m., father's brother in comp. suhter-gef壥ran.

f壥r-篥lo, st. n. pl., paternus principatus (?): dat. pl. f壥r-篥lum, 912.

f壥ren-mǣg, st. m., kinsman descended from the same father, co-descendant: dat. sg. f壥ren-mǣge, 1264.

f篭, st. m.: 1) the outspread, encircling arms: instr. pl. fēondes f篛mum], 2129.—2) embrace, encircling: nom. sg. līges f篭, 782; acc. sg. in fȳres f篭, 185.—3) bosom, lap: acc. sg. on foldan f篭, 1394; wi�r�f篭, 3050; dat. pl. tō f壥r (God's) f篭um, 188.—4) power, property: acc. in Francna f篭, 1211.—Cf. sīd-f篭ed, sī��

f篭ian, w. v., to embrace, to take up into itself: pres. subj. �nne līchaman ... glēd f篭ie, 2653; inf. lēton flōd f篭ian fr峷a hyrde, 3134.

ge-f奼/A>, adj., agreeable, desirable (Old Eng., fawe, willingly): comp. ge-f妲a, 916.

f妥n, adj., glad, joyous: nom. pl. ferh�f妮e, the glad at heart, 1634.

f妥r, fǣger, adj., beautiful, lovely: nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, 774; f妥r foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freo�rh f妥re, 522; nom. pl. �;r him fold-wegas f妥re �;hton, 867.—Comp. un-fǣger.

f妥re, f妲e, adv., beautifully, well, becomingly, according to etiquette: f妥re ge�;gon medoful manig, 1015; �; w屠flet-sittendum f妥re gereorded, becomingly the repast was served, 1789; Higelāc ongan ... f妲e fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

f尼/A>, st. n., craft, ship: nom. sg., 33.

f岴, adj., bound, fast: nom. sg. bi� slǣp tō f岴, 1743; acc. sg. frēondscipe f岴ne, 2070; f岴e frio�#483;re, 1097.—The prep. on stands to denote the where or wherein: w屠tō f岴 on �;m (sc. on fǣh�nd fyrene), 137; on ancre f岴, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: fēond-grāpum f岴, (held) fast in his antagonist's clutch, 637; fȳrbendum f岴, fast in the forged hinges, 723; handa f岴, 1291, etc.; hygebendum f岴 (beorn him langa�fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for (i.e. in secret), 1879.—Comp: ār-, blǣd-, gin-, sō�tīr-, wīs-f岴.

f岴e, adv., f岴 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.—Comp. f岴or, 143.

be-f岴an, w. v., to give over: inf. hēt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu sweolo�ef岴an, to give over to the flames her own son, 1116.

f岴en, st. n., fortified place, or place difficult of access: acc. sg. lēoda f岴en, the fastness of the Gēatas (with ref. to 2327, 2334; f岴en (Ongen�;ow's castle or fort), 2951; f岴en (Grendel's house in the fen-sea), 104.

f岴-rǣd, adj., firmly resolved: acc. sg. f岴-rǣdne ge�;ht, firm determination, 611.

f岼/A>, st. m., way, journey: in comp. sī�t.

f岼/A>, st. n., vessel; vase, cup: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, the (drinking-) vessels of men of old times, 2762.—Comp.: bān-, drync-, mā񯴭-, sinc-, wundor-f岮

fǣge, adj.: 1) forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate: nom. sg. fǣge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fǣge and ge-flȳmed, 847; fūs and fǣge, 1242; acc. sg. fǣgne flǣsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fǣgum, 2078; gen. sg. fǣges, 1528.—2) dead: dat. pl. ofer fǣgum (over the warriors fallen in the battle), 3026.—Comp.: dēa�un-fǣge.

fǣh�> (state of hostility, see fāh), st. f., hostile act, feud, battle: nom. sg. fǣh�A href="#li2404">2404, 3062; acc. sg. fǣh�153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.; also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrē�g, H篣yn, by which he killed his brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fǣh�nd fyrene, 137; nalas for fǣh�earn (did not recoil from the combat), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah hē �;re fǣh�109; gen. pl. fǣh�emyndig, 2690.—Comp. w媭fǣh�P>

fǣh�A>, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sīo fǣh�3000; acc. fǣh�2490.

fǣlsian, w. v., to bring into a good condition, to cleanse: inf. � mōte ... Heorot fǣlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrō�257;res ... sele fǣlsode, 2353.

ge-fǣlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. h奤e gefǣlsod ... sele Hrō�257;res, 826; Heorot is gefǣlsod, 1177; wǣron ȳ�bland eal gefǣlsod, 1621.

fǣmne, w. f., virgin, recens nupta: dat. sg. fǣmnan, 2035; gen. sg. fǣmnan, 2060, both times of Hrō�257;r's daughter Frēaware.

fǣr, st. m., sudden, unexpected attack: nom. sg. (attack upon Hn大s band by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fǣr-gripe, st. m., sudden, treacherous gripe, attack: nom. sg. fǣr-gripe flōdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fǣrgripum, 739.

fǣr-gryre, st. m., fright caused by a sudden attack: dat. pl. wi�#483;r-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fǣringa, adv., suddenly, unexpectedly, 1415, 1989.

fǣr-nī�>, st. m., hostility with sudden attacks: gen. pl. hw岠mē Grendel hafa�. fǣrnī�efremed, 476.

fǣt, st. n. (?), plate, sheet of metal, especially gold plate (Dietrich Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fǣttum fāhne, shining with gold plates (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fǣtum befeallen (sc. wesan), the gold ornaments shall fall away from it, 2257.

fǣted, fǣtt, part., ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form: gen. sg. fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fǣttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere, covered, ornamented with gold plate: nom. sg. sweord ... fǣted, 2702; acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fǣtte scyldas, 333; fǣtte bēagas, 1751.

fǣted-hlēor, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mēaras fǣted-hlēore (eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold), 1037.

fǣt-gold, st. n., gold in sheets or plates: acc. sg., 1922.

fe�gearwe, st. f. pl. (feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of the arrow: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft fe�gearwum fūs, 3120.

fel, st. n., skin, hide: dat. pl. glōf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, made of the skins of dragons, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., much, many: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende, 2107. With worn placed before: hw岠�; worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce, how very much you spoke about Breca, 530.—With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tō fela micles ... Denigea lēode, too much of the race of the Danes, 695; uncū�fela, 877; fela lā� 930; fela lēofes and lā� 1061.—With gen. pl.: nom. sg. fela mādma, 36; fela �;ra wera and wīfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missēra, 153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; mā񯴭-sigla fela (falo, MS.), 2758; nē mē swōr fela ā�n unriht, swore no false oaths, 2739, etc.; worn fela mā� 1784; worna fela gū�2543.—Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, very, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrōr, adj., valde agitatus, very active against the enemy, very warlike, 27.

fela-mōdig, adj., very courageous: gen. pl. -mōdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., very criminal, very guilty: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne), 1380.

fēolan, st. v., to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self: pret. si񯠮 inne fealh Grendles mōdor (in Heorot), 1282; �;r inne fealh secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227to fall into, undergo, endure: searonī�fealh, 1201.

岭fēolan, w. dat., insistere, adhǣrere: pret. nō ic him �orne 峦ealh (held him not fast enough, 969.

fen, st. n., fen, moor: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tō fenne, 1296; fenne, 2010.

fen-freo�A>, st. f., refuge in the fen: dat. sg. in fen-freo�852.

feng, st. m., gripe, embrace: nom. sg. fȳres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fāra feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.—Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably he who takes possession, cf. tō fōn, 1756, and fōn tō rīce, to enter upon the government), st. m., lord, prince, king: nom. sg. wīsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lād, st. n., fen-paths, fen with paths: acc. pl. frēcne fengelād (fens difficult of access), 1360.

fen-hli�>, st. n., marshy precipice: acc. pl. under fen-hleo�821.

fen-hop, st. n., refuge in the fen: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., life; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., hog, boar, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg., 305.

ferh�>, st. m., heart, soul: dat. sg. on ferh�755, 949, 1719; gehwylc hiora his ferh�rēowde, �., each of them trusted to his (Hunfer� heart, that ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferh�fore-�1061; dat. pl. (adverbial) ferh�f妮e, happy at heart, 1634; �n ... ferh�frēoge, that one ... heartily love, 3178.—Comp.: collen-, sarig-, swift-, wide-ferh�P>

ferh�ec, adj., having good courage, bold, brave: acc. sg. ferh�ecan Fin, 1147.

ferh�nī�/A>, w. m., mortal enemy: acc. sg. ferh�nī�, of the drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., to bear, to bring, to conduct: pres. II. pl. hwanon ferigea�#483;tte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tō scypum feredon eal ingesteald eor�inges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

岭ferian, to carry away, to bear off: pret. ic �lt �fēondum 峦erede, 1669.

ge-ferian, bear, to bring, to lead: pres. subj. I. pl. �(wē) geferian frēan ūserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles hēafod, 1639; pret. �#299; ūt geferedon dȳre mā�, 3131; pret. part. hēr syndon geferede feorran cumene ... Gēata lēode, men of the Gēatas, come from afar, have been brought hither (by ship), 361.

o�rian, to tear away, to take away: pret. sg. I. unsōfte � feorh o�rede, 2142.

of-ferian, to carry off, to take away, to tear away: pret. ō�swylc ūt offerede, took away another such (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., sword-hilt, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc. (sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., to bring near, bring: pres. subj. nāh hwā ... fe[tige] fǣted wǣge, bring the gold-chased tankard, 2254; pret. part. hra�屠tō būre Bēowulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, to bring: inf. hēt �; eorla hlēo in gefetian Hrē� lāfe, caused Hrē�s sword to be brought, 2191.

ā-fēdan, w. v., to nourish, to bring up: pret. part. �;r hē āfēded w屬 694.

fē�A> (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) foot-soldiers: nom. pl. fē� 1328, 2545.—2) collective in sing., band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors: nom. fē� eal ges岬 1425; dat. on fē� 2498, 2920.—Comp. gum-fē�/P>

fē�A>, st. n., gait, going, pace: dat. sg. w屠tō foremihtig fēond on fē�the enemy was too strong in going (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fē�empa, w. m., foot-soldier: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fē�岴, st. m., guest coming on foot: dat. pl. fē�estum, 1977.

fē�āst, st. m., signs of going, footprint: dat. pl. fērdon for�non fē�āstum, went forth from there upon their trail, i.e. by the same way that they had gone, 1633.

fē�īg, st. m., battle on foot: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrēmge �n (sc. wesan) fē�īges, 2365.

fēl (= fēol), st. f. file: gen. pl. fēla lāfe, what the files have left behind (that is, the swords), 1033.

fēran, w. v., iter (A.S. fōr) facere, to come, to go, to travel: pres. subj. II. pl. ǣr gē ... on land Dena fur�fēran, ere you go farther into the land of the Danes, 254; inf. fēran on frēan wǣre (to die), 27; gewiton him �; fēran (set out upon their way), 301; mǣl is mē tō fēran, 316; fēran ... gang scēawigan, go, so as to see the footprints, 1391; wīde fēran, 2262; pret. fērdon folctogan ... wundor scēawian, the princes came to see the wonder, 840; fērdon for�A href="#li1633">1633.

ge-fēran: 1) adire, to arrive at: pres. subj. �eorl ende gefēre līfgesceafta, reach the end of life, 3064; pret. part. h奤e ǣghw篥r ende gefēred lǣnan līfes, frail life's end had both reached, 2845.—2) to reach, to accomplish, to bring about: pret. hafast �; gefēred �., 1222, 1856.—3) to behave one's self, to conduct one's self: pret. frēcne gefērdon, had shown themselves daring, 1692.

feal, st. m., fall: in comp. w媭feal.

feallan, st. v., to fall, to fall headlong: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg. �#275; on hrūsan ne fēol, that it (the hall) did not fall to the ground, 773; similarly, fēoll on foldan, 2976; fēoll on fē�(dat. sg.), fell in the band (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. �walu fēollon, 1043.

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., deprived of, robbed: frēondum befeallen, robbed of friends, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum befeallen (sc. wesan), be robbed of its gold mountings (the gold mounting will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, to fall, to sink down: pres. sg. III. � līc-homa ... fǣge gefealle�I>that the body doomed to die sinks down, 1756.—Also, with the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefēoll, 2101; hē eor�gefēoll, 2835.

fealu, adj., fallow, dun-colored, tawny: acc. sg. ofer fealone flōd (over the sea), 1951; fealwe strǣte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, 866.—Comp. 寰el-fealo.

feax, st. n., hair, hair of the head: dat. sg. w屠be feaxe on flet boren Grendles hēafod, was carried by the hair into the hall, 1648; him ... swāt ... sprong for�der fexe, the blood sprang out under the hair of his head, 2968.—Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fēa, w. m., joy: acc. sg. �;re fylle gefēan, joy at the abundant repast, 562; ic �lles m奠... gefēan habban (can rejoice at all this), 2741.

fēa, adj., few dat. pl. nemne fēaum ānum, except some few, 1082; gen. pl. fēara sum, as one of a few, with a few, 1413; fēara sumne, one of a few (some few), 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fēa worda cw箬 spoke few words, 2663, 2247.

fēa-sceaft, adj., miserable, unhappy, helpless: nom. sg. sy񯠮 ǣrest wear�#275;asceaft funden, 7; fēasceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg. fēasceaftum men, 2286; Ēadgilse ... fēasceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fēasceafte (the Gēatas robbed of their king, Hygelāc), 2374.

feoh, fēo, st. n., (properly cattle, herd) here, possessions, property, treasure: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo fēo �n, would not allay life's evil for treasure (tribute), 156; similarly, �; fǣh�ēo �e, 470; ic �; �; fǣh�ēo lēanige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-fēon, st. v. w. gen. and instr., to enjoy one's self, to rejoice at something: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah hē �;re fǣh�109; hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefǣgon, enjoyed themselves at the bounteous repast, 1015; �;odnes gefēgon, rejoiced at (the return of) the ruler, 1628.—b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mǣr� 828; secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sǣlāce gefeah, m妥n-byr�e �;ra �275; him mid h奤e, rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that (Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) which he had with him, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., bestowing of gifts or treasures: gen. sg. �;re feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. 岠feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum, with rich gifts, 21.

feoh-lēas, adj., that cannot be atoned for through gifts: nom. sg. �s feoh-lēas gefeoht, a deed of arms that cannot be expiated (the killing of his brother by H篣yn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., combat; warlike deed: nom. sg. (the killing of his brother by H篣yn), 2442; dat. sg. mēce �īn fader tō gefeohte b尬 the sword which thy father bore to the combat, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., to fight: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wīg Hengeste wiht gefeohtan (could by no means offer Hengest battle), 1084.

feohte, w. f., combat: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., far, remote: nom. sg. nis �or heonon, 1362; n屠him feor �tō gesēcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (all that is far, past), 1702.

feor, adv., far, far away: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor and (o񯣩 nēah, far and (or) near, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.—b) of time: gē feor hafa�#483;h�estǣled (has placed us under her enmity henceforth), 1341.

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and f岴or, 143; fyr, 252; feorr, 1989; feor, 542.

feor-būend, pt., dwelling far away: nom. pl. gē feor-būend, 254.

feor-cȳ�>, st. f., home of those living far away, distant land: nom, pl. feor-cȳ񯣠bēo�#275;lran gesōhte �;m � selfa dēah, foreign lands are better sought by him who trusts to his own ability, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, world), st. m. and n., life, principle of life, soul: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nō �nge w屠feorh 篥linges flǣsce bewunden, not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the body (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wr塬 life expelled the strength (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also), 2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, preserve his life, 2857; feorh ālegde, gave up his life, 852; similarly, ǣr hē feorh sele�A href="#li1371">1371; feorh o�ede, tore away her life, 2142; o�t hīe forlǣddan tō �;m lindplegan swǣse gesī�ond hyra sylfra feorh, till in an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their lives (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif �; �;n feorh hafast, 1850; ymb feorh sacan (to fight for life), 439; w屠in feorh dropen, was wounded into his life, i.e. mortally, 2982; wīdan feorh, as temporal acc., through a wide life, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. fēore, 1294, 1549; tō wīdan feore, for a wide life, i.e. at all times, 934; on swā geongum feore (at a so youthful age), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg. fēores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. būton ... feorum gumena, 73; frēonda fēorum, 1307.—Also, body, corpse: �; w屠heal hroden fēonda fēorum (the hall was covered with the slain of the enemy), 1153; gehwearf �; in Francna f篭 feorh cyninges, then the body of the king (Hygelāc) fell into the power of the Franks, 1211. —Comp. geogo�orh.

feorh-bana, w. m., (life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer: dat. sg. feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., wound that takes away life, mortal wound: dat. (instr.) pl. feorh-bennum sēoc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., evil destroying life, violent death: nom. sg., 2078, 2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., race of the living, mankind: gen. pl. fela feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genī�/A>, w. m., he who seeks life, life's enemy (N.H.G. Tod-feind), mortal enemy: acc. sg. -genī�, 1541; dat. sg. -genī�, 970; acc. sg. brǣgd feorh-genī�, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genī�, (Ongen�;ow) pursued his mortal enemies, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate: acc. sg. on mā�hord mine (mīnne, MS.) bebohte frōde feorh-lege, for the treasure-hoard I sold my old life, 2801.

feorh-lāst, st. m., trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death : acc. pl. feorh-lāstas b尬 847.

feorh-sēoc, adj., mortally wounded: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., (stroke robbing of life), fatal blow: acc. sg., 2490.

feorh-wund, st. f., mortal wound, fatal injury: acc. sg. feorh-wunde hlēat, 2386.

feorm, st. f., subsistence, entertainment: acc. sg. nō �; ymb mīnes ne � līces feorme leng sorgian, thou needest no longer have care for the sustenance of my body, 451.—2) banquet: dat. on feorme (or feorme, MS.), 2386.

feormend-lēas, adj., wanting the. cleanser: acc. pl. geseah ... fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lēase, 2762.

feormian, w. v., to clean, to cleanse, to polish: pres. part. nom pl. feormiend swefa�eormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., to feast, to eat; pret. part. sōna h奤e unlyfigendes eal gefeormod fēt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., to remove: inf. sibbe ne wolde wi�nna hwone m妥nes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, fēo �n, (Grendel) would not from friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay it for tribute, 156.

feorran, adv., from afar: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.; si񯠮 篥lingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, when noble men afar learn of your flight (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands), 2890; fērdon folctogan feorran and nēan, from far and from near, 840; similarly, nēan and feorran �; nū [fri�hafast, 1175; w屠�rmes wīg wīde gesȳne ... nēan and feorran, visible from afar, far and near, 2318.—b) temporal: sē �363;�rumsceaft fīra feorran reccan (since remote antiquity), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., foreign-born: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., far way: dat. pl. mādma fela of feorwegum, many precious things from distant paths (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-fēon. See feohan.

fēond, st. m., enemy: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; fēond on helle (Grendel), 101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. fēonde, 143, 439; gen. sg. fēondes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. fēond, 699; dat. pl. fēondum, 420, 1670; gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

fēond-grāp, st. f., foe's clutch: dat. (instr.) pl. fēond-grāpum f岴, 637.

fēond-scea�A>, w. m., one who is an enemy and a robber: nom. sg. fāh fēond-sca�a hostile sea-monster), 554.

fēond-scipe, st. m., hostility: nom. sg., 3000.

fēower, num., four: nom. fēower bearn, 59; fēower mēaras, 2164; fēower, as substantive, 1638; acc. fēower mā�, 1028.

fēower-tȳne, num., fourteen: nom. with following gen. pl. fēowertȳne Gēata, 1642.

findan, st. v., to find, to invent, to attain: a) with simple object in acc.: inf. �;ra �275; cēnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hīe at Finnes-hām findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; m奠�;r fela frēonda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swā hyt weor�299;cost fore-snotre men findan mihton, so splendidly as only very wise men could devise it, 3164; pret. sg. heal� fand, 720; word ō�fand, found other words, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelīcne grund-hyrde fond, 2137; � gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, 1487; pret. part. sy񯠮 ǣrest wear�#275;asceaft funden (discovered), 7.—b) with acc. and pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.—c) with acc. and inf.: pret. fand �; �;r inne 篥linga gedriht swefan, 118; fand w墣endne wer wīges bīdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; o�t hē fyrgen-bēamas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon �; sāwullēasne hlim-bed healdan, 3034.—d) with dependent clause: inf. nō �2; ǣr fēasceafte findan meahton 岠�;m 篥linge �#275; Heardrēde hlāford wǣre (could by no means obtain it from the prince), 2374.

on-findan, to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice: a) w. acc.: pret. sg. landweard onfand eftsī�rla, the coast-guard observed the return of the earls, 1892; pret. part. �; hēo onfunden w屠(was discovered), 1294.—b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. �; se gist onfand � beado-lēoma bītan nolde, the stranger (Bēowulf) perceived that the sword would not cut, 1523; sōna �funde, �., immediately perceived that..., 751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., finger: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985; dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

fīras, fȳras (O.H.G. firahī, i.e. the living; cf. feorh), st. m., only in pl., men: gen. pl. fīra, 91, 2742; monegum fīra, 2002; fȳra gehwylcne lēoda mīnra, 2251; fīra fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice, outrage: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fǣh�153; fǣh�nd fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fǣh�nd fyrene, 137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel), 751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of maliciously, 1745, or fallaciously, with reference to H篣yn's killing Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dǣd, st. f., wicked deed: acc. pl. fyren-dǣda, 1670; instr. pl. fyren-dǣdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to their nocturnal inroads.

firen-�/A>, st. f., misery through the malignity of enemies: acc. sg. fyren-�, 14.

firgen-bēam, st. m., tree of a mountain-forest: acc. pl. fyrgen-bēamas, 1415.

firgen-holt, st. m., mountain-wood, mountain-forest: acc. sg. on fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-strēam, st. m., mountain-stream: nom. sg. fyrgen-strēam, 1360; acc. sg. under fyrgen-strēam (marks the place where the mountain-stream, according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., fish: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fīf, num., five: uninflect. gen. fīf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fīfe (?), 420.

fīfel-cyn (O.N. fīfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., giant-race: gen. sg. fīfelcynnes eard, 104.

fīf-tȳne, num., fifteen: acc. fȳftȳne, 1583; gen. fīftȳna sum, 207.

fīf-tig, num., fifty: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fīftig wintra, 2734; gen. sē w屠fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, 3043.—2) as adjective: acc. fīftig wintru, 2210.

flān, st. m., arrow: dat. sg. flāne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flān-boga, w. m., bow which shoots the flān, bow: dat. sg. of flān-bogan, 1434, 1745.

flǣsc, st. n., flesh, body in contrast with soul: instr. sg. nō �nge w屠feorh 篥linges flǣsce bewunden, not much longer was the son of the prince contained in his body, 2425.

flǣsc-hama, w. m., clothing of flesh, i.e. the body: acc. sg. flǣsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) ground, floor of a hall: acc. sg. hēo on flet gebēah, fell to the ground, 1541; similarly, 1569.—2) hall, mansion: nom. sg. 1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; �#299;e him ō�flet eal gerȳmdon, that they should give up entirely to them another hall, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-r岴, st. f., resting-place in the hall: acc. sg. flet-r岴e gebēag, reclined upon the couch in the hall, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., sitting in the hall: acc. pl -sittende, 2023; dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., troop from the hall: nom. sg., 476.

flēam, st. m., flight: acc. sg. on flēam gewand, had turned to flight, 1002; flēam ēowerne, 2890.

flēogan, st. v., to fly: prs. sg. III. flēoge�A href="#li2274">2274.

flēon, st. v., to flee: inf. on heolster flēon, 756; flēon on fenhopu, 765; flēon under fen-hleo�821; pret. hete-swengeas flēah, 2226.

be-flēon, w. acc., to avoid, to escape: gerund nō �#772;�y�#333; beflēonne, that is not easy (i.e. not at all) to be avoided, 1004.

ofer-flēon, w. acc., to flee from one, to yield: inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferflēon fōtes trem, will not yield to the warder of the mountain (the drake) a foot's breadth, 2526.

flēotan, st. v., to float upon the water, to swim: inf. nō hē wiht fram mē flōd-ȳ�feor flēotan meahte. hra�on helme, no whit, could he swim from me farther on the waves (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves marked the distance), more swiftly in the sea, 542; pret. sǣgenga flēat fāmigheals for�er ȳ�floated away over the waves, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flītan, st. v., to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate: pres. part. flītende fealwe strǣte mēarum mǣton (rode a race), 917; pret. sg. II. eart �; se Bēowulf, sē � Brecan ... ymb sund flite, art thou the Bēowulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming? 507.

ofer-flītan, to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome: pret. w. acc. hē �; 岠sunde oferflāt (overcome thee in a swimming-wager), 517.

ge-flīt, st. n., emulation: acc. sg. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 866.

floga, w. m., flyer; in the compounds: gū�lyft-, ūht-, wid-floga.

flota (see flēotan), w. m., float, ship, boat: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301; acc. sg. flotan ēowerne, 294.—Comp. wǣg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., fleet: instr. sg. cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land, 2916.

flōd, st. m., flood, stream, sea-current: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.; acc. sg. flōd, 3134; ofer fealone flōd, 1951; dat. sg. tō flōde, 1889; gen. pl. flōda begong, the region of floods, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flōda genipu, 2809.

flōd-ȳ�>, st. f., flood-wave: instr. pl. flōd-ȳ� 542.

flōr, st. m., floor, stone-floor: acc. sg. on fāgne flōr (the floor was probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang �; 奴er flōre, along the floor (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., flight: nom. sg. gāres fliht, flight of the spear, 1766.

ge-flȳman, w. v., to put to flight: pret. part. geflȳmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., troop, band of warriors; folk, in the sense of the whole body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sū�e folc, 464; folc and rīce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga, 465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sǣ sīde, went with a band of warriors over the wide sea, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.—The king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; frēawine folces, 2358; or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwēn, 1933.—The pl., in the sense of warriors, fighting men: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum, 55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. frēo- (frēa-) wine folca, of the king, 430, 2430; fri�ibb folca, of the queen, 2018.—Comp. sige-folc.

folc-āgend, pres. part., leader of a band of warriors: nom. pl. folc-āgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., man of the multitude, a common man: nom. sg. folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwēn, st. f., queen of a warlike host: nom. sg., of Wealh�;ow, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., king of a warlike host: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rǣd, st. m, what best serves a warlike host: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., the rights of the fighting men of a nation: gen. pl. him ǣr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swā his f壥r āhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., part of a host of warriors, nation: dat. sg. folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., position of a band of warriors, place where a band of warriors is quartered: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76; folcstede fāra (the battle-field), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., leader of a body of warriors, duke: nom. pl., powerful liege-men of Hrō�257;r are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., earth-house (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-būend, pres. part. dweller on earth, man: nom. pl. fold-būend, 2275; fold-būende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-būendum, 309.

folde, w. f., earth, ground: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; fēoll on foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, the bosom of the earth, 1138; foldan scēatas, 96; foldan f篭, 1394.—Also, earth, world: dat. sg. on foldan, 1197.

fold-weg, st. m., field-way, road through the country: acc. sg. fold-weg, 1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow: pret. pl. �;ah hīe hira bēaggyfan banan folgedon, although they followed the murderer of their prince, 1103.—2) to pursue, to follow after: folgode feorh-genī� (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, hand: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743; acc. pl. fēt and folma, feet and hands, 746; dat. pl. tō banan folmum, 158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.—Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, before, ante: �#275; for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; for hlāwe, 1121.—b) before, coram, in conspectu: no hē �;re feohgyfte for scēotendum scamigan �, had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors, 1027; for �;m werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for dugu�before the noble band of warriors, 2021.—Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, on account of, through, from: for wlenco, from bravery, through warlike courage, 338, 1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhȳdum, 434; for onmēdlan, 2927, etc.—b) objective, partly denoting a cause, through, from, by reason of: for metode, for the creator, on account of the creator, 169; for �5;anȳdum, 833; for �5;anēdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, on account of, in accordance with the promise of bold deeds (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself), 509; him for hrōfsele hrīnan ne mehte fǣr-gripe flōdes, on account of the roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him, 1516; līg-egesan w奠for horde, on account of (the robbing of) the treasure, 2782; for mundgripe mīnum, on account of, through the gripe of my hand, 966; for �ldfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, through the stroke, 2967; ne meahte ... dēop gedȳgan for dracan lēge, could not hold out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake, 2550. Here may be added such passages as ic �;m gōdan sceal for his mōd�mā� bēodan, will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his high courage, 385; ful-oft for lǣssan lēan teohhode, gave often reward for what was inferior, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not uneasy about his life, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ārstafum, to the assistance, 382, 458.—2) w. instr. causal, because of, for: hē hine feor forwr塠for �2; mane, 110.—3) w. acc., for, as, instead of: for sunu frēogan, love as a son, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; nē him �rmes wīg for wiht dyde, held the drake's fighting as nothing, 2349.

foran, adv., before, among the first, forward: si񯠮 ... scēawedon fēondes fingras, foran ǣghwylc (each before himself), 985; �s ān foran ealdgestrēona, that was one among the first of the old treasures, i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; �; him foran ongēan linde bǣron, bore their shields forward against him (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, before: hē ... beforan gengde, went before, 1413; temporal, before, earlier, 2498.—2) prep. w. acc. before, in conspectu: mǣre mā񯴭-sweord manige gesāwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., ford, water-way: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

for�>: 1) local, forth, hither, near: for�ar 峳tōp, approached nearer, 746; �; cwōm Wealh�;o for�#257;n, 1163; similarly, 613; him sele�or�#299;sade, led him (Bēowulf) forth (to the couch that had been prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; �m swāt sprong for�der fexe, forth under the hair of his head, 2968. Forward, further: gewīta�r�ran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; hē tō for�stōp, 2290; freo�ong �or�erēodon, 2960. Away, forth, 45, 904; fyrst for�wāt, the time (of the way to the ship) was out, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; mē ... for�witenum, to me the departed, 1480; fērdon for�I>went forth (from Grendel's sea), 1633; �hē for�ile, when he must (go) forth, i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for�fremede, carried him forth, over all men, 1719.—2) temporal, forth, from now on: heald for�la nīwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal for�recan gēn ymbe Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2070. See fur�/A> and fur�/B>.

for�rīmed, pres. part., in unbroken succession, 59.

for�sceaft, st. f., that which is determined for farther on, future destiny: acc. sg. hē �; for�sceaft forgyte�d forgȳme�A href="#li1751">1751.

for�g, st. m., road that leads away, journey: hē of ealdre gewāt frōd on for�g (upon the way to the next world), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, before, coram, in conspectu: hēo fore �;m werede spr塬 1216. Causal, through, for, because of: nō mearn fore fǣh�nd fyrene, 136; fore f壥r dǣdum, because of the father's deeds, 2060,—Allied to this is the meaning, about, de, super: �;r w屠sang and swēg samod 峧壥re fore Healfdenes hildewīsan, song and music about Healfdene's general (the song of Hn天, 1065.

fore-mǣre, adj., renowned beyond (others), prǣclarus: superl. �s fore-mǣrost foldbūendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., able beyond (others), prǣpotens: nom. sg. w屠tō foremihtig fēond on fē�the enemy was too strong in going (could flee too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., wise beyond (others), sapientissimus: nom. pl. foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-�A>, st. m., forethought, consideration, deliberation: nom. sg., 1061.

forht, adj., fearful, cowardly: nom. sg. forht, 2968; hē on mōde wear�rht on ferh�755.—Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., foremost, first: nom. sg. forma sī�I>the first time), 717, 1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sī�741, 2287; forman dōgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., first of all, in the first place: hē fyrmest l奬 2078.

forst, st. m., frost, cold: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-�;m, for-�or-�>, adv. and conj., therefore, on that account, then: for�;m, 149; for�A href="#li418">418, 680, 1060; for�, because, 503.

fōn, st. v., to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take: prs. sg. III. fēh�333;�tō, another lays hold (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid grāpe sceal fōn wi�#275;onde, 439; pret. sg. him tōgēanes fēng, caught at him, grasped at him, 1543; w. dat. hē �;m fr峷um fēng, received the rich adornments (Ongen�;ow's equipment), 2990.

be-fōn, to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace: pret. part. hyne sār hafa�. nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; hēo 篥linga ānne h奤e f岴e befangen (had seized him firmly), 1296; helm ... befongen frēawrāsnum (encircled by an ornament like a diadem), 1452; fenne bifongen, surrounded by the fen, 2010; (draca) fȳre befongen, encircled by fire, 2275, 2596; h奤e landwara līge befangen, encompassed by fire, 2322.

ge-fōn, w. acc., to seize, to grasp: pret. hē gefēng slǣpendne rinc, 741; gū�c gefēng atolan clommum, 1502; gefēng �; be eaxle ... Gū�275;ata lēod Grendles mōdor, 1538; gefēng �; fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefēng, geolwe linde, 2610; ic on ofoste gefēng micle mid mundum m妥n-byr�e, hastily I seized with my hands the enormous burden, 3091.

on-fōn, w. dat., to receive, to accept, to take: pres. imp. sg. onfōh � fulle, accept this cup, 1170; inf. �t �;odnes bearn ... scolde f壥r-篥lum onfōn, receive the paternal rank, 912; pret. sg. hwā �;m hl岴e onfēng, who received the ship's lading, 52; hlēor-bolster onfēng eorles andwlitan, the pillow received the nobleman's face, 689; similarly, 853, 1495; heal swēge onfēng, the hall received the loud noise, 1215; hē onfēng hra�nwit-�, he (Bēowulf) at once clutched him (Grendel) devising malice, 749.

�ōn, w. acc., to break through with grasping, to destroy by grasping: inf. �#275;o �yrd-hom �ōn ne mihte, 1505.

wi�#333;n, w. dat., (to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of: pret. sg. him f岴e wi�#275;ng, 761.

ymbe-fōn, w. acc., to encircle: pret. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum, encircled his (Bēowulf's) whole neck with sharp bones (teeth), 2692.

fōt, st. m., foot: gen. sg. fōtes trem (the measure of a foot, a foot broad), 2526; acc. pl. fēt, 746; dat. pl. 岠fōtum, at the feet, 500, 1167.

fōt-gemearc, st. n., measure, determining by feet, number of feet: gen. sg. sē w屠fīftiges fōtgemearces lang (fifty feet long), 3043.

fōt-lāst, st. m., foot-print: acc. sg. (draca) onfand fēondes fōt-lāst, 2290.

fracod, adj., objectionable, useless. nom. sg. n屠sēo ecg fracod hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. away from something: �;r fram sylle ābēag medubenc monig, 776, 1716; �eft gewiton ealdgesī�... fram mere, 856; cyning-balde men from �;m holmclife hafelan bǣron, 1636; similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: hē hine feor forwr塠... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, hither from something: �; ic cwōm ... from fēondum, 420; ǣghw篲um w屠... brōga fram ō�, 2566.—Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, of, about, concerning: s妤est from his sī�532; nō ic wiht fram �; swylcra searo-nī�ecgan hȳrde, 581; �#275; fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., away, thence: nō �2; ǣr fram meahte, 755; forth, out: from ǣrest cwōm oru�257;glǣcean ūt of stāne, the breath of the dragon came forth first from the rock 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) directed forwards, striving forwards; in comp. sī�am.—2) excellent, splendid, of a man with reference to his warlike qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mōde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.—Comp. un-from; see freme, forma.

ge-fr妥n. See frignan.

fr峷e, st. f. pl., ornament, anything costly, originally carved objects (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any costly and artistic work: acc. pl. fr峷e, 2920; beorhte fr峷e, 214; beorhte fr峷a, 897; fr峷e.. eorclan-stānas, 1208; fr峷e,... brēost-weor�e, 2504, both times of Hygelāc's collar; fr峷e and f岭gold, 1922; fr峷e (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl. �;m fr峷um, 2164; on fr峥wum, 963; fr峷um (Hea�ard sword) hrēmig, 2055; fr峷um, of the drake's treasures, 2785; fr峷um (Ongen�;ow's armor), 2990; gen. pl. fela ... fr峷a, 37; �;ra fr峷a (drake's treasure), 2795; fr峷a hyrde (drake), 3134.

fr峷an, w. v., to supply with ornaments, to adorn: inf. folc-stede fr峷an, 76.

ge-fr峷ian, w. v., to adorn: pret. sg. gefr峷ade foldan scēatas leomum and lēafum, 96; pret. part. �; w屠hāten Heort innanweard folmum gefr峷od, 993.

ge-frǣge, adj., known by reputation, renowned: nom. sg. lēod-cyning ... folcum gefrǣge, 55; swā hyt gefrǣge w屬 2481.

ge-frǣge, st. n., information through hearsay: instr. sg. mine gefrǣge (as I learned through the narrative of others), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frǣgnian, w. v., to become known through hearsay: pret. part. fylle gefrǣgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying off of ųchere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly a wolf, as one that breaks in, robs; here a designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Bēowulf, 1564.—Comp.: gū�hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wīg-freca; fer�ec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly distant, foreign; then estranged, hostile: nom sg. �s fremde �;od ēcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwēn, of ݲȳ�1933(?).

fremman, w. v., to press forward, to further, hence: 1) in general, to perform, to accomplish, to do, to make: pres. subj. without an object, fremme sē �le, let him do (it) whoever will, 1004. With acc.: imp. pl. fremma�#275; nū lēoda �, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; s墣e fremman, 2500; fǣh�.. mǣr�fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrǣd fremede (did what was best for his men, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hū �; 篥lingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fācenstafas ... � fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. � ... mǣr�remede, 2135. —2) to help on, to support: inf. �#275; mec fremman wile wordum and worcum (to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., to do, to make, to render: inf. gefremman eorlīc ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, to give help, 2450; 奴er wēaspelle wyrpe gefremman, to work a change after sorrow (to give joy after sorrow), 1316; gerund, tō gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165, 551, 585, etc.; �;ah �e mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for�fremede, placed him away, above all men, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl. gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed, 476; fem, nū scealc hafa�. dǣd gefremede, 941; absolutely, �; �; self hafast dǣdum gefremed, �., hast brought it about by thy deeds that, 955.

fretan, st. v., to devour, to consume: inf. �; (the precious things) sceal brond fretan, 3015; nū sceal glēd fretan wigena strengel, 3115; pret. sg. (Grendel) slǣpende fr岠folces Denigea fȳftȳne men, 1582.

frēcne, adj., dangerous, bold: nom. sg. frēcne fȳr-draca, 2690; feorh-bealo frēcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frēcne dǣde, 890; frēcne fengelād, 1360; frēcne stōwe, 1379; instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (through provoking words), 1105.

frēcne, adv., boldly, audaciously, 960, 1033, 1692.

frēa, w. m., ruler, lord, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. frēa, 2286; acc. sg. frēan, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. frēan, 359, 500, 1167, 1681; dat. sg. frēan, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. ēode ... tō hire frēan sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. frēan ealles, the Lord of all, 2795; gen. sg. frēan, 27.— Comp.: āgend-, līf-, sin-frēa.

frēa-dryhten, st. m., lord, ruling lord: gen. sg. frēa-drihtnes, 797.

frēa-wine, st. m., lord and friend, friendly ruler: nom. sg. frēa-wine folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his frēa-wine, 2439.

frēa-wrāsn, st. f., encircling ornament like a diadem: instr. pl. helm ... befongen frēawrāsnum, 1452; see wrāsn.

freo�fri�A>, f., protection, asylum, peace: acc. sg. wēl bi�#483;m �333;t ... tō f壥r f篭um freo� wilnian, who may obtain an asylum in God's arms, 188; nēan and feorran �; nū [fri�hafast, 1175.—Comp. fen-freo�/P>

freo�urh, st. f., castle, city affording protection: acc. sg. freo�rh f妥re, 522.

freo�ong, st. m., field of peace, field of protection: acc. sg., 2960; seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freo�ǣr, st. f., peace-alliance, security of peace: acc. sg. �; hīe getruwedon on twā healfa f岴e frio�ǣre, 1097; gen. sg. frio�#483;re b墠hlāford sīnne, entreated his lord for the protection of peace (i.e. full pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freo�ebbe, w. f., peace-weaver, designation of the royal consort (often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two nations): nom. sg., 1943.

frēo-burh, st. f., = frēa-burg (?), ruler's castle (?) (according to Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. frēoburh, 694.

frēod, st. f., friendship: acc. sg. frēode ne woldon ofer heafo healdan, 2477; gen. sg. n屠�;r māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, was no longer time to seek for friendship, 2557; —favor, acknowledgement: acc. sg. ic �; sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode (will show myself grateful, with reference to 1381 ff.), 1708.

frēo-dryhten (= frēa-dryhten), st. m., lord, ruler; according to Grein, dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-drihten min! 1170; dat. sg. mid his frēo-dryhtne, 2628.

frēogan, w. v., to love; to think of lovingly: pres. subj. �n his wine-dryhten ... ferh�frēoge, 3178; inf. nū ic �. mē for sunu wylle frēogan on ferh�949.

frēo-līc, adj., free, free-born (here of the lawful wife in contrast with the bond concubine): nom. sg. frēolīc wīf, 616; frēolīcu folc-cwēn, 642.

frēond, st. m., friend: acc. sg. frēond, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. frēondum, 916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. frēonda, 1307, 1839.

frēond-la�A>, st. f., friendly invitation: nom. sg. him w屠ful boren and frēond-la�friendly invitation to drink) wordum bew妮ed, 1193.

frēond-lār, st. f., friendly counsel: dat. (instr.) pl. frēond-lārum, 2378.

frēond-līce, adv., in a friendly manner, kindly: compar. frēond-līcor, 1028.

frēond-scipe, st. m., friendship: acc. sg. frēond-scipe f岴ne, 2070.

frēo-wine, st. m. (see frēawine), lord and friend, friendly ruler; according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., to ask, to inquire into: inf. ongan sīnne geseldan f妲e fricgean hwylce Sǣ-Gēata sī� wǣron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding fela fricgende feorran rehte, the old Scilding, asking many questions (having many things related to him), told of old times (the conversation was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, to learn, to learn by inquiry: pres. pl. sy񯠮 hīe ge-fricgea�ēan ūserne ealdorlēasne, when they learn that our lord is dead, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic �fricge, �, 1827; pl. sy񯠮 篥lingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., to seek, to desire, to strive for: inf. n屠�;r māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2557.

fri�ib, st. f., kin for the confirming of peace, designation of the queen (see freo�ebbe), peace-bringer: nom. sg. fri�ibb folca, 2018.

frignan, fringan, frīnan, st. v., to ask, to inquire: imp. ne frīn �; 奴er sǣlum, ask not after the well-being! 1323; inf. ic �ne Deniga frīnan wille ... ymb �;nne sī�A href="#li351">351; pret. sg. fr妮, 236, 332; fr妮 gif ..., asked whether ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frīnan, to find out by inquiry, to learn by narration. pret. sg. (w. acc.) �am hām gefr妮 Higelāces �rendles dǣda, 194; nō ic gefr妮 heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.) �; ic wīde gefr妮 weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne gefr妥n ic �; mǣg�āran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sēl gebǣran, I never heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about its chief, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) wē �;odcyninga �efrūnon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gū�ing gōdne gefrūnon hringas dǣlan, 1970; (parenthetical) swā guman gefrungon, 667, (after � medo-屮 micel (greater) ... �ldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, 70; pret. part. h奤e Higelāces hilde gefrūnen, 2953; h奤on gefrūnen �, had learned that ..., 695; h奤e gefrūnen hwanan sīo fǣh�257;rās, 2404; healsbēaga mǣst �;ra �on foldan gefr妥n h塢e, 1197.

from, See fram.

frōd, adj.: 1) ǣtate provectus, old, gray: nom. sg. frōd, 2626, 2951; frōd cyning, 1307, 2210; frōd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frōd, 1725, 2115, 2278; se frōda, 2929; ac. sg. frōde feorhlege (the laying down of my old life), 2801; dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong under No. 2), 2124.—2) mente excellentior, intelligent, experienced, wise: nom. sg. frōd, 1367; frōd and gōd, 279; on mōde frōd, 1845.—Comp.: in-, un-frōd.

frōfor, st. f., consolation, compensation, help: nom. sg. frōfor, 2942; acc. sg. frōfre, 7, 974; fyrena frōfre, 629; frōfre and fultum, 1274; frōfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tō frōfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frōfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., the foremost, hence: l) beginning: nom. sg. w屠se fruma egeslīc lēodum on lande, swā hyt lungre wear� hyra sincgifan sāre geendod (the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible, its end distressing through the death of Bēowulf), 2310.—2) he who stands first, prince; in comp. dǣd-, hild-, land-, lēod-, ord-, wīg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), descent, origin: acc. sg. nū ic ēower sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gār, st. m., primipilus, duke, prince: dat. sg. frumgāre (of Bēowulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, beginning: acc. sg. sē �363;�rumsceaft fīra feorran reccan, who could tell of the beginning of mankind in old times, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, in the beginning, i.e at his birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., bird: dat. sg. fugle gelīcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tō gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., full, filled: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. sē w屠innan full wrǣtta and wīra, 2413.—Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weor�l.

ful, adv., plene, very: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., cup, beaker: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026; ofer ȳ�ul, over the cup of the waves (the basin of the sea filled with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfōh � fulle, 1170.—Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullǣstian, w. v. w. dat, to give help: pres. sg. ic �; fullǣstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., help, support, protection: acc. sg. frōfor (frōfre) and fultum, 699, 1274; m妥nes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.—Comp. m妥n-fultum.

fundian, w. v., to strive, to have in view: pres. pl. wē fundia�gelāc sēcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

fur�/A>, adv., primo, just, exactly; then first: �; ic fur�wēold folce Deninga, then first governed the people of the Danes (had just assumed the government), 465; �; hīe tō sele fur�... gangan cwōmon, 323; ic �;r fur�cwōm tō �;m hringsele, 2010before, previously: ic �; sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode, swā wit fur�sprǣcon, 1708.

fur�/A>, adv., further, forward, more distant, 254, 762, 3007.

fūs, adj., inclined to, favorable, ready: nom. sg. nū ic eom sī�fūs, 1476; lēofra manna fūs, prepared for the dear men, i.e. expecting them, 1917; sigel sū�fūs, the sun inclined from the south (midday sun), 1967; se wonna hrefn fūs ofer fǣgum, eager over the slain, 3026; sceft ... fe�gearwum fūs, 3120; nom. pl. wǣron ... eft to lēodum fūse tō farenne, 1806.—Sometimes fūs means ready for death, moribundus: fūs and fǣge, 1242.—Comp.: hin-, ūt-fūs.

fūs-līc, adj., prepared, ready: acc. sg. fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēo�A href="#li1425">1425; fyrd-searo fūs-līc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūs-līcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., fall: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, the fall of the king (in the dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. �#275; on fylle wear�I>that he came to a fall, fell, 1545.—Comp. hrā-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., troop, band of warriors: in comp. 媭fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., to fell, to slay in battle: inf. fāne gefyllan, to slay the enemy, 2656; pret. pl. fēond gefyldan, they had slain the enemy, 2707.

ā-fyllan (see ful), w. v., to fill: pret. part. Heorot innan w屠frēondum āfylled (was filled with trusted men), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (plenty, abundant meal: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrǣgnod, 1334; gen. sg. n屠hīe �;re fylle gefēan h奤on, 562; fylle gefǣgon, 1015.—Comp.: w媭, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wērig, adj., weary enough to fall, faint to death, moribundus: acc. sg. fyl-wērigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) to bear, to bring, carry: pret. pl. �; �-sceattas Gēata fyredon �tō � 378.

fȳras. See fīras.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., movable, that can be moved.—Comp. hard-fyrde.—Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., comrade on an expedition, companion in battle: dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., war-dress, coat of mail: acc. sg. �yrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hr妬, st. n., coat of mail, war-dress: acc. sg. fyrd-hr妬, 1528.

fyrd-hw岼/A>, adj., sharp, good in war, warlike: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477.

fyrd-lēo�>, st. n., war-song, warlike music: acc. sg. horn stundum song fūslīc f[yrd]leo�A href="#li1425">1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., equipment for an expedition: acc. sg. fyrd-searu fūslīc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūslīcu, 232.

fyrd-wyr�A>, adj., of worth in war, excellent in battle: nom. sg. fyrd-wyr�an (Bēowulf), 1317.

ge-fyr� (see for�w. v., to bring forward, to further: pret. part. ār w屠on ofoste, eftsī� georn, fr峷um gefyr�, he was hurried forward by the treasure (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded Bēowulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., by-gone days: dat. pl. fyrndagum (in old times), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., work, something done in old times: acc. sg. fīra fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., combat in ancient times: gen. sg. ōr fyrn-gewinnes (the origin of the battles of the giants), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., man of ancient times: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many years: dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan, of ųchere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., portion of time, definite time, time: nom. sg. n屠hit lengra fyrst, ac ymb āne niht ..., 134; fyrst for�wāt, the time (of going to the harbor) was past, 210; n屠 �;r māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fīf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. �2; fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., within the fixed time, 76.

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., prying spirit, curiosity: nom. sg. fyrwyt, 232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fȳsan (fūs), w. v., to make ready, to prepare: part. winde gefȳsed flota, the ship provided with wind (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fȳre gefȳsed, provided with fire, 2310; �; w屠hringbogan (of the drake) heorte gefȳsed s墣e tō sēceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the question, for what? gū�efȳsed, ready for battle, determined to fight, 631.

fȳr, st. n., fire: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fȳre, 2220; as instr. fȳre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fȳres f篭, 185; fȳres feng, 1765.— Comp.: ād-, bǣl-, hea� w媭fȳr.

fȳr-bend, st. m., band forged in fire: dat. pl. duru ... fȳr-bendum f岴, 723.

fȳr-draca, w. m., fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon: nom. sg., 2690.

fȳr-heard, adj., hard through fire, hardened in fire: nom. pl. (eoforlīc) fāh and fȳr-heard, 305.

fȳr-lēoht, st. n., fire-light: acc. sg., 1517.

fȳr-wylm, st. m., wave of fire, flame-wave: dat. pl. wyrm ... fȳrwylmum fāh, 2672.

G

galan, st. v., to sing, to sound: pres. sg. sorh-lēo�le�A href="#li2461">2461; inf. gryre-lēo�lan, 787; bearhtm ongeāton, gū�n galan, heard the clang, the battle-trumpet sound, 1433.

ā-galan, to sing, to sound: pret. sg. �re on hafelan hringmǣl āgōl grǣdig gū�275;o�I>that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon her head, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., tribute, interest: acc. sg. gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings: nom. sg. gamen, 1161; gomen, 2460; gomen glēobēames, the pleasure of the harp, 2264; acc. sg. gamen and glēodrēam, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.—Comp. heal-gamen.

gamen-wā�t. f., way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous society: dat. sg. of gomen-wā�855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., wood of social enjoyment, i.e. harp: nom. sg. �;r w屠... gomenwudu grēted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grētte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., old; of persons, having lived many years, gray: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398; gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. �omelan, 2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; �;m gomelan, 2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.—Also, late, belonging to former time: gen. pl. gomelra lāfe (legacy), 2037.—Of things, old, from old times: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lāfe, 2564; gomel swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., with gray hair: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) gait, way: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges ge-twǣman, could not keep him from going, 969.—2) step, foot-step: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel), 1405; acc. sg. uton hra�ēran Grendles māgan gang scēawigan, 1392.—Comp. in-gang.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (so far as something goes), extent: acc. sg. ofer geofenes begang, over the extent of the sea, 362; ofer flōda begang, 1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flōda begong, 1498; siole�igong, 2368.

gangan. See under gān.

ganot, st. m., diver, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes b箠(i.e. the sea), 1862.

gād, st. n., lack: nom. sg. ne bi��; wilna gād (thou shalt have no lack of desirable [valuable] things), 661; similarly, 950.

gān, expanded = gangan, st. v., to go: pres. sg. III. gǣ�257; Wyrd swā hīo scel, 455; gǣ�t ... tō medo, 605; �hē ... on flett gǣ�A href="#li2035">2035; similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gā �;r hē wille, let him go whither he will, 1395; imp. sg. II. gā nū tō setle, 1783; nū �; lungre geong, hord scēawian, under hārne stān, 2744; inf. in gān, to go in, 386, 1645 'for�#257;n, to go forth, to go thither, 1164; �#299;e him tō mihton gegnum gangan, to go towards, to go to, 314; tō sele ... gangan cwōmon, 324; in a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nū gē mōton gangan ... Hrō�257;r gesēon, 395; �; cōm of mōre ... Grendel gongan, there came Grendel (going) from the fen, 712; ongēan gramum gangan, to go to meet the enemy, to go to the war, 1035; cwōm ... tō hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tō, let us go thither, 2649.—As preterite, serve, 1) gēong or gīong: hē tō healle gēong, 926; similarly, 2019; sē �orde gēong, who went at the head, went in front, 3126; on innan gīong, went in, 2215; hē ... gīong tō � hē eor�e ānne wisse, went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall, 2410; �; se 篥ling, gīong, �#275; bī wealle ges岬 then went the prince (Bēowulf) that he might sit down by the wall, 2716.—2) gang: tō healle gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang �; 奴er flōre, went along the floor, along the hall, 1317.—3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): hē ... beforan gengde ..., wong scēawian, went in front to inspect the fields, 1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.—4) from another stem, ēode (Goth. iddja): ēode ellenrōf, �#275; for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; similarly, 403; [wi�duru healle Wulfgār ēode], went towards the door of the hall, 390; ēode Wealh�;ow for�I>went forth, 613; ēode tō hire frēan sittan, 641; ēode yrremōd, went with angry feeling, 727; ēode ... tō sele, 919; similarly, 1233; ēode ... �;r se snottra bād, 1313; ēode weor�num 篥ling tō yppan, the prince (Bēowulf), honored by the Danes, went to the high seat, 1815; ēode ... under inwit-hrōf, 3124; pl. �;r swī�h�ittan ēodon, 493; ēodon him �; tōgēanes, went to meet him, 1627; ēodon under Earna n屬 3032.

ā-gangan, to go out, to go forth, to befall: pret. part. swā bit āgangen wear�rla manegum (as it befell many a one of the earls), 1235.

full-gangan, to emulate, to follow after: pret. sg. �... sceft nytte hēold, fe�gearwum fūs flāne full-ēode, when the shaft had employment, furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow, 3120.

ge-gān, ge-gangan: 1) to go, to approach: inf. (w. acc.) his mōdor ... gegān wolde sorhfulne sī�A href="#li1278">1278; sē �re-sī�gegān dorste, who dared to go the ways of terror (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga geonga under his mǣges scyld elne geēode, went quickly under his kinsman's shield, 2677; pl. elne geēodon tō � ..., went quickly thither where ..., 1968; pret. part. sy񯠮 hīe tō-g売e gegān h奤on, when they (Wīglāf and the drake) had come together, 2631; �s aldres w屠ende gegongen, that the end of his life had come, 823; �; w屠ended奠gōdum gegongen, � gū�ing ... swealt, 3037.—2) to obtain, to reach: inf. (w. acc.) �hē 岠gū�egān � longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, n屠�#772;�ēap tō gegangenne gumena ǣnigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geēodon ... � byrnwīga būgan sceolde, 2918; pret. part. h奤e ... gegongen �I>had attained it, that ..., 894; hord ys gescēawod, grimme gegongen, 3086.—3) to occur, to happen: pres. sg. III. gif �gange�t ..., if that happen, that ..., 1847; pret. sg. �īode ufaran dōgrum hilde-hl嬭um, it happened in later times to the warriors (the Gēatas), 2201; pret. part. �; w屠gegongen guman unfrōdum earfo�299;ce �I>then it had happened to the young man in sorrowful wise that ..., 2822.

o�ngan, to-go thither: pret. pl. o�t hī o�75;odon ... in Hrefnesholt, 2935.

ofer-gangan, w. acc., to go over: pret. sg. oferēode �; 篥linga bearn stēap stān-hli�went over steep, rocky precipices, 1409; pl. freo�ong �or�erēodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., to go around: pret. ymb-ēode �; ides Helminga dugu�nd geogo�ǣl ǣghwylcne, went around in every part, among the superior and the inferior warriors, 621.

gār, st. m., spear, javelin, missile: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg. gāre, 1076; blōdigan gāre, 2441; gen. sg. gāres fliht, 1766; nom. pl. gāras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).—Comp.: bon-, frum-gār.

gār-cēne, adj., spear-bold: nom. sg., 1959.

gār-cwealm, st. m., murder, death by the spear: acc. sg. gār-cwealm gumena, 2044.

gār-holt, st. n., forest of spears, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gār-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), sea, ocean: acc. sg. on gār-secg, 49, 537; ofer gār-secg, 515.

gār-wiga, w. m., one who fights with the spear: dat. sg. geongum gār-wigan, of Wīglāf, 2675, 2812.

gār-wīgend, pres. part., fighting with spear, spear-fighter: acc. pl. gār-wīgend, 2642.

gāst, gǣst, st. m., ghost, demon: acc. sg. helle gāst (Grendel), 1275; gen. sg. wergan gāstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gǣsta gīfrost (flames consuming corpses), 1124.—Comp.: ellor-, geō-sceaft-gāst; ellen-, w媭gǣst.

gāst-bana, w. m., slayer of the spirit, i.e. the devil: nom. sg. gāst-bona, 177.

g壥ling, st. m., he who is connected with another, relation, companion: gen. sg. g壥linges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his g壥lingum, 2950.

g壥re, adv., together, united: 321, 1165, 1191; samod 峧壥re, 329, 387, 730, 1064.

tō-gadere, adv., together, 2631.

g岴, gist, gyst, st. m., stranger, guest: nom. sg. g岴, 1801; se g岴 (the drake), 2313; se grimma g岴 (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc. sg. gryre-līcne gist (the nixy slain by Bēowulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste, 2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. g岛tas], 1894.—Comp.: fē� gryre-, inwit-, nī�sele-g岴 (-gyst).

g岴-sele, st. m., hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall: acc. sg., 995.

, conj., and, 1341; gē ... gē ..., as well ... as ..., 1865; gē ... gē ..., gē ..., 1249; gē swylce, and likewise, and moreover, 2259.

, pron., ye, you, plur. of �;, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., reply: gen. pl. �;nra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., thither, towards, away, with the prep, tō, ofer, giving the direction: �#299;e him tō mihton gegnum gangan (that they might go thither), 314; gegnum fōr [�;] ofer myrcan mōr, away over the dark moor, 1405.

geh�geoh�A>, st. f., sorrow, care: instr. sg. gioh�ǣnde, 2268; dat. sg. on geh�3096; on gioh�2794.

gēn (from gegn), adv., yet, again. ne w屠hit lenge �; gēn, �., it was not then long before ..., 83; ic sceal for�recan gēn ymb Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2071; nō �2; ǣr ūt �; gēn ... gongan wolde (still he would not yet go out), 2082; gēn is eall 岠�; lissa gelong (yet all my favor belongs to thee), 2150; �; gēn, then again, 2678, 2703; swā hē nū gēn dē�I>as he still does, 2860; fur�gēn, further still, besides, 3007; nū gēn, now again, 3169; ne gēn, no more, no farther: ne w屠�rd �; gēn, that was no more fate (fate no longer willed that), 735.

gēna, still: cwico w屠�; gēna, was still living, 3094.

genga, w. m., goer; in comp. in-, sǣ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gān(3).

genge. See ū�nge.

gēnunga (from gegnunga), adv., precisely, completely, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition: pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.—2) to equip, to arm for battle: pret. sg. gyrede hine Bēowulf eorl-gewǣdum (dressed himself in the armor), 1442.

ge-gyrwan: 1) to make, to prepare: pret. pl. him �; gegiredan Gēata lēode ād ... unwāclīcne, 3138; pret. part. glōf ... eall gegyrwed dēofles cr奴um and dracan fellum, 2088.—2) to fit out, to make ready: inf. cēol gegyrwan hilde-wǣpnum and hea�#483;dum, 38; hēt him ȳ�an gōdne gegyrwan, had (his) good ship fitted up for him, 199. Also, to provide warlike equipment: pret. part. sy񯠮 hē hine tō gū� gegyred h奤e, 1473.—3) to endow, to provide, to adorn: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hr妬 ... golde gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lāfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mādmas ... golde gegyrede, 1029.

gētan, w. v., to injure, to slay: inf., 2941.

be-gēte, adj., attainable; in comp. ē�gēte.

geador, adv., unitedly, together, jointly, 836; geador 峳omne, 491.

on-geador, adv., unitedly, together, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) sound: acc. sg. bȳman gealdor, 2944.—2) magic song, incantation, spell: instr. sg. �w屠�fe ... galdre bewunden (placed under a spell), 3053.

gealga, w. m., gallows: dat. sg. �s byre rīde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mōd, adj., gloomy: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, 1278.

gealg-trēow, st. n., gallows: dat. pl. on galg-trēowu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., residence; in Bēowulf corresponding to the house-complex of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (in Finn's castle), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ǣr hē on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, before he went away from his dwelling-place, i.e. died, 265.—Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, made, prepared; hence, ready, finished, equipped: nom. sg. �t wear�eal gearo, heal-屮a mǣst, 77; wiht unhǣlo ... gearo sōna w屬 the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did not delay long, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca w屠on bǣl gearu, was ready for the funeral-pile (for the solemn burning), 1110; �;od (is) eal gearo, the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared, 1231; hra�屠岠holme hȳ�ard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gū�eca, 2415; sīe sīo bǣr gearo ǣdre ge奮ed, let the bier be made ready at once, 3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwr墥, ready for revenge for harm done, 2119, acc. sg. gearwe stōwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., completely, entirely: nē gē ... gearwe ne wisson, you do not know at all ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe geman witena welhwyle (remembers him very well), 265; wisse hē gearwe �., he knew very well that ..., 2340, 2726; � ... gearo scēawige swegle searogimmas (that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as they are), 2749; ic wāt geare �., 2657.—Comp. gearwor, more readily, rather, 3077.—Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., with ready hand, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., equipment, dress; in comp. fe�gearwe.

geat, st. n., opening, door; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-līc, adj., well prepared, handsome, splendid: of sword and armor, 215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wīsa fengel geatolīc gengde, passed on in a stately manner, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., equipment, adornment: acc. recedes geatwa, the ornaments of the dragon's cave (its treasures), 3089.—Comp.: ēored-, gryre-, gū�hilde-, wīg-geatwe.

gēan (from gegn), adv. in

on-gēan, adv. and prep., against, towards: �#275; mē ongēan slēa, 682; rǣhte ongēan fēond mid folme, 748; foran ongēan, forward towards, 2365. With dat.: ongēan gramum, against the enemy, 1035.

tō-gēanes, tō-genes, prep, against, towards: Grendle tōgēanes, towards Grendel, against Grendel, 667; grāp �; tōgēanes, she grasped at (Bēowulf), 1502; similarly, him tōgēanes fēng, 1543; ēodon him �; tōgēanes, went towards him, 1627; hēt �; gebēodan ... �#299;e bǣl-wudu feorran feredon gōdum tōgēnes, had it ordered that they should bring the wood from far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man (i.e. to the place where the dead Bēowulf lay), 3115.

gēap, adj., roomy, extensive, wide: nom. sg. reced ... gēap, the roomy hall, 1801; acc. sg. under gēapne hrōf, 837.—Comp.: horn-, sǣ-gēap.

geār, st. n., year: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geāra, in adverbial sense, olim, in former times, 2665. See un-geāra.

geār-dagas, st. m. pl., former days: dat. pl. in (on) geār-dagum, 1, 1355.

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., sea, flood: nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen gēotende, the streaming flood, 1691; gen. sg. geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogo�>, st. f.: 1) youth, time of youth: dat. sg. on geogo�409, 466, 2513; on giogo�2427; gen. giogu�2113.—2) contrasted with dugu�I>the younger warriors of lower rank (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires with the knights): nom. sg. geogo�A href="#li66">66; giogo�A href="#li1191">1191; acc. sg. geogo�1182; gen. dugu�nd geogo�160; dugu�nd iogo�geogo� 1675, 622.

geogu�orh, st. n., age of youth, i.e. age in which one still belongs in the ranks of the geogo�n geogo�geogu�fēore, 537, 2665.

geoh�A>. See geh�A>.

geolo, adj., yellow: acc. sg. geolwe linde (the shield of yellow linden bark), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., yellow shield (shield with a covering of interlaced yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., through, throughout, along, over: geond �middangeard, through the earth, over the earth, 75; wide geond eor� 266, 3100; fērdon folctogan ... geond wīd-wegas, went along the ways coming from afar, 841; similarly, 1705; geond �ld, through the hall, through the extent of the hall, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., young, youthful: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447; w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gū�ing, 1970; dat. sg. geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swā geongum feore, at a so youthful age, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum and ealdum, 72.—Superl. gingest, the last: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word, 2818.

georn, adj., striving, eager, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sī�georn, 2784.—Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., readily, willingly: �m wine-māgas georne hȳrdon, 66; georne truwode, 670zealously, eagerly: sōhte georne 奴er grunde, eagerly searched over the ground, 2295carefully, industriously: nō ic him �orne 峦ealh (held him not fast enough), 969completely, exactly: comp. wiste �; geornor, 822.

geō, iū, adv., once, formerly, earlier, 1477; giō, 2522; iū, 2460.

gēoc, st. f., help, support: acc. sg. gēoce gefremman, 2675; �m gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wi�#275;od-�5;aum, 177; gēoce gelȳfde, believed in the help (of Bēowulf), 609; dat. sg. tō gēoce, 1835.

gēocor, adj., ill, bad: nom. sg., 766.—See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geō-man, iū-man, st. m., man of former times: gen. pl. iū-manna, 3053.

geō-meowle, w. f., (formerly a virgin), wife: acc. sg. īo-meowlan, 2932.

geōmor, adj., with depressed feelings, sad, troubled: nom. sg. him w屠geōmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mōdes geōmor, 2101; fem. �s geōmuru ides, 1076.

geōmore, adv., sadly, 151.

geōmor-gid, st. n., dirge: acc. sg. giōmor-gyd, 3151.

geōmor-līc, adj., sad, painful: swā bi�ōmorlīc gomelum ceorle tō gebīdanne �, it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..., 2445.

geōmor-mōd, adj., sad, sorrowful: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giōmor-mōd, 2268.

geōmrian, w. v., to complain, to lament: pret. sg. geōmrode giddum, 1119.

geō-sceaft, st. f., (fixed in past times), fate: acc. sg. geōsceaft grimme, 1235.

geōsceaft-gāst, st. m., demon sent by fate: gen. pl. fela geōsceaft-gāsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

gēotan, st. v. intrans., to pour, to flow, to stream: pres. part. gifen gēotende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., icicle: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., speech, solemn alliterative song: nom. sg. �;r w屠... gid oft wrecen, 1066; lēo�s āsungen, glēomannes gyd, the song was sung, the gleeman's lay, 1161; �;r w屠gidd and glēo, 2106; acc. sg. ic �d āwr塬 1724; gyd āwr塬 2109; gyd 奴er wr塬 2155; �hē gyd wrece, 2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.—Comp.: geōmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., to speak, to speak in alliteration: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) if, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.—2) whether, w. ind., 272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., giver; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., to give: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas bēagas g